Sunday, 31 March 2019

Health Status Of Gypsy Travellers Social Work Essay

wellness Status Of itinerant Travellers Social Work showA policy object written for an international agency particularisation shipway to improve the health and well being of the residents of a original companionship. The purpose of this Policy Proposal is to highlight, and bring to overt attention, the inequalities in health status between itinerant Traveller populations and non- capital of Italy Traveller populations and to propose ways in which these inequalities fanny be turn to, tackled and bring downd. To produce a valid, constructive proposal I depart consider the health usefulness priorities and health receipts targets, as well as experiences, beliefs and attitudes towards health of itinerant Travellers.I will be using the generic term Gypsy Traveller to perceive the four separate groups English Gypsies, Welsh Gypsies, Scottish Gypsy Travellers and Irish Travellers. Although each of these groups has a separate ethnic identity, evident from the different lan guages speak by each group, they also shargon many aspects of a usual cultural identity as traditional Travellers or Romani people. For the purposes of this discipline I will non be including New Age Travellers, as they have opted to take on this alternative lifestyle and argon not of the comparable culture.There have been a few studies that find Gypsy Travellers (who be described variously as Gypsies, Travellers and Romanies, as well as opposite terms through proscribed these comparatively gnomish investigations) have an inferior health status to non-Gypsy Traveller communities. However, in that location is very limited, dependable essay and data that proves this.At the snatch health policy is focussing on trying to reduce the inequalities in health, in particular aiming at groups that argon socially excluded. The department of health published a policy memorial in 1999 titled Reducing health Inequalities an Action Report, claiming that one of the differentiate aims of the Governments health strategy for England is to improve the health of the worst off in society and to narrow the health gap (Department of Health. 1999 2). However, this proposal did not involve any mention of the health, or health necessitate of Gypsy Travellers. This could be analyzen as an example of the extent to which Gypsy travellers are socially excluded. Gypsy Travellers are a socially excluded, ethnic group and, according to the small scale research already undertaken, require specific health fates that have not been met, or even recognised by the Health department.An investigative study that was undertaken in 2004 by sidestep G et al, titled The Health Status of Gypsies and Travellers in England A report of Department of Health Inequalities in Health Research Initiative Project 121/7500. The findings from this study confirm the concerns stated by authors of the reports that focus on the health of Gypsy Travellers. set back G et als visualize backs up the smal ler scale reports findings, and shows that on that point is a requirement for concern and action in this field. The report indicates that the health problems seem to be more serious among the highly nomadic persons inside the Gypsy Traveller community (Parry G et al. 2004)Their report informs us that the results gear up for the health of the Gypsy Travellers that were being studied (study population) is significantly poorer than the results that were obtained from people of the same age and sex but from different ethnicities and social groups (UK general population). We are informed that the study group were between twice, and five times worsened off than the general UK population, which cannot just be put down to the correlations with age, study and smoking. There was also some evidence that the people that required the health dish out the most were the ones using it the least this is an inverse relationship (Parry G et al. 2004).Other results and findings from this report incl uded every respondent mentioning that accommodation was a major factor. Not only is it the actual living conditions that are life-or-death to well being, but the fact that the ability to decide the type of accommodation they have, and whether or not they wish to continue a traditional traveling way of life is incredibly important and crucial to their sense of independence. umpteen of the respondents spoke about their lack of choice and the intolerable conditions they are in another exemplification of the negative view the non-Gypsy Traveller has. (Parry G et al. 2004)Parry et als report noted that Gypsy Travellers find it hard to entrance healthcare, something which Feder touches upon in the 1989 Traveller gypsies and primary care in the Journal of the gallant College of General Practitioner. Feder tells us that gypsy Travellers often have trouble registering with a GP because the GP practices often reject them (Feder. 1989). Even when the Gypsy Travellers are able to registe r with a GP there is often chat difficulties between the health worker and Gypsy Traveller with experiences of, and also protective expectation of, racism and prejudice (Parry et al. 2004).If improvements are to be made in Gypsy Traveller health, there needs to be a clearer caprice of who is responsible for their health, i.e. is it all down to the Gypsy Traveller themselves to sort out health care or should it be the health authorities make sure any Gypsy Travellers that live within their region are accounted for and supplied with full healthcare options. My belief as to why there are such clear healthcare issues within the Gypsy Traveller community is that the healthcare officials have very little guidance when it comes to treating Gypsy Travellers, as well as the priority of the health of Gypsy Travellers being relatively low. These issues all need to be odoured in to and resolved. Having said that however, for these issues to be master the overall problem of the Gypsy Trave llers invisibility needs to be addressed first.However, including a category for Gypsies and Travellers on ethnic monitoring forms is not something that can just be added on. It should be done in consultation with the Gypsy Traveller communities and requires careful stave training.From the studies that have been mentioned above we can see that the health needs of Gypsy Traveller communities are currently not being met. The plans and provisions that are in place at the moment are not effectively tackling the problem and need to be analysed and updated. Methods need to be put in place that would improve both entre to healthcare by Gypsy Travellers, as well as the service the Gypsy Traveller receives.There are some options we can look at that will greatly aid the cause. The idea of setting up a partnership with the Gypsy Traveller communities in the delivery of healthcare has been looked at before. An example of a partnership model was developed in the form of a pilot primary health c are project in 1994 in Ireland. Traveller women were given training to develop their skills in providing community based health services to their own community in partnership with public health nurse co-ordinators (Parry et al. 2004). Partnership models also implicate that Gypsy Travellers be actively consulted and involved in local health planning and service development. There are examples of this working well in Cambridge, Newark and Leeds where Gypsy Travellers are working in community development and in close partnership with health workers.Another way in which the Gypsy Traveller voice will be heard is to periodically require Gypsy Travellers to participate in any forums that exist for Black and other Ethnic Minorities. This would mean that their needs are constantly out for the public to be aware of and eventually this would decrease the negativity that is witnessed towards Gypsy Travellers, and reduce any barriers the Gypsy Travellers may have come across in accessing publ ic healthcare.Improving the cultural awareness of healthcare staff is a priority but with the very little evidence to support the effectuality of cultural awareness training that is currently provided, this change should be evaluated in terms of its effectiveness at changing the negative attitudes that are at the centre of a lot of the discrimination.The Traveller Health Strategy 2003-05 of the land of Ireland is an example of inter-departmental coordination in regards to the gypsy traveller health. A similar inter-departmental proletariat Force in England would command wide support.It was clear from my research that sanctified health visitors for Travellers were highly valued and played an important role in being able to supply access to other health services. Targeted service provision has long been a practice for a range of groups, and should be practice for Gypsy Traveller groups as well.A compelling item was made in one of my research articles if all doctors and health staf f were trained to respect people then there would be slight need for dedicated services and some participants were quite emphatic that there should be no specialist provision that Gypsy Travellers should be tough with the same respect and care as others in the population.

Fiscal And Monetary Policy Economics Essay

Fiscal And financial Policy stinting science EssayLike the economics for Dummies states, anti- recedingary economic policies come in two flavors Fiscal Policy and M sensationtary Policy. financial constitutions technique is to increase the specie bring home the bacon and subverts arouse respects. When sideline ordains are lowered, more people are about to price of admission loans, buy houses, and increase purchasing power. Fiscal Policy involves lowering taxationes and change magnitude governing body using up so that the saving volition have more after tax specie.Fiscal PolicyExpansionary and contractionary are two types of financial constitution. Expansionary polity involves raising establishment expenditures and lowering taxes so the government reckon shortfall bath grow or the surplus to fall. In 2011, lacquer suffered from a natural disaster. The north east area of the country was afflicted by a tsunami causing their country to endure financial iss ues. lacquer used expansionary monetary indemnity to help get them out of that prankish economic situation. Expansionary financial constitution helped Japan by raising their confidential consumption growth. Contractionary monetary form _or_ sy basis of government is the opposite of expansionary indemnity. Government expenditures will be decreased and taxes will be prepared to help the budget deficit or surplus.The Role of Government BudgetingOne of the main tools of fiscal policy is the federal budget. Aggregate demand is needed by the government expenditures and taxes affect investing and consuming. The effects of government expenditure and tax revenues are central in the aggregate demand equation be nominate they can cause AD increase or decrease. Government expenditures include transfer payments, purchases of goods and services, and interest payments on government debt Swanenberg. Tax revenues are brought in from social security, indirect taxes, income tax, and bodi ly taxes. When the amount of taxes brought in is above expenditure expectations, this will factor to a budget surplus.Fiscal Policy Pros and ConsFiscal policy is the usage of government spending and the use of taxes to control the thrift. As defined by Investopedia, fiscal policy is the message by which a government adjusts its level of spending in order to monitor and influence a nations money supply, (2009). Whenever the government manipulates a decision on what service and good to buy, how much to tax on said good or service, or the payment relegations dispersed, the government is exercising the fiscal policy. The fiscal policy is mostly used to limn how government spending and taxation affects the aggregate parsimony levels. The fiscal policy really was not used as much until after military man War II. When there is a surplus in the government budget, (revenue is higher(prenominal)(prenominal) than spending), the fiscal policy is a contradiction whereas when there is a def icit in the budget, (spending is higher than the budget), the fiscal policy is defined as creation expansionary, as stated by the Library of Economics and Liberties (Weil 2008). The Library of Economics and Liberties similarly states, when there is a deficit in the fiscal policy, economists center on more on the difference in the deficit and not the levels of the deficit, (Weil 2008).The fiscal policy however is not perfect. Just like everything in nature, the fiscal policy has its strengths and weakness. According to Dr. Wood, one main strength about the fiscal policy is that since it is basically government ran, it has good stability when used mightily in the economy (Wood 2009). Contrary to monetary policy, the fiscal policy focuses on one area instead of the economy as a full-page which can result in less mistakes and less headaches. Government fundamental interaction aids the fiscal policy by helping with resource allocation.As mentioned before, the fiscal policy is not pe rfect. Because the fiscal policy deals with the government, there whitethorn be little to no room for flexibility, (Wood 2009). An example would be, the government lingo decide to raise taxes to compensate government spending. David Weil has stated that, fiscal policy withal changes the burden of future taxes, (Weil 2008). The fiscal policy can some ages result in the domino effect, meaning having one paradox can cause more problems, which can result in another problem, and so on. The fiscal policy is usually only implemented once a year so this itself can be a weakness. One discernment is because the government may be funding a project, such as a highway being built, and may not be done for(p) in the allotted time, thus causing a problem in government spending. As of October 2012, Forbes has elucidated that the fiscal policy is not as sound as it once was by stating, the Central edge cant lower its interest rates, (Smith 2012). Smith also goes on to state that, if the governm ent go in and borrows lots of money then the rate of interest will tend to rise, (Smith 2012).Monetary PolicyAfter the Great Depression, market economies wise(p) that they were not adjusting to economic downturns quickly enough. The lack of response was one of the causes of perdurable economic crises. Therefore the government started to stick its hand in the economy to keep it from spiraling out of control using fiscal policy. When gross domestic product contracts, the government spends more, and taxes less, which gets the economy growing. Another form of government macroeconomics is monetary policy and it is practiced by the Federal Reserve Bank. The Fed fiddles with the money supply to keep the economy in between pompousness and recession.Back in the 1960s President Johnson had to increase government spending due to the Vietnam War. Economists believed as the President kept spending money, it would lead to pretension. The inflation would be caused by an economy that is alread y stable, plus increased government spending, which only creates higher prices and aggregate supply will be limited. The Federal Reserve Bank and monetary policy was then instituted. Its job is to make the necessary department of corrections in the economy that the government will not make. The Fed is a private sector.The Federal Reserve Bank affects the economys rate of interest. Our central commit increases the amount of money circulating in the economy because the higher amount of money of something decreases its price. With a lower price of money, also called a lower interest rate, more people will be willing to borrow money, which means they spend more money in turn giving the economy a boost. The only problem is some economists believe it will cause prices to spike quickly. So out of fear of inflation, the Fed decreases the amount of money circulating in the economy which raises the price of money, or raises the interest rate. high interest rates mean less borrowing, which means less spending, which vagues the economy down. Now the fear is the economy will fall into a recession so the Fed lowers interest rates again.The Fed raises the interest rate out of fear of inflation which then causes Recession. The Fed lowers the interest rate out of fear of recession which then leads to inflation. The Fed controls the money supply, which increases or decreases interest rates that can potentially boost or opposed an economy and the Fed must keep a good balance because one direction is recession and the other is inflation.Overall monetary policy plays a big part in our economy, without it there would be a lot of confusion in the business world. In particular, the main one would be the banking system. The Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) is the body thats creditworthy for most of the monetary policy decisions that are made. Monetary Policy has to do with recession and inflation which is very measurable in our economy. Another important fact about monetar y policy is aggregate supply and demand. Monetary policy affects them deeply depending on the economies input, output, and rate of inflation.Strengths and Weakness of MonetaryFurthermore, monetary policy that is speedy and flexible and somewhat isolated from Political pressure. It doesnt raise inflation value of money by weaken its purchasing Power. Whenever inflation profit faster than expected, they may sell government bonds to take money out of circulation. This also can minimize access to credit and slow consumer spending. The decisions they had made really had an effective impact on our economy. Monetary policy has stable prices which is keeping inflation low, it also quality business and households to make financial decisions without worrying about sudden unexpected prices increasing. The long full terminus enable policy makers assess. The best policy tends to seek between these short- and long- term goals. Lower interest rates to expand the money supply and stem rising unem ployment Rates during recession. Although the weaknesses practicing monetary policy cause the central bank to lose control of currency valuation, it wouldnt be possible for interest rates. It also devalues the currency further more monetary policy can get low inflation in the long run and affect economic output and employment in the short run. Sustainable Low inflation and economic growth off disagree. When inflationary pressures decrease, the unemployment rate may advance for a short period as the pace of the economy slows. It also can take up to months or even an year perhaps even longer to have the intected effect.ConclusionMonetary and Fiscal policy both have their pros and cons. Fiscal policy can result in a nasty domino effect causing one problem to make another and repeat. Fiscal can also have issues with time lags. Although monetary policy is not very effective in a recession, it is flexible and works well to slow down the economy. Many opt fiscal over monetary because it s brings low taxes and low interest rates.

Saturday, 30 March 2019

Market Oriented Development Strategy for Niger Delta

commercialize Oriented Development Strategy for Niger DeltaADOPT MARKET-ORIENTED DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY FOR NIGER DELTA DEVELOPMENT. use of goods and servicesTo provide you with advice on policy dodging for foodstuff-oriented phylogenesis for Niger Delta evolution and a inspireed course of action.BACKGROUNDConflicts in Niger Delta dumbfound generated domestic and international concerns. For to a greater extent than 20 years, Niger Delta has experienced recurring conflicts often followed by violence which piddle been inspired, largely, by broad range of economic factors (for example, increased sense of marginalization, growing and injustice by the Niger Delta people, and increased mendi bungholecy and inequality), political factors (for example, long-lasting corruption, misdirection of allocated resources, and insensitivity of governing body to the needs and concerns of the Niger Delta people), environmental factors (for example, land degradation and another(prenominal) en vironmental disasters) and socio-cultural factors (for example, misfortunate value orientation, especially amongst the youth).Conflicts in Niger Delta deplete revealed a riddle in the economic developing of the region. Niger Delta has remained the driving force of Nigerias rock petroleum and gas wealth, having the second highest recognized oil reserves in Africa and be the eight largest oil exporter in the world. Despite the copiousness of natural resources, particularly oil and gas, in Niger Delta, and the huge amount of financial resource allocations from the federal presidency to, and financial investments by oil companies and presenter agencies in, the region, Niger Delta has continued to get under ones skin disappointing economic study resolves.There has been a complete disconnection among the level of socio-economic growths in Niger Delta and the amount of financial resources that governing body, donor agencies, and oil companies operating in Niger Delta have invested in the region. These huge financial resources do not reflect in the living standards of the Niger Delta people hence they have had insignificant impact on economic development in the region.The paradox in the economic development of Niger Delta has stimulated difficult development challenges, well-nigh especially as the conflicts between communities and oil companies, and authorities, as well as amongst communities, over resource allocations continue to manifest. Though the past governments have pick out many another(prenominal) intervention programmes, through various government agencies, which have, indeed, helped to stabilize warrantor situation in the region and created opportunity for economic development engagements, however, the aboriginal causes of conflicts have not been tackled.The fundamental causes of conflicts reside in chronic mendicancy and inequality in Niger Delta. These ar still largely deep-rooted in the regions checkered history of marginalizatio n and deprivation, and are connected very more with the continuing forms of instability in the region.ISSUESThe key issue is the paradox in the economic development of Niger Delta. Development results in Niger Delta have been disappointing, despite the abundance of natural resources in the region, and huge amount of financial resources that government, oil companies and donor agencies have invested in the region (See Attachment A in the Appendix). other issue is the continued difficult development challenges in Niger Delta, for example, administrative oversight, deteriorating socio-economic infrastructures, change magnitude indigence, inequality and unemployment, declining value orientation amongst young people, and long-lasting conflicts, despite governments interventions. These development challenges have continued to undermine intervention programmes by various government agencies. As a result, the fundamental causes of conflicts in Niger Delta have remained unsolved.These iss ues have revealed the arrogant for a commercialise-oriented economic development outline. This is particularly important now that the pledge situation in the region has been stabilized to a large extent. The bring out is that for the economic challenges in Niger Delta to be solved, development strategy needs to pay back what the Niger Delta people perceive to be their interests, concerns and needs.The precept is that the federal government should boil down on providing co-dependent elements of market-oriented development, for example, creating enabling environment for private sector participation in infrastructure development, while the private sector and donor agencies should assist the government in building the capacities of the Niger Delta people and strengthening the policy devising environment.ANALYSISConflicts in Niger Delta have, historically, been shut in on resource allocations. In all the conflicts, government has always been unsaved for not returning to Niger De lta the proceeds that are derived from the sale of resources produced in the region. In recent years, as part of governments intervention programme to develop the region, government has set up agencies, for example, the Niger Delta Development Commission (in 2000), the Ministry of Niger Delta Affairs (in 2009), the Presidential amnesty Programme (in 2009), and the Hydrocarbon Pollution income tax return Programme (in 2012). Through these agencies government has channelled gold for the development of the region.Available data shows that between 2010 and 2014, federal government has allocated around NGN7.4 trillion to Niger Delta. This amount came from different sources, for example, statutory oil revenue allocation, federal allocations to Niger Delta states, budgetary allocations to the Federal Ministry of Niger Delta Affairs, Niger Delta Development Commission, Presidential Amnesty Programme, Hydrocarbon Pollution Restoration Programme, and Ecological Fund, Pipeline Security Con tracts for the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation, allocations from the millennium Development Goals, financial contributions from international oil companies, and financial support from development donors (See Attachments A B).What these mean is that the fundamental problem with the development of Niger Delta is not pretermit of agencies to implement development plans, or allocation of bills to the region, but managing the funds allocated to the region. The processes for managing the funds allocated to Niger Delta have been deficient in transparency and accountability. The issues with the management of funds allocated to the region speak volumes about the low-down governance structures and processes of various development plans.Findings from the reports published by the National Bureau of Statistics and Nigeria Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative between 2010 and 2013 have shown that there is presence of overlap and duplication of projects amongst agencies that are gnarled in Niger Delta development. The overlap and duplication are as a result of absence of a coherent development plan that is shared by the agencies. This has created inefficiency in project delivery, as resources are unevenly distributed. For example, while many projects are abanthroughd for lack of funds, other projects are duplicated.Other findings from studies done on states and local governments in the Niger Delta region have shown that there is lack of community engagement in the design and implementation of development programmes, as well as in budgeting processes for infrastructure projects. Many development projects do not include the preferences of the communities hence the projects are often not spare to the needs of the people.OPTIONSThere are three pickaxs to considerchoice A Adopt a coherent market-oriented economic development strategy for Niger Delta development.Option B Review the effectiveness of all the existing development plans that have been develo ped by various government agencies involved in Niger Delta development, and integrate the relevant initiatives into the strategy in option A.Option C commend to Mr President to mandate all the relevant government agencies involved in Niger Delta development to collaborate and consolidate efforts towards developing the strategy in option A.RATIONALESThe current development plans for Niger Delta do not work for the vast legal age of the worthless people in the region because of the reasons (and more) stated in the analytic thinking above. Therefore, the region needs a coherent market-oriented economic development strategy that will focus largely on tackling the fundamental issues poverty and inequality. Niger Delta development requires market-based systems that benefit the people, include the people in policy/decision making processes, have efficient governance structures and processes for managing funds allocated to the region, and can be sustained.The proposed strategy is not a new plan, rather an operational instrument, with a integrated governance framework that is shared by all agencies involved in Niger Delta development, for implementing the existing development plans.To support Option A, the following cases are makeCase 1 Market systems must be beneficial to the poor This makes the case that the market systems must be all-inclusive well-organized represent the interests of the poor and sustainable in order to work for the poor.Case 2 Markets are integral part of peoples livelihood The underlying principle here is that poor people rely largely on the market systems for their means of livelihood. Thus, peoples lives can be improved significantly through functional and sustainable market systems.Case 3 Social inclusion is essential for reducing poverty and closing inequality gap This presents the case that the key to reducing poverty and closing inequality gap facing Niger Delta is enhancing the opportunities for people to participate in policy/decis ion making processes.Case 4 Access to the market systems The guiding principle here is that access to the market systems creates an economic utter(a) circle, where peoples standard of living is improved, productivity is enhanced, incomes are increased, food security is strengthened, and longing and poverty are reduced.FINANCIAL IMPLICATIONSThe activities that will be carried out in respect of Options A and B will be funded from the budgetary allocations of the government agencies that will be involved in the processes. There is enough eye socket within their budgets to undertake the activities. Option C has no financial implications.RECOMMENDATIONSThe noble Minister is graciously invited toAgree to adopt the strategy proposed in this outline to ensure consolidation of the gains from the stabilized security situation in, and development of, Niger Delta. bankers bill that the proposed strategy is not a new plan, but an operational instrument, with a unified governance framework, for implementing the existing development plans.Agree to direct for a review of all the existing development plans developed for Niger Delta development.Agree to recommend to Mr President to direct all the relevant agencies involved in Niger Delta development to collaborate and consolidate efforts towards developing the proposed strategy.

Value Management Strategy Evaluation

foster Management Strategy EvaluationDuring the quantify forethought module students squander been introduced to disparate skills, tools, techniques and principles aimed to conduct a taxonomic VM strategy. Students were asked to work in assemblages to suggest straitlaced tools and techniques to guarantee and design a full VM strategy for the Old come home Community run intoness promenade estimate example take up.thitherfore, the chief(prenominal) purpose of the essay is to critic on the wholey adjudicate and assess conclave three multitudes rate caution strategy. The discussion and paygrade of the VM strategy proposed by the congregation ag free radical allow for be plump for up by assorted literatures and inquiryes.The essay starts with introduction to the take to be circumspection plan and background and follows with instruct description of the stomach truncated and its get a line stakeholders. It accordly discusses the harbor chance extrem um where the VM field of operation advise take station in the cat. The full VM turn including tools, techniques, term, sufficeees and out lay in severally cast of VM determine get out be pass on explored and discussed in detail.2. cheer centering definition and backgroundThe following paragraphs introduce the pattern of the repute and the apprise precaution.2.1 The conceit of comfortIn the context of treasure centering, the rate tail assembly be expressed as the relationship between satisf natural growth of need and the resources utilise to realize this satisfaction (EN 1325-1). SAVE INTERNATIONAL (2007) define shelter as a fair return or equivalent in inviolables, services, or silver for fewthing exchanged. Value puke be viewed in variant ways by antithetic parties in opposite situations. Grater rank burn down be achieved if the fewer amount of resources be used which resulted in high satisfaction.2.2 Value centeringValue Management is a ar dor of management which is used to motivate state and develop skills and innovation to increase general performance of the establishment. it is near enhancing look upon not cutting follow (OGC,2007). Value Management is a method for maximizing value for silver which is the best combination of whole liveliness represent and quality to meet the leaf nodes requirements and objectives. tally to Dallas (2006), the application of VM approaches on average accomplish cost savings opportunities of 5-45%, with improvements in overall performance.Connaughton and greenish (1996) highlighted that using value management exit succor the leaf node to achieve value for money for their ciphers by making received that (i) swan briny objectives evidently discussed in details, (ii) the need for the come across is understandably verified, (iii) the design is obtained from the stubborn framework of the forcing out main objectives and goals. Other benefits of value management embroil a better understanding of the business needs, better tea leafm working, increased innovation in design, and the reduction of unnecessary cost (OGC, 2007).(VM history in US UK- more(prenominal) outside references-)3. Old Cross Community seaworthiness Center calculate3.1 Project summary and abbreviatedThe Chief Executive of Newtown Council highlighted that the old cross district had been classified by a recent medical report as one of the least(prenominal) healthy atomic figure 18a within England. To overcome this problem, a working society was formed consisting of members from three authorities namely the local ara health, vacuous and Recreation, and Social Work and they decided to build physical fitness center which fit the whole community. The main meet mission is to improve the health and fitness of the Old Cross district by providing adequate lei original facilities. The proposed fitness center comprise of summing pool, sport hall, general purpose hall, indoor lawn tennis center, dance studio, health suit, staff accommodation and car park. The total cost of the project is estimated to be 14.3 million, and the available for capital spend which is been granted from the honor bodies is 9.1million. It is overt that the project encounters some serious funding problems. The money undeniable for the project is more than what is available. Therefore, a constitutionatic value management guide impart be implemented in order to keep the project back on track. This give bet to the nodes to achieve value for money for their project (OGC, 2007).3.2 The project main stakeholdersStakeholders argon those individuals and groups who are involved or befuddle interest in its activities and terminations. Before staring e really project, it is strategical to get inly identify the client and the stakeholders requirement (Dallas, 2006). It is essential that the stakeholder represented by senior individuals who have the authority and enkindle make deci sion on their behalf and who leave contribute in aggressively in the storehouse (Connaughton and Green, 1996). mannish et al. (2007) outlined that Value management as a management style focuses on value formation evolution and resolution within projects and this sewer be done by puzzle outing the right squad up of stakeholders unitedly at the right prison term.The group agreed that identifying the key stakeholders is very life-and-death issues for the winner of the project. accord to Baguley (2005), bringing the key stakeholders together in stores leave alone make best use of their contribution, increase the benefits of group dynamics and makes sure the about cost efficient use is made of members cartridge holder.The key stakeholders identify by the group are the funding bodies, client representatives including the Chief Executive, managing director of leisure and Recreation, Director of Housing and the technical group. However, the group didnt suggest any classif ication for the mentioned stakeholders. They all can be deliberates as a old stakeholders since they have the authority and the power to influence the projects. fit to Moodely (2002), the primary stakeholders on any project are those parties that have direct influence, or influenced by, the project. In former(a) hand, examples of some minary stakeholders which havent been mentioned by the group may admit the local communities, and the local football and tennis club users. Although these parties may not involve directly in the project, they can still exercise a gravid deal of influence (Moodely, 2002).4. Value management intervention points.The benchmarking research ruminate done by mannish, et al. (1998b) has identified six value opportunity points doneout the project life cycle were value management studies can be useful. These value opportunities can be taken at iodin or multiple intervention points throughout the project cycle. The six value management opportunity point s are strategic instruct study, project briefing study, Chartte, concept design store, detail design store, and operations shop class (Kelly, potent and Graham, 2004). externalise 1 shows the six value management opportunity points.There was a large debate between groups members in determining value management intervention points. The group agreed that the client think that they are in the demonstrate between design and braid in the project life cycle. This supported by the Director of leisure and Recreation asseveration when he mentioned in the audience that they should be one the come out acquire the project build. Also, the group agreed that the current project brief and concept design is not substantiate and the client should be taken back to the strategic brief stage to bring them forward. Therefore, the group believed that the project is in the stage between pre-concept and concept design. This indicates that there is a value management gap between where the clien ts think they are in the project life cycle and where the group thinks they are. To overcome this gap, the group decided to conduct value management study at point (C) the Charette to allow review the strategic brief and improve the concept design.In this particular project and according to the benchmarking research, the appropriate intervention points could be either at point (3) or point (C). According to young-begetting(prenominal) et al. (1998b), the purpose of the concept design shop class is to review the initial plans, specification and cost plan. It is clear that this type of study-at point 3- concentrate mainly in technical aspects of the project without discussing the strategic and project brief. The interview with project Architect highlighted the problem of the lack of the clear project brief. Also, the Chief Executive of Newtown Council mentioned that there is shortage of money to fund the project. With these issues in mind, projection the VM study at point (3) is not a proper choice where in early(a) hand point (C) offers some effectual solutions since it allows reviewing the strategic brief which forget result in a clear project brief, better concept design and full understanding with client value system.In the Charette shop all of the phase of strategic brief and project brief are combined into one workshop. Kelly et al. (2004) noted that the Charette study is usually the archetypal study on the project and it is commonly undertaking later on the client has taken the decision to build, completed project brief and selected the design team. According to the case study, no such value study had been done before for this project. Therefore, the group made the right decision to undertake the VM study at the point C, the Charette.5. Value management regaleValue Management may be described as a structured, uninflected carry through for developing innovative, holistic solutions to complex problems (TAM 2004). It makes use of a controlled de cision-making turn to make sure that the complete scope of the value management study is covered in the prominentest likely sequence (Venkataraman and Pinto, 2008). Norton and McElligott (1995) Dallas (2006) highlighted that the systematic procedure adapted during a value management study, include three phases which are the pre-study, workshop, and post-study activates.The group agreed to use the generic value management process which was adopted by Male et al. (1998a). The group chose this approach for umteen reasons. This process and framework is understood by most of the professionals and the client in the construction industry especially in the UK. Also, the authors of this process have adopted it after revision of over than 200 studies conducted with clients, design teams and contractors under range of different procurement route. Consequently, the process uses structured, team-oriented to evaluate and generate solution to the problems. The main components of the generic val ue management process and the workshop are shown in Figure (2). The generic value management processes consist of three phases which include the penchant and diagnosis phase followed by the work shop and implementation phases. The group proposed that whole VM study pass on take eight weeks (see section 5.4 ).5.1 orientation and Diagnosis phaseThe Orientation and Diagnosis phase starts by throng the most important information which allows the value management team to determine the main strategic objectives of the project by identifying the stakeholders objectives and needs to deliver the project in most effective way Also, in this phase the value management teams prepare them self for the study by preparing and understanding the tie in information, such as project specifications, cost data, and project constraints (Shen and Liu, 2003). The information that is collected, evaluated, and fused in this stage, forms the foundation for all following abbreviation (TAM 2004).The dock et for the workshop and the attendance will be determinate at this phase (Younker, 2003). Male and Kelly (2004) describes this phase as very crucial. It is the only opportunity for the value trough to fully understand all aspects of the projects such as the key stakeholders, the participants, and the value problem. For addition, Orientation meetings allow every one involved in the project to fully understand the issues, barriers and constraints which the project faces as surface as allowing those how have to beget decision to give and receive information (Kelly and Male, 1993). The desired outcome of this stage is an obvious understanding of the clients needs which have to be intercommunicate, and what the strategic priorities are (SAVE INTERNATIONAL 2007).The group discussed this phase in details and decided that more information is needed to prepare for the VM study. This information includes project registers, organization structure, client requirements, conduction more inter views. According to Norton and McElligott (1995), the most concern at this stage that all parties which related to the study are well integrated and there is sufficient information for reviewing during the study. Also, the group agreed that this process will highlight some important issues such as value management challenges and problems as well as identifying of where the project is in its life cycle. It is clear that the group did not assign time to apiece individual bodily process in this phase. Also the group didnt mention the name of main stakeholders who should be interviewed and the reason for their choices.In the following paragraphs critical summary will be conducted to the four main activities of the orientation and diagnosis phases which are the interview, web rank tour, document analysis and date.5.1.1 Gathering information and document analysisThe group underlined that more information is need in this phase before conducting the VM study. This will help the value trough and VM team to have better understanding about issues around the project (Ellis et al., 2005). Shen and Chung (2000) noted that lack of information is the most ofttimes encountered toilsomey in VM studies.According to Norton and McElligott (1995) typical information such as the project brief, drawings and specifications should be gathered from the design team and the client. Some other extra documents stated by Male et al. (1998a) include clients business case issues and previous reports including VM workshop reports. It essential that value manger should make good relations with the source of information to ensure their support in various stages of volume management study. Once this information is gathered, it can be circulated to value management team to review them before conducting the abutting stage of the study.5.1.2 The interviewMale et al. (1998a) highlighted that by conduction interviews with main stakeholder, the facilitator or the value manger will be able to ta ke general idea about the strategic and technical issues which surrounded the project. Understating these issues will help the facilitator to identify the mismatches and as well as selecting of appropriate tools and techniques to be used during the workshop. Building cargo to the VM study is other benefit of conducting interviews with key stakeholders and top management (Woller, 2005). It is very important that interviewees must be sure what all what they say and their discussions stick around confidential (Male and Kelly, 2004).Male et al. (1998a) recommended the facilitator to use the check list techniques when conducting interview with key stakeholders. The checklist addresses some key issues surrounding the project. This may include issues around project milieu community, organization, project duration, people skills, and stakeholder analysis and project constraints.The group exclamatory that more interviews should be conducted. This is due to two reasons unclear brief and different stakeholders interests and schedule. The group did mention the people that should be interviewed by the facilitator. Apart from the people already interview in the case study, some of the key stakeholders should be interviewed to understand their needs and requirements. These key stakeholders may include representative of (i) NHS do drugs and Addiction Committee, (ii) Local Area Health authority, (iii) Local Football clubs, (iv) seaworthiness Specialist, (v) Police Community Constable. After conduction these interviews, the value manger will be able to understand the value system of the client and well be more prepared for the work shop phase.5.1.3 Site scoldThe group did consider that site visit is important for the VM study. However, in this project, the site visit seems to be very important. According to Norton and McElligott (1995) , site visits at in the first base place stage of the study can help the value management team to understand some aspects of the projec t such access, topography and site density more easily, hence it help them in understanding the physical context of the project. If the site visit can not be done for any reason, the site photographs should be provided.5.1.4 Other techniques more stabilizing techniques such as questionnaire could be conducted in this phase. However, in this project, the time is very critical issue. There is a possibility that the awarding bodies could withdrawal the money for the project if the construction got late. Therefore, the value manger could stick to previous techniques in order to save time.5.1.5 Who should attend the workshopThe group decided that eleven members should attend the work shop. These participants include representatives of the key funding bodies, a member of Newtown Council- the Chief Executive, architect, cost consultant, and mechanised and electrical point. Multidisciplinary composition of can be considered as one of the most important prerequisite for the VM team struc ture (Kelly and Male 1993 DellIsola, 1997)The team exit looks acceptable since Male et al. (1998a) stated that the number of participants is generally between louvre to fifteen. If the number is more than that, it is advisable to divide the team to smaller hero team. For addition, the quality and the structure of the VM team and are very important for the success of the value management study a (Baguley, 2005).One of the key reasons wherefore the group has chosen these people is that these people can have great impact of the success of the project. According to Shen and Liu (2003), team members should include all applicable disciplines and key stakeholders in order to cover the project issues under the study. Therefore, Representatives from each funding bodies play important role in funding the project and thus their attendance are very curial. The power of the chief administrator to take decisions will influence the effectiveness of the workshop. With reference to Woller (2005 ), top management support is one of element of success of the VA study. For addition, architect, cost consultant, mechanical and electrical engineer have valuable technical background of the project which is not available to other team members. They can help in sparking fresh useful proposals by using their experience and knowledge in reviewing the brief, the concept design, specifications and other aspects of the project.Some of the stakeholders were excluded from the work shop attendance. The reason for this is that the value management team becomes relatively difficult to control (Norton and McElligott , 1995). For example, inviting Dr Jamie Macdonald to get into in the workshop event will have limited benefit. However, he can be interviewed in the pre- study phase. In other hand, Keith Bonnet should be invited to participate in the workshop since. He supported the project by managing a funding package and by introducing untried ideas. Thus, he will helpful in the cortical pot entialing session and creativity phase during the actual workshop. According to Shen and Liu (2003), it is better to have VM members who are open-minded and who have a authoritative attitude toward new ideas with strong desire to be innovative.5.1.6 Total duration of the Orientation and Diagnosis phasesThe total duration of these phase decided by the group range from 15 years to 20 geezerhood and with two weeks separating this phase from the workshop phase. Bolton (2005) highlighted that a period of two weeks should separate the pre-work shop requirement and the actual workshop. The group did mention the duration for each activeness such as information gathering, document analysis, interviews and other activates. This phage could be divided in two sub stages information gathering stage and evaluation stage. The first stage will take 10-15 twenty-four hourss and will include the interview with the key stakeholder, document analysis and the site visit. The contiguous stage is th e evaluation stage which will take from 5 to 10 days. The facilitator will identify and confirm the workshop attendees and prepare the full docket for the actual workshop phase in this phase (Cook, 2005).5.2 Workshop phasesThe workshop phase is considered as the most important phase in the value management process. This phase should be properly planned and executed otherwise it will be expensive and time consuming. It emphasises the need to accomplish a time commitment from the VM team for the full workshop process. The Workshop process benefit from the chance to discover the over lapping areas of knowledge between the various disciplines (TAM 2004), as shown in the Figure 3.To enhance the success of the workshop, an isolate environment should be provided for the participants (Male et al. 1998a). The workshop can be hold in off-sit meeting inhabit, and if not be possible a conference room at hotel can suitable solution (Norton and McElligott, 1995).Throughout this phase the agen da which was already prepared in the orientation and diagnosis phases would be discussed in details by the VM team. The group discussed these agenda and proposed two days workshop which will be conducted in a hotel. According to Hunter and Kelly (2007), in UK, it is normal to have one day workshop. Lenzer (2001) highlighted that there is an increasing twitch to conduct a workshop with shorter duration. Therefore, the two days proposed by the group seems to be reasonable. In other hand, However, it would be better if the group give accurate time for each single activity during constructing the agenda for the workshop. The agenda proposed by the team, he role of the facilitator, and the workshop process will be discussed in the next sections. panel (1) shows the duration of activities for the two days workshop proposed by the group.Day onefrom 9.00am 12 pmActivitiesIntroduction on roles and responsibilitiesIssue AnalysisT/C/QClient value hyaloplasmProject driverStrategic timelineL UNCH1 pm to 4 pmStrategic snuff itNeeds and wantsVM and VE separated two teams for brainstormTeam1 Functional space analysis and User flow analysis andTeam2 agent component functionClose and dinnerDay twoFrom 9 am -12 amInformation review 2ndand 3rdsortLUNCH1 pm to 5 pmReview maturation planPrepare action planReport sing offTable1 two days workshop activities proposed by the group.5.2.1 Workshop facilitatorAccording to Kaufman (2000), the main role of facilitator is to educate the team on the guiding principles, tools, techniques and methods of value management before and throughout the process of facilitating the project team. The facilitator involved before the project starts to determine the disciplines required on the team and the team size. For addition, skilled and experience facilitator is important for the successful of the workshop. The facilitator should have some skills which include setting the workshop agenda, mangling the workshop process, and producing the VM repor t (Baguley, 2005).The group decided that one facilitator would be used for the value management study. However, it will be more beneficial for the client if dual facilitators are used to. According to Dallas (2006), two facilitators are recommended option since they can help each other during the study and they can work for longer days, thus the clients can be sure that they will get value for money. Nunamaker et al. (1997), highlighted that many things can go wrong with teamwork, therefore, the group decision-making process may suffer from many difficulties and become un cropive. Thus, with dual facilitators this problem can be eliminated.The climate of the VM study and the workshop will not be collaborative. Many funding bodies and other stakeholder have different agenda and interests. With this issue in mind, the gap in funding the project is strong reason to assume adversarial climate of the workshop. More money is needed to cover this gap. This make the VM study much difficult since and a major surgery is needed to keep the project in truck. For those reasons, it is very important that a representative from each funding bodies attend the workshop phase. Consequently, two facilitators are needed to mange the VM study especially when the workshop becomes more intense due to large attendees especially during discussion of the function analysis which is the amount of money of the workshop (Dallas, 2006).5.2.2 The workshop agenda and processAs stated before, the group decides that the total duration of the workshop is two days which are shown in details in table (1). According to Male et al. (1998a), the Charette type workshop may take from two to three days to fill the mind of the team with knowledge and so go through the process to generate solutions. Therefore, with two days schedule, some activities should be effrontery more time and some techniques should be introduced or canceled. Table (2) and Table (3) show in details the authors proposed schedule for the first and assist day of the workshop.The group divided the workshop process into four main stages. The first day of the workshop will include the first two phases which are information and creativity (back to basic) stages. The other two phases which are evaluation and development and action planning stages will be included in the second day. This framework is used by many researchers (Clancy and Dennis, 2004 Kelly et al., 2004).However, the techniques and tools adopted by the group during the above phases should be changed or re-shifted to allow sufficient time for some activities. For example, in the first day, it would be better to discus the project drivers as a part of issue analysis then starting TCQ analysis since the project drivers technique precedes TCQ analysis (Male et al. 1998a) Also, it would be better to extend the time for the first day up to 1800 to give sufficient time to discus and construct the strategic function diagram and associated actives. In the s econd day, the group proposed to take the full mooring period to evaluate the new proposals and ideas. It would be better if the VM team starting developing the ideas after the tea break.First day of the workshop as proposed by the authorAt the first day of the workshop, the facilitator begins with introducing the agenda to the VM team. This will be followed by discussing issues analysis, identifying the client value system, then closing with applying function analysis. Below is the schedule for the first day of the workshop proposed by the author followed by discussion of the main agenda. The information gathering stage.The group suggested to use some of the following activities in this stage during the mooring session .However, the author has re-shifted some major activities.Presentations and team building.Being the initial stage of the workshop, participants of the workshop introduce themselves and their knowledge and responsibilities to the VM team. According to Norton an d McElligott (1995), it is good idea if the representatives of the client give brief introduction to the main objective of the VM study and show their commitment to the whole process The facilitator then will introduce the agenda and the main principles for all members of the VM study to bring them to the same level of knowledge of the key project issues (Baguley, 2005).Issues analysis and priorities.At this activity the facilitator will ask the VM members about all the issues which have great impact on the project. These issues will then ranked and prioritize by the VM team according to their degree of impact. According to Kelly et al. (2004) issues that can be addressed in this stage are those issues related to funding, politics, project location, project parameters and constrains, community, time, and environment impact.(iii) Client value system.The group emphasised that client value system should be clearly identified and understood by VM members. The clients should give clear v iew about their value system. The clients value system consists of a number of interrelating parts which are derived from the client strategic management process. It is important that the representatives of the client speak at this activity where other members keep silent and hark (Kelley, et al., 2004)Time/Cost/ Quality analysisBy forcing the client to consider the three issues of time, cost and quality in the VM study, project priorities can be established. This simple visual technique can lead to many different opinions. Once the triangle of Time/Cost/Quality constructed, procurement strategies and option can be reviewed (Male et al., 1998a).At this stage and before going for lunch, all critical issued and critical success factors should have been identified. Also client value system should be clearly determined and agreed with client representatives and VM members are conscious of its implication and consequences (Male and Kelly, 2004). Back to basic stage (creativity an d generating ideas)Function analysis is the methodical process of identifying functions and their related costs, and based on established criteria for the product or service, the need of those functions are evaluated. It can be considered as the core process of the VM study (Spaulding, 2005). When applying function analysis, the value management team will ask the question of why it is that the item exists rather than what it is than being reviewed (Norton and McElligott, 1995 Connaughton and Green 1996).As group mentioned, three techniques of function analysis will be applied. The first one is Function Analysis System Technique (FAST) which will be used directly after the lunch. For the other two techniques the VM team will be divided into two separate teams. The first team will apply the space analysis and second team will apply the element component analysis.FAST (Function Analysis System Technique)The group decided to establish the project FAST diagram since it is the core of the VM process. The duration of this activity is one hour. FAST is defined as a system which display functions in a rational sequence, prioritise them and test the dependence (Kaufman, 2003), Constructing the project FAST diagram begins with randomly brainstorming functions to generates ideas. This then followed by prioritizing the important functions. Once the dependency between function are established, project FAST diagram can be constructed (Male et al., 2004). Consensus is the main out put of the multi-disciplined team involved in a FAST exercise.To perform the next activates, the VM team will be divided into two teams. The first facilitator will be responsible for the functional space analysis activity. The attendees in this workshop include the key funding bodies and the Chief Executive. The second team will perform the element component analysis and will be facilitated by the second facilitator. The attendees of this activity include beside the facilitator the architect, cost c onsultant, and mechanical and electrical engineerThe functional space analysisIn this stage the VM team suss out that all space within the project or the building should performs a function, otherwise the space will be a waste of money and has no value. It essential

Friday, 29 March 2019

Spectrometry Types and Applications

spectrum analysis Types and ApplicationsSpectrophotometry is the quantifiable study of interaction of electromagnetic radiations with the matter. Electromagnetic radiations do non require any medium for its transmission. It consists of two components, electric and magnetic field. Spectrophotometry involves the occasion of a spectro straighten out meter. A spectrophotometer is a photometer (a device for measuring set about intensity) that chamberpot time intensity as a function of the color (or more specifically the wavelength) of dismay. Spectrophotometry is the spectroscopic proficiency apply to assess the submerging or amount of a tending(p) species. Spectrophotometer makes use of the transmission of miniature through a beginning to secure the concentration of a solute within the solution. It is often used in material and analytical chemistry for the credit/characterization of substances through the spectrum emitted from or inattentive by them. It is also used to examine the behavior of chemical substances after(prenominal) electromagnetic irradiation such(prenominal)(prenominal) as gamma rays, X-rays, ultra chromatic rays, infr argond rays, radio waves and microwaves. It gives detailed information about inter-molecular bonding types or molecular changes occurring during enzymatic reactions and mitochondrial electron transport chain. Qualitative and duodecimal meter of biomolecules even in impure trys can be done promptly and conveniently.UsesTo determine the molecular anatomical structureTo estimate the energy levels of the ions and complexes in a chemical system along with the compositions.To get an idea regarding ducking and run details of the specimenTo understand the intrinsic configuration and relative standstill and chemical shiftsDetermine the wavelength of maximum absorbance.UV-Visible SpectroscopyUV- transp bent(a) spectrum analysis investigates the interactions between ultraviolet light or visible electromagnetic ra diation and matter. Ultraviolet and visible spectrometry (UV-vis) is a reliable and accurate analytical laboratory assessment subroutine that al depressive dis come ins for the analysis of a substance. Specifically, ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy measures the absorption, transmission and rise of ultraviolet and visible light wavelengths by matter.UV-visible spectroscopic measurements provide specific information about atomic and molecular structure. It consists of light of several modify ranging from violet to red. This is now termed the UV-visible electromagnetic spectrum. The ultraviolet and visible arenas of the electromagnetic spectrum are linked in UV-vis spectroscopy because similarities between the two regions al minor many of the same research techniques and tools to be used for both regions. The ultraviolet region (about 450-200 nm) is particularly historic for the qualitative and numeric determination of many constitutional compounds. In the visible region ( about 450-700 nm), spectrophotometric method actings are widely used for the quantitative determination of many trace substances, especially inorganic species.Special instrumentation is used in UV-vis spectroscopy. Hydrogen or deuterium lights provide the spring of light for ultraviolet measurements. Tungsten lamps provide the light for visible measurements. These light sources generate light at specific wavelengths. Deuterium lamps generate light in the UV range (190 to 380nm). Tungsten-halogen lamps generate light in the visible spectrum (380 to about 800 nm).Xenon lamps which can produce light in the UV and visible portions of the spectrum are used to measure both UV and visible spectra.UsesUv/Vis Spectrophotometry is used to determine the absorption or transmission of Uv/Vis light (180 to 820 nm) by a seek. It can also be used to measure concentrations of absorbing materials based on developed calibration curves of the material. It is routinely used in the quantitative determi nation of solutions of transition metal ions and exaltedly conjugated organic compounds. Its primary(prenominal) applications areQuantitative determination of chromophores concentrations in solutionImpurity determination by spectrum subtractionDetermination of reaction dynamicsFluorescence SpectroscopyFluorescence spectroscopy, fluorometry or spectrofluorometry, is a type of electromagnetic spectroscopy which analyzes fluorescence from a sample.Fluorescence occurs when a molecule absorbs photons from the U.V.-visible light spectrum (200-900 nm), causing transition to a high-potential electronic state and then(prenominal) emits photons as it returns to its initial state, in little than 10-9 sec. Fluorimetry characterizes the relationship between absorbed and emitted photons at specified wavelengths. It is a particular quantitative analytical technique that is inexpensive and comfortably mastered. Fluorescence spectroscopy is an important investigational tool in many areas of analytical science, due to its extremely high sensitivity and selectivity. With many uses across a broad range of chemical, biochemical and medical research, it has become an essential investigational technique allowing detailed, real-time observation of the structure and dynamics of intact biological systems with extremely high resolution. It is particularly to a great extent used in the pharmaceutical industry where it has almost completely replaced radiochemical labelling. light compounds or fluorophors can be identified and quantified on the basis of their inflammation and dismission properties. The excitation and run properties of a compound are fixed, for a given instrument and environmental condition, and can be used for identification and quantification. The principal advantage of fluorescence over radioactivity and absorption spectroscopy is the superpower to separate compounds on the basis of either their excitation or emission spectra, as opposed to a single spect ra. This advantage is further enhance by commercial fluorescent dyes that have narrow and distinctly uninvolved excitation and emission spectra. The sensitivity of fluorescence is approximately 1,000 times greater than absorption spectrophotometric methods.UsesFluorescence spectroscopy is used in, among others, biochemical, medical, and chemical research fields for analyzing organic compounds. at that place has also been a report of its use in differentiating malignant, bashful tegument tumors from benign.In particular, the measurements of fluorescence spectrum, lifetime and polarization are powerful methods of studying biological structure and function. The fluorescence spectrum is highly sensitive to the biochemical environment of the fluorophor. Fluorophors have been designed such that their spectra change as a function of the concentration of metabolites, such as pH and calcium. A major disadvantage of fluorescence is the sensitivity of fluorescence intensity to fluctuations in pH and temperature.Flame PhotometryFlame photometry (more accurately called attack atomic emission spectrometry) is a branch of atomic spectroscopy in which the species examined in the mass spectrometer are in the form of atoms. Flame photometry is suitable for qualitative and quantitative determination of several cations in biological specimens, especially for metals that are easily excited to high energy levels at a comparatively low flame temperature (mainly Na, K, Rb, Cs, Ca, Ba, and Cu). This technique uses a flame that evaporates the solvent and also sublimates and atomizes the metal and then excites a valence electron to an upper energy state. animated is emitted at characteristic wavelengths for each metal as the electron returns to the desktop state that makes qualitative determination possible. Flame photometers use optical filters to monitor for the selected emission wavelength produced by the analyte species. Comparison of emission intensities of unknowns to eit her that of standard solutions or to those of an internal standard allows quantitative analysis of the analyte metal in the sample solution. Because of the very narrow and characteristic emission lines from the gas-phase atoms in the flame plasma, the method is relatively free of interferences from other pieces. Flame photometry has many advantages. It is a simple, relatively inexpensive, high sample throughput method used for clinical, biological, and environmental analysis.The flame photometers are relatively simply instruments. There is no need for source of light, since it is the mensurable constituent of the sample that is emitting the light. The energy that is needed for the excitation is provided by the temperature of the flame (2000-3000 C), produced by the burning of acetylene or natural gas (or propane-butane gas) in the presence of air or oxygen. By the heat of the flame and the put up of the reduce gas (fuel), molecules and ions of the sample species are decomposed an d reduced to give atoms, e.g. Na+ + e- Na. Atoms in the vapour state give line spectra. (Not band spectra, because in that location are no covalent bonds hence there are not any vibrational sub-levels to cause broadening). The mono chromator selects the suitable (characteristic) wavelength of the emitted light. The emitted light reaches the detector. This is a photomultiplier producing an electric signal proportional to the intensity of emitted light. atomic Absorption SpectrometryIn analytical chemistry, atomic absorption spectroscopy is a technique for determining the concentration of a particular metal element in a sample. The technique can be used to analyze the concentration of over 70 different metals in a solution. The technique makes use of absorption spectrometry to assess the concentration of an analyte in a sample. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) determines the presence of metals in liquid samples. Metals include Fe, Cu, Al, Pb, Ca, Zn, Cd and many more. It also mea sures the concentrations of metals in the samples. Typical concentrations range in the low mg/L range. The electrons of the atoms in the atomizer can be promoted to higher orbitals for a short amount of time by absorbing a light of a given wavelength. This amount of energy (or wavelength) is specific to a particular electron transition in a particular element, and in general, each wavelength corresponds to only one element. This gives the technique its elemental selectivity.In order to analyze a sample for its atomic constituents, it has to be atomized. The sample should then be illuminated by light. The light transmitted is finally careful by a detector. The light source is usually a hollow-cathode lamp of the element that is being measured. Lasers are also used in research instruments. Since lasers are intense enough to excite atoms to higher energy levels. The disadvantage of these narrow-band light sources is that only one element is measurable at a time. AA spectroscopy requir es that the analyte atoms be in the gas phase. Ions or atoms in a sample must undergo desolvation and vaporization in a high-temperature source such as a flame or graphite furnace. Flame AA can only analyze solutions, while graphite furnace AA can accept solutions, slurries, or solid samples. The graphite furnace has several advantages over a flame. It is a oftentimes more efficient atomizer than a flame and it can forthwith accept very small absolute quantities of sample. It also provides a reducing environment for easily oxidized elements. Samples are placed directly in the graphite furnace and the furnace is electrically heated in several steps to prohibitionist the sample, ash organic matter, and vaporize the analyte atoms.AA spectrometers use monochromators and detectors for uv and visible light. The main purpose of the monochromator is to isolate the absorption line from background light due to interferences. Simple dedicated AA instruments often replace the monochromator w ith a bandpass interference filter.

Thursday, 28 March 2019

Martin Manufacturing Company Historical Ratios :: essays research papers

Martin Manufacturing communityHistorical RatiosRATIOSACTUAL 2001ACTUAL 2002ACTUAL 2003INCREASE(DECREASE)INDUSTRY reasonableCurrent symmetry1. Ratio1. turnover ( whiles) ordinary collection period (days) asset turnover ( time) Ratio (%)45.854.357.02.724.5 generation interest earned ratio2.21.91.6(0.3)2.5Gross profit margin (%)27.528.027.0(1.0)26.0 mesh profit margin (%) on total assets (ROA %) on common equity (ROE %) / earning (P/E) ratio33.538.734.5(4.2)43.4Market/ book (M/B) ratio1.01.10.9(0.2)1.2AnalysisLiquidity The on-line(prenominal) ratio and quick ratios for the year 2003 argon at 2.5 and 1.3, which are both higher than the industry average. The association has abundant to cover short term bills and expenses. Both the current and quick ratios are showing an upward trend compared to 2001 and 2002. The cur rent assets decreased by $ 20,264 to $ 1,531,181 and the current liabilities also decreased considerably by $255,402 to $616,000, a 29.3% decline, thus qualification the current ratio jump to a 2.5. The biggest decline was seen is accounts payable which decreased by $170,500 to $230,000, a decline of 42.6 %. ActivityThe inventory turnover is approximately half compared to the industry average, although it managed to increase by 0.3 compared to 2002. The company needs to throw a constant cost of goods sold and at the same time manage inventory more efficiently to maintain market competitiveness. The average collection period also increased slightly to 58 days, trey days increase compared to 2002. The company needs to negotiate or carry on efficient payment methods to customers to decrease the collection period megabucks to industry average. The total asset turnover increased 0.1 to 1.6 but slake failing to meet the industry standard of 2.0. Martin Manufacturing needs to boost gross revenue while maintaining a constant asset value to meet or exceed industry standards.DebtThe debt ratios increased by 2.7% to 57% more than ingeminate the industry standard of 24.5%. The long term debt increased from $700,000 to $ 1,165,250 an increment of 66.5% in the year 2002. The company is currently highly leveraged thus it needs to roleplay on reducing long term debts and continue to increase assets. The times interest earned ratio dropped by 0.3 to 1.6 in the year 2003. The company could face difficulties making interest payments in case of a gross revenue slump. ProfitabilityThe gross profit margin is at 27% which is a percent higher than industry standards. The company is performing good and clashing industry standards in terms of cost of goods sold and sales volume. The final income margin decreased to 0.7% in 2003 a decrease of 0.3% compared to 2002.

Comparing Apocalypse Now and Heart of Darkness :: Compare Contrast Comparison

Comparing Apocalypse Now and snapper of Darkness Francis Coppolas motion-picture show Apocalypse Now was inspired by the world storied Joseph Conrad novel Heart of Darkness. A comparison and contrast can be made between the two. Both have similar themes but only if unlike settings. Heart of Darkness takes place on the Congo River in the Heart of Africa, while Apocalypse Now is set in Vietnam. Heart of Darkness , which follows closely the actual events of Conrads Congo journey, tells of the narrators fascination by a mysterious white gentlemans gentleman, Kurtz, who, by his eloquence and hypnotic personality, dominates the brutal tribesmen nearly him. Full of contempt for the greedy traders who exploit the natives, the narrator cannot deny the office of this figure of evil who c on the wholes forth from him something approaching reluctant loyalty.1 The main characters in both have the same general personalities but have different names. Of course, Kurtz is Kurtz, Willard parallels Marlow, and the American photojournalist corresponds to the Russian Harlequin. Willard is a lieutenant for the US Army and Marlow is a captain of a steamboat of an ivory company. The first images of Willard and Marlow differ to some degree. The movie begins with Willard lying in an apartment room lost from reality with the vociferation The End playing by The Doors. He is haunted by his antecedent deeds and he is getting very drunk. Willard smashes the mirror while combat himself and cuts his hand. Marlow is portrayed as a wanderer of the sea. The narrator described him to somewhat of a hero. Their mission is to find Kurtz and take him down at all costs. In both stories Kurtz is a psychotic rebel, worshipped as a god, who threatens the stability of his original unit, but in one it is an ivory profession company and in the other it is the US Army. Kurtz, who had begun his assignment a man of great idealism and the highest morals , had become strangely savage. Tribes of natives worship the man who lives in a hut surrounded by fence posts topped with recently acquired human skulls.

Wednesday, 27 March 2019

The Turn of the Screw Essay -- Literary Analysis, Henry James

Superfici onlyy, Henry throngs The Turn of the Screw seems to reinforce the status quo of American books as mannish, whereby work force are viewed as having provide everywhere women loss women to become mere objects. James creates a nameless fe manly title-holder whose myth is told through the guise of a male narrator. She becomes an object viewed by Douglass audience and is used simply as means for the subjugate on Harley Street to avoid being bothered by his charges. She is and then set up as nave and love-struck, willing to do alone active anything, including risking her declare sanity, for the sake of keeping the winner undisturbed. However, on close-hauled examination, James actually creates a novella that subverts the handed-down idea of men having agency over women as it is the governess who has the final word in her story, not the male Douglas, and it is the male heir Miles who becomes the scapegoat leaving the governess free, awfully keen and nice (James 24) .Jamess au naturel(p) frame tale creates thwarting and confusion still his experiment with form also leave outs attention to what has mostly been left unconscious. Through Douglass initial telling of the governesss story she is reduced to a nameless object that they all raptly listen about rather than listen to. While at the start, Douglas does have power over the governesss story, in the end it is the governess who has the final word and Douglas, who disappears after nevertheless the first seven pages, is never to be heard from again. James relinquishes power to the governess and allows her to participate as there is no need to return to the male voice once she takes over. Furthermore, as the governess does remain nameless throughout her own narrative this hardly is a power issues as both the master on... ...til finally the air was clear (116-117). In this way the governess is able to drive away the roles of passive/female and active/male as she denies Quint the power of hi s gaze and instead forces him to be the object of her gaze.Through his distortion of traditional male dominated structures and ideas, James is able to not only draw attention to the inequality of mens power over women but he also uses the same devices to subvert this binary opposition. Through a distortion of the assumed patriarchal order the governess is able to adopt male characteristics in order to wrest back some of the power ab initio taken from her. Whether consciously or unconsciously Jamess unfinished frame, disturbing death of Miles, and the disappearance of Quints ghost all point to a hidden power within the governess allowing her to survive wide after her weaker male counterparts.

Ice Hockey and Lacrosse :: essays research papers

starter hockey game and LacrosseBoth Lacrosse and Ice hockey be two sports that share homogeneous aspects. One example would be that they both(prenominal) require plenty of athletic prowess, as well as countless hours of training and practice to master. The superior amount of refer in both sports enables a walkoverer to bring forth both physically and mentally tough. Lacrosse has grown to its highest level of popularity it has always reached over the last ten years. Ice hockey has seen a truehearted climb in its popularity over the past 25 years devising it one of the most popular sports in not only spacious Island, but all across the U.S. However, there are many differences as well, and we should not overlook the fact that there are plenty of distinctions amidst the two great sports. Many of which are the main reasons that these are simply two separate sports. The biggest similarity is the object of both games. To exposescore the different team. The score is determ ined by points called goals. Ice hockey and lacrosse are contact sports. Opposing teams will try to check each other. This means that the teams are trying to literally knock the ball or hockey puck out of possession of the other player. If a check becomes too violent, a penalty, which is other similarity between the two sports, will be called. Due to the vulturine nature of both sports, helmets and extensive padding are required to play without injury. Another thing they have in common is that the possession of the puck or ball is determined by a bully off. A face-off is when two opposing players battle for the puck or ball. Goalies are an ingrained part of both sports because the goalies are the last line of defense beforehand the opposing team can score a goal. The goalie crease, in ice hockey as well as lacrosse, cannot be entered by any players because it gives the goalie an interference-free zone. Any goal scored by a team that is made from the goalie crease will not be co unted. A final similarity would be that both sports have professional leagues. Ice hockeys league is bigger than lacrosse, but they are both just as competitive.The biggest difference between ice hockey and lacrosse is the playing field. In hockey its ice, in lacrosse its grass. In addition to this would be the field dimensions. A lacrosse field is rectangular, while a hockey rink is oval.

Tuesday, 26 March 2019

Comparing After Apple-picking to Apples Essay -- comparison compare co

Poetry is an test to describe the spirit and intensity of ones feelings and opinions. Often, however, these thoughts are too vague or thickening to articulate. How does a poet translate these abstract ideas into something more tangible and possible? Simple, metaphorical objects and situations can be consumptiond to tally more tortuous concepts. These can be interpreted in many different ways, however, and poets oft use the same symbols to produce varying do. By comparing later on Apple-picking, by Robert Frost and Apples, by Laurie d consumewind one can insure how the poets coincidentally use similar effects to discuss a broader, more meaty issue. Both Frost and Lee use the apples in their poems to illustrate the relationship between man and nature, and to emphasize the importance of allowing natural processes to occur without interference. In addition to the use of simplified symbols, the tone of each poem and the styles in which they are written also reflect the poets views on the topic. Frost and Lee both discuss mankinds interaction with the environment, using the apple to represent nature as a whole. Each poet achieves this differently. Frost focuses on the negative effects that occur when man disturbs nature and attempts to control it for his own gain. His poem speaks of the winter, and of an apple-picker, with his ladder glutinous through a tree. The narrator faces with the consequences of his actions, and realizes the severity of his mistake. I cannot rub the strangeness from my cognizance I got from looking through a pane of glass I skimmed from the drinking trough. Frost demonstrates how quickly and harshly the cold seems to get into on after the apples are unnaturally stripped away. This reflects the way the human beings ... ...h Apples is written reflects the empathy which connects Lee with nature. Both poets reflect their views by creating appropriate tones in their poems. Frost and Lee illustrate the intended messages in t heir poems through the use of reflective tones and styles. They also use the simple symbol of the apple to represent nature on a larger scale. This allows the poets to illustrate the importance of maintaining a respect for nature and to demonstrate the effects of mans relationship with the environment. By examining Frosts aft(prenominal) Apple-picking and Lees Apples, one is able to understand how poets often use the same subject to discuss different aspects of an issue. This is a valuable skill for communication of complex or nondescript ideas. It allows the poet to overcome the difficulty of describing the nature and intensity of his own abstract feelings.

White Fang Essay -- essays research papers

face cloth Fang     During peoples breaks they passel be twined due to the emotions and feelings around them. In the book innocence Fang by Jack London, White Fang is do workd by three different emotions. The first influence on White Fang was the terrific. some other influence on White Fang was fear. A third influence on White Fang was pure hatred. These influences bath all told be related to similar emotions in my bread and butter.The wonderfuls influence on White Fang is similar to influences in my life. The wild influenced White Fang umpteen different government agencys throughout his life. One way that the wild has influenced White Fang was when he was a young pup and coming out of the hollow for the first time, all the sounds and things that he couldnt understand brought about in him a strange feeling that he would n ever forget. Another way that the wild influenced White Fang was by calling him out and away from the fires and tents of the Indi an Village. "It was like something was calling him, urging him to run free through the meadows and range in the streams, this was the wild and his White Fangs home"(124). This feeling that White Fang was give when he was born, helps to lead him through life and teach him the dangers of the unknown. The third and or so dramatic example of the wilds influence on White Fang happened late in the book after Weedon Scott had met White Fang. White Fang was disunite between his new found feeling of love and the way of life in the wild that he had enjoyed and mastered throughout his life. This proves the strength that the wild has on the creatures who live in it.      The wild has also had a fiddling effect on my life. The wild while not as suvier as the wild in White Fang has shaped me into a nature lover, ever since I was little I would always wonder to my grandp arents woods and heave trees and just play there until I was forced to go home. Another exampl e of the wilds influence on myself is by, the incessant wanting to leave Monticello and perish down to Kentucky, where we scram a house on a lake, so that I can be alone with all the things I have grown to love. The third example of the wilds influence on my life is the constant searching for something new and exciting that I have never make before. These are all ways that the wild has influenced my life. White Fangs dealings with the wild have had a ... Another way that hatred has influenced me happened last social class when a former friend of mine make me and Aaron Newton so made that we took his wakeboard and broke it in half and sank his boots in the tail assembly of the lake. The third and most dramatic display of hate happened a fewer years ago when I said a few prize words to my step mom that got me kicked out of my house and sent to live with my mom. This was something that just fueled my hatred for her, by blaming her for what happened and causing the whole deal. These are all examples of how hatred has influenced me on some of the choices I have made during my life. White Fangs dealings with hatred have been somewhat similar to those that I have encountered during my life.      White Fang has been influenced in many of the same ways that I have been influenced throughout my life. One of these influences was the wild that pulled on him his whole life. The trice was a fear that kept him from enjoying many of lifes with child(p) things and the third was a pure hatred for several different things during his life. regular(a) though White Fang is not a true story it can still be related to peoples lives today.

Monday, 25 March 2019

The Dollmaker by Harriette Arnow Essay -- Dollmaker Harriette Arnow

The Dollmaker by Harriette Arnow The Dollmaker by Harriette Arnow is the story of one woman whose grandness is undermined by those surrounding her. Gertie Nevels, a tall, big-boned woman raised in the Appalacian region of Kentucky is creative, self-sufficient, strong, and resourceful. In her native home, Gertie creates for herself an atmosphere where she is able-bodied to survive whatsoever(prenominal) situation and has everything under control. As Wilton Eckley states in From Kentucky to Detroit, a chapter in his novel, Harriette Arnow, for sure while the family is living in Kentucky, she Gertie is self-sufficient and has no fear that she testament be unable to get along if Clovis is called to join all the different younger men of the community in the service (87). In f bit, she is able to make her dream of moving into a larger farm and round her comforts and resources, along with providing better for her family without the help of her husband however, when she is forced to fit to Detroit, she is out of her element. Throughout her life, she has molded herself to be able to do any task that is stereotypical of males or females. Even though initially she finds it grievous to live the city life that is typical of Detroit, she is able to adapt her heed to be able to tolerate- and eventually accept- her new surroundings. Although Gertie Nevels shows obvious genius, because of her geographic inclination of an orbit and gender, she is unable to use her abilities to the fullest extent. Harriette Arnow uses the first scene in her novel to defend Gerties strength, intellectual capacity, practical usage of skills and courage furthermore, she portrays (within the response of the soldiers) the reaction that outsiders usually have to her. Because of her dialect a... needs the block of wood to flavour as if she can connect to God. Harriette Arnow, in her Letter from a author, states that Gertie split her wood because she didnt need it anymore it was not an act of despair. Moreover, It hurt and was a sacrifice in a sense make for all the things she hated (25). Furthermore, she comments that Gertie split the block of wood, knowing the things she had wanted in the face were about her in the world. Works Cited Arnow, Harriette. The Dollmaker. New York Avon, 1972. ... Letter from a Writer. Now and Then 5 (Fall 1988) 24-25. Eckley, Wilton. From Kentucky to Detroit City (Chapter 5). Harriette Arnow. New York Twayne, 1974. 85-100. Walsh, Kathleen. Free give and Determinism in Harriette Arnows The Dollmaker. South Atlantic Review 49.4 (1984) 91-106.

Stephen Jay Gould Nonmoral Nature Essay -- essays research papers fc

Evil in Nature and a Benevolent beau idealThe idea of the worldly concern of wrong in personality many times creates arguments between creationists and scientists concerning not moreover the design of nature by a creator immortal, but the true benevolence of idol. In Stephen Jay Goulds essay Nonmoral Nature (1984), he explores this passing controversial issue by posing the question If God is uncorrupted and if creation reveals his secureness, why are we surrounded with pain, suffering, and apparently senseless scratchiness in the animal world? He uses the life span of the parasitical ichneumon wasp to illustrate a scientific view that the archetype of evil is limited to human beings and that the world of nature is unconcerned with it. To nigh degree Gould may be correct in his assumption that nature is unconcerned with evil, however, a Christian view and scriptural model does tolerate strong argument as to how the fall of man influenced evil in nature, and how nature points directly to the benevolence of God.The Christian believes that God created the universe and its base life forms. According to scripture, when God originally made life, He considered it good and perfect tense ( propagation 125). However, the Bible also shows that the perfect state God established on earth did not last long. Scripture recognizes the existence of evil and suffering in nature, and points the finger at God Himself as being responsible. Genesis chapter 3 reveals several curses God placed on the serpent, on eve, and on nature. When Adam and Eve disobeyed their creators ensure not to eat from the tree of knowledge of good and evil, they rejected God and demonstrated they were no longer capable of living in their perfect world. They needed a place for their fallen weakened characters, and in Genesis 317-18, God revealed the kind of earth they would live in from so on, Cursed is the groundin toil you shall eat of it all the long time of your lifethorns and thist les it shall bring forth and you shall eat the plants of the field. After their fall, Adam and Eve live... ... Works CitedBlackford, Russel. Stephen Jay Gould on erudition and Religion. Quadrant Magazine 2000.http//, Raymond G. and Kerby J. Anderson. The Straw God of Stephen Gould Journal of the American Scientific Affiliation 35.1 1983 42-44. Gould, Stephen Jay. Nonmoral Nature, 1984. Hens dentition and Horses ToesFurther Reflections in Natural History. New York W.W. Norton, 1994. 32-44.Johns, Michael. Science and Religion in the Fullness of Life. Rev. of Rock of Ages, by Stephen Jay Gould. Emory Report 27 Sept. 1999 52.6.Kirby,William. On the Power, Wisdom, and Goodness of God. The Bridgewater Treatisies. Treatise VII (1835) 2.2. The Ryrie Study Bible. New American pattern Translation. New York.New American Library, 1999.Wheeler, Gerald. The Cruelty of Nature Origins 2.1 1975 32-41.

Sunday, 24 March 2019

Autism: A Disorder of Conflicting Causes and Treatments Essay examples

Autism A Disorder of Conflicting Causes and TreatmentsDespite its 50 year-old diagnosing, autism is shut up one of the mostly comm that contracted and r arly treated puerility diseases. Studies suggest that as many as 1 in cholecalciferol children may display autistic symptoms. Manifestations of this disability hold the stereotypical physiologic contortions and hand-flapping motions commonly associated with autism, as well as inability to relate to the alfresco world, limited social skills, lack of concentration, and hypersensitivity to certain stimuli-particularly noise (1). Perceived causes include poor fetal development, genetics, allergies, and a lack of crucial enzymes. Because for many old age the disorder was thought to be a result of poor parenting, only recent studies have begun any attempts to identify the causes of childhood autism. Many diagnosis and potential treatments have been tried only by the parents of autistics undergoing research is mum slow and often unde r-funded. Eric Courchesne (2), a leading scientist whose studies of the cerebellum have opened a new field of belief for the regions potential functions, suggested that autistics have a label propensity for cerebellar lesions and Purkinje neuron loss, leading to an inability to rapidly and accurately change attention from one focus to another, particularly in the areas of opthalmic and auditory stimuli. Dr. Margaret Bauman, (Dept. of Neurology, Harvard Medical schoolhouse and a child neurologist at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston), and Dr. Thomas Kemper (Depts. of Neurology, Anatomy, and Pathology, Boston University School of Medicine) have a different hypothesis (3) which nonetheless correlates with Courchesnes theory. They believe that a dysfunctional ne... ...improve concentration and awareness. Rimland suggests using a B-complex vitamin and magnesium to attempt to tame some of the more physically apparent symptoms of autism. However, although many websites advocate d the use of heterogeneous vitamins and minerals to treat autism, none portended to have found a cure, or thus far plausible reasons for the benefits. Although research is still in the beginning stages, and many treatments are mere shots in the dark, autistics and their families continue to hope that cures and qualified treatments are not far-off. There are many available resources including group home projects (10), family hold (11), and a wide-range of literature (12), much of it written by survivors themselves. Internet Sources1) http// http// http//

The IQ Debate Essay -- Intelligence

parole can be defined in umteen different ways. This concept has been the focus of numerous studies and investigations by psychologists and other scientific experts. Intelligence can be the mental ability to reason, plan ahead, recognize a wide range of complex issues and learn from past experiences (Gottfredson, 1997). Intelligence is the resultant of the process of acquiring, storing in memory, retrieving, combining, comparing, and using in new contexts entropy and conceptual skills (Humphreys, 1979)Intelligence is commonly treasured through the use of a number of scales and quantitative measures, like the Intelligence Quotient (IQ), developed by Alfred Binet in early 20th century to identify which French children needed more than attention from their educators. The use of IQ tests progressively spread to all move of the world. The use of these tests has raised controversy among psychologists and educators, with supporters of IQ tests assuming that the tests produce mea sure of hereditaryally transmitted intelligence. On the other hand, critics of the tests have pointed out that IQ test provides a measure that defines intelligence through the use of heathen deterministic concepts. The ethnocentrism embedded in the assumptions of many commentators, has generated into a justification for a number of theoretical approaches, like those by Charles Murray and others (http// dichotomy between the view that intelligence levels are affected by situational factors and the view that intelligence is genetically transmitted has dominated psychological debates on IQ throughout decades. The statements made by many commentators that intelligences depends on genetic factors has been ... ...c factors, but to education, parental supervision and other situational and environmental factors. BIBLIOGRAPHYGottfredson, L.S. (1997) Foreword to intelligence and social policy. Intelligence Volume 24 (number1) pp. 112.Humphre ys, L. G. (1979). The retrace of general intelligence. Intelligence. Volume 3 (Number 2) pp. 105120.Marshall, G. (1994) (ed.), The Concise Oxford mental lexicon of Sociology (Oxford Oxford University Press.Safer, M. A. (1980). Attributing evil to the subject, not the situation Student reaction to Milgrams dissipate on obedience. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 6, 205209.Sutherland, E. H. (1947) Principles of criminology. Chicago J. B. Lippincott (4th Edition) . Zimbardo, P. G. (1999). The Psychology of Evil. Stanford Universityhttp//