Tuesday, 30 April 2019

Dementia and Caretaking Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Dementia and Caretaking - Essay casefulThese fears include the repetitive questions of going home seeking caretakers and this phenomenon is called Shadowing (Lindeman, Corby, Downing & Sanborn 1991)Alzheimer disease is one of the disorders cognise as dementia. Patient develops multiple cognitive deficits including memory injury. The diagnostic criterion along with memory loss must include one of the cognitive disturbances aphasia, apraxia, anoxia or a disturbance in executive go (DSM- IV 1994). Dementia may be progressive, static or remitting (DSM-IV 1994). Keeping in view of this record the AD should not be taken as process of inevitable and immutable decline. (Judkins,Wayne )Caretaking for the patient of AD is a long process which involves many people. In the early stages the family members are the initial help. But the later stages admit persistent care of the patient and he/she is shifted to adult daylight care centers. In adult day care centers safe and supportive environ ment is must for the patient of AD. It involves creating new mappings to replace the roles lost because of the disease. (e.g. provider for spouse, worker) In this environment patient crapper interact in the same cognitive state and can form meaningful attachments. (William & Roberts 1995). The group spirits should too be fostered in the day care centers to restore the patient feel that he/she is the desired member of the social group.Researchers in their recent studies have examined the role that the attachment style may play in dementia. It is observed that personality characteristics persist in dementia. For example, a person suffering from depression and aggressive fashion before the diagnosis of dementia have these tendencies aggregated by the course of disease. (Agbayewa, 1986) Bowlby defined attachment behavior as any form of behavior that results in a person attaining or retaining proximity to some other differentiated and preferred individuals, who is usually conceived as stronger and /or wiser. (John Bowlby, 1979, pp 129) Misen (1992) was the first researcher to conclude that the patient of dementia could also be classified as having furbish up or ambivalent style of attachment. The further studies proposed that various component of attachments i.e. trust, comfort with dependency became more authorised with higher level of dependency caused by dementia.The studies have also found that the effect of dysfunctional behavior as taken by caretakers was correlated with caretakers psychological distress. (Levesque. Cassette & LaChance, 1998) But it is observed that attachment therapy can also help the caretakers to overcome their psychological stress. The following quoted study is taken from the interview of Ann Hurley (Citation Trudeau S. Bright Eyes, A afferent Stimulation Intervention for Patients with Advanced Dementia An interview with Scott Trudeau, by AL Romer, Innovations in

Monday, 29 April 2019

Introduction to Child Development Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Introduction to Child Development - Essay ExamplePiagets estimation was that adults did not simply know more than children, but that their knowledge was structured differently. Indeed, Piaget suggested that children at different stages of their teaching thought about and interpreted their domain of a functions in different ship canal. Piaget developed the idea of children as little scientists who were employed in active exploration, seeking understanding and knowledge (Bee, 164).Piagets theory of cognitive development was based on troika main principles - those of assimilation, accommodation and equilibration. These will be explained below however, first it is important to define the term abstract. outline is a cognitive representation of activities or things. When a sis is born it will return an unconditional schema for sucking in order to ensure that it can feed and and then grow. As the baby grows, this schema will become integrated with other feeding schemas as the ba bys experience and nutrition changes. engrossment is the process of putting a new experience into already existent mental structure. Children develop cognitive structures to help them make sense of their world and when they encounter a new experience they place this into the schemas they have already developed. The process of assimilation is an active one. Children are not merely absorbing knowledge via a process of osmosis, they are actively engaged in the assimilation process. They are active insofar as they are selective - they do not absorb all the information they encounter.Accommodation is the revising of an existing schema due to a new experience. For example, a child may have a schema that describes all flying objects as birds, but when he encounters a Frisbee this does not fit the schema. It isnt alive therefore a new schema is necessary. As children develop they will encounter experiences which their existing schemas are unable(predicate) of explaining. Therefore they mu st develop new schemas in response to new experiences.Equilibration is the process of seeking to pass cognitive stability through assimilation and accommodation. The child is constantly trying to interpret and understand the world while encountering new experiences. The child builds an understanding of the world and how it works, but this is constantly challenged by new experiences that involvement with their current understanding. They seek to develop schemas to help this interpretation process. The drive for equilibrium is that all these interpretations and schemas fit together and make a general picture of the world that is logical. However, equilibrium is a constantly changing thing, as each time a child encounters a new experience they are in a place of disequilibrium until assimilation or accommodation has taken place. If we return to the example of the Frisbee, when the child first encounters it they are in a state of confusion (i.e. not equilibrium) - It isnt alive, I can t explain it with my present schemas or ways of thinking. Through accommodation and the development of new schemas the child returns to a state of equilibrium, until the next new experience.Piagets academic degree Model of Cognitive DevelopmentPiaget suggested that the childs cognitive development could be divided into stages. As the child develops and goes

Sunday, 28 April 2019

Comparison between website verification systems and their technique Essay

Comparison between web settle curb systems and their technique - Essay ExampleKeeping in watch over the growing requirement of making the website more effective, optimized and reachable to maximum lucre customrs, the search engines have launched their chit systems so that the owners of the websites as well as other internet users can verify the contents of the site with the help of these systems. Google, Yahoo and put up search have provided the opportunity of the website contents verification through the execution of instrument of their specialized website verification systems (Greg, 2008, p76).The research paper aims to present detailed understanding of the three major website verification systems implemented by major search engines. In this regard, the essay discusses the techniques, options and methods of website verification offered by these three systems separately. In order to explain the usefulness and setbacks of each of these verification systems practically, the ess ay also presents the results of the analysis of a website that has been tried and true using these three systems separately. The objective of these tests and presentation of their results is to identify the limitations and accuracy of each of these verification systems.The growing use of internet of wide range of business purposes insists the software and internet technology related companies to design contrary programs and systems that can meet the growing demands of the internet users and website developers in the technology driven market place of today. In response to this need, there is some specialized websites verification systems designed and implemented to provide more clean and sublime web developing facilities to the web developers (Greg, 2008, p76). These systems have been designed on the behalf of the most popular internet search engines. There are three important website verification systems that are implemented by Google, Live Search and Yahoo.

Saturday, 27 April 2019

Abortion Issue Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Abortion Issue - Essay ExampleRegarding the stillbirth dilemma, here we should adhere to the point that killing a person is a bad action, probably the trounce thing to do, according to Kantian Deontology. If a fetus is a person, killing it through abortion beyond dispute is an im righteous action, because it has intrinsically immoral roots. Moreover, taking into consideration the fact that a fetus is a person that cant protect itself and completely depends on another human being, abortion appears to be an extremely atrocious kind of murder. According to Kant, such act as murder shouldnt be committed under any circumstances ever, because it violates any rules of morality and doing it is unfair towards another person in particular if this person is a weaker vessel which a fetus is. Mills position on the affaire of abortion is less strict and flexible than the Kantian one. Mills Utilitarian doctrine is ground on the Greatest Happiness Principle, which claims that people should corr elate their actions and decisions with their own utility they should also dont call any harm to other people, trying to reduce the overall quantity of unhappiness in the world. The fact that a fetus is a person and has a right to live seems to make the stoppage of the abortion issue similar to the Kantian one because killing a person cant bring much happiness to normal people. If to pay closer attention to different circumstances that make women bent on abortion, it turns out that in some cases abortion can be a moral resolution of a case.

Friday, 26 April 2019

Migration Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Migration - Essay ExampleImmigration to the unquestionable countries from the developing countries is a phenomenon that has deep impact over the lives of millions. The making of industrial revolution sparked a study twist in the labor distribution across the world. Although nation states ar supposed to be self-coloured communities based on sh ared culture, identity, language, and ethnicity and so on, it does not hold true of all the countries, especially the countries that are favorite destinations of the immigrants. From its very inception, the United States has been overwhelmed by immigration from across the world. However, the issues pertinent to immigration to the United States in twenty first century are radically different from those of in the preceding centuries. There are a number of issues such as shifts in demographic patterns, lopsided economic effects, the rights of women and children, substance use, wellness care and public funds covered under the umbrella topic of i mmigration. Second generation allegiance, citizenship and policy-making assimilation, race and ethnicity, residential patterns, engaging in unauthorized employment too have been the ingredients of the immigration ponder in the United States for last two-three decades. Since the issues to immigration are third-dimensional, there needs to be a multidimensional policy framework to address the wide-ranging issues without losing their complexity.Illegal immigration to the United States involves an array of practices and techniques such as illegal entry, visa overstay and false representation. Amnesty has been contested idea as of there is no agreement on whether it is helpful to mitigate the grievances originating from illegal migration. Illegal migration also poses threat to social security, depicted object security and the rule of law.Rightly or wrongly, aspects such as financial impacts, cultural mutations, labor disturbances, demographic changes, and transnational ties have been considered as the central issues of immigration.

Thursday, 25 April 2019

Investment That is to Develop New Products Essay

Investment That is to Develop New Products - see ExampleThe development of in the raw product is of course risky, time consuming as well as expensive. Firms need to make water dozen of ideas regarding new products where only one idea might result in successful product. The failure appraise of new product is much mellower than the success rate, as high as 80% and the reason for failure atomic number 18 numerous, care inadequate securities intentness survey, poor screening, trade place orientation, product defects, and many inadequate launching effort (Boone & Kurtz, p.398). Due to high investment which is needed to produce the products and various other steps needed to take care of by the manufacturers to ensure success of the new product, most of the firms think that new product development is not worth huge investment because of the rate of failure, and believes that it is much more feasible and easier to copy the market leaders product. Market leader are referred to as those organization which poses the largest market share in a particular market and the market followers are those organizations which imitates the top market leaders but at the same time do not upsets the current balance with respect to the competitive power of the respective industry. These market followers prefer to avoid the bet attack and reap the product benefits of innovations which are made by the leaders of the respective market with imitations. To imitate the market leader and avoid making huge investment, the market followers adopt quartette major approaches, Counterfeiter strategy is adopted by the market followers when they aim to duplicate the products of market leaders and packaging style and therefore sell in the black market. The strategy of counterfeiter has plagued brands like Apple and Rolex mostly in Asia. Secondly, cloner strategy is being used to emulate the market leaders product name and packaging one such example of cloner is Ralcorp Holdings which sells off imitation of brand cereals in lookalike containers at a much lower price. Thirdly, the market followers adopt imitator strategy where some features are copied from the market leader while retaining few features of its own. The last strategy used by market followers is the adapter strategy which involves adoption of owns product as that of market leader and sells the product into contrary market. S&S Cycle supplies railway locomotive to the firms which builds bikes like Harley. The company buys, every year Harley Davidson and takes off the engine apart and finds out what to be improved. The followers earn or make profit at a lower rate than the market leaders. One such example s the food processing industry which revealed that only the top two companies were profitable (Kotler, p. 194). Among the mobile phone manufacturer, Philips a well known European brand in addition fall under the category of market followers. There are other Asiatic companies which operate on the European mobile market such as Sharp, Haier, Pantech, NEC, Innostream and Sanyo (Anonym, p. 15). Market followers is the start up organizations in the industry whose major intentions are to hold the market share without investing and also providing challenges to its strong competitors. But however this does not mean that the market followers lack any physical body of strategies in fact it is believe of the followers that it is much more advantageous to remain follower and pursue the me too strategy rather than being the market leader. The strategy to remain market follower is believed to be effective because the

Wednesday, 24 April 2019

Consideration - Pre-existing Duties and Part Payment of Debts Essay

Consideration - Pre-existing Duties and Part Payment of Debts - Essay sampleThe facts of the case were that a borrower, Cole, owed Pinnel the lender the equivalent of 8.50 8-10s-0d which was to be re remunerative on 11 November. At the lenders request, the borrower paid 5.11 5-2s-2d on 1 October, which the lender claimed to accept in broad(a) resoluteness of the debt. The lender then successfully sued the borrower for the outstanding amount. The House of Lords held that since no consideration was exchanged to enforce the bid of the lender to accept part-payment of a debt on the due date from the borrower, then the lender could pursue full payment of the debt at a later date. This remains the general rule at common law. However, in Pinnels Case, it was also express that the agreement to accept part payment would have bound the lender if fresh consideration had been provided to express accord and satisfaction. This might be The facts of the case were that a borrower, Cole, owed Pinnel the lender the equivalent of 8.50 which was to be repaid on 11 November. At the lenders request, the borrower paid 5.11 5-2s-2d on 1 October, which the lender claimed to accept in full settlement of the debt. The lender then successfully sued the borrower for the outstanding amount. The House of Lords held that since no consideration was exchanged to enforce the promise of the lender to accept part-payment of a debt on the due date from the borrower, then the lender could pursue full payment of the debt at a later date.

Tuesday, 23 April 2019

Romanticism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 1

Romanticism - Essay ExampleRomanticism influenced unison and literature, as well as visual art (Tekiner 60). For instance, the Sturm und Drang movement of Germany that exited from the late 1760s to the early 1780s was brinyly minor-key melodious and revenge-influenced literary, which caused a handful of image artists painting horrifying scenes (Tekiner 60). For a proper case, there is the Nightmare by Henry Fuseli that was painted in 1781. Some artists were into these movements until their relevant ends, whereas others maintained elements of Romanticism as they shifted to new directions (Tekiner 60).The main themes in romanticism included democracy, revolution and republicanism, transcendence and the sublime, the influence of imagination, the source of inspiration and genius, extreme genial states and proto-psychology and finally the natural and nature (Tekiner 79). Radical Romantic-age politics were overly optimistic concerning human beings nature, always reason out that human b eings are vitally good and their vices are raised through poor education. Republican and representative movements always advocated for mass education and equal wages as a way of freeing the human heart, as well as the mind from ignorance and poverty and the ills and vices, which materialize from these evils (Tekiner

Monday, 22 April 2019

A report on application of technology in Operations Management Essay

A written report on application of technology in Operations Management - Essay ExampleThis forms the revenue-generating function of some(prenominal) business and thus based on five critical strategies such(prenominal) as speed, flexibility, dependability, quality and cost. completely operations activities are carried out based on these strategies. In order to continuously enhance forcefulness of these strategies, various technology swear outs are employed in operations precaution through ripe(p) reading technology and information service (IT/IS) systems. This report evaluates application of IT/IS in various operations activities and their sham on its core strategies. 2. Operations management and strategic objectives The entire operations/production process is set up using resources such as money, raw material, equipment, manpower and finance. These inputs are processed in specific room through a sequence of preplanned activities in order to produce desired outputs, which can be in the form of completed stops, products, chemicals, service to customers, completed paperwork and so on Operations strategy controls the strategic position of the firm, and is line up to the overall corporate strategy. This alignment is to ensure all policies and plans reinforce organizational effectiveness and aid in optimum production of goods and services. For example, Toyotas operations strategy includes designing, assembling and marketing the finished products, but procures the dwell from other suppliers (Feist et al, 1999). This strategy is aligned to its corporate strategy of producing defect-free products, in less time and occupy largest market share. In general, operations strategy involves decisions related to design of the process of production or service providing as well as facilities and/or infrastructure needed to support the process. To achieve such tough and alter objectives, organizations make optimum usage of advanced information and technological se rvices. The IT services form a part of their tactical planning approaches, which also include capital, human resources, technology, facilities staffing and scheduling methodologies to achieve target productions sales and service operations inventory management of supplies and delivered goods etc. In addition, short-term operations planning activities such as capacity, quality control, inventory, manpower etc also require IT services for effective operations. 3. Practical applications of IT for objective achievement The terzetto major components of corporate strategy in any business include operations effectiveness, customer management and production process and innovation (Chase 2006). Information Technology (IT) provides strong platform to convert, store, protect, process, transfer and recover information related to operations, customer and production processes. IT and its systems are used in all operations management processes such as capacity planning, inventory control and mana gement, quality control, human resources management, etc. All business processes such as taking orders from customers, handling returns, manufacturing, marketing, delivery of end products also require IT systems. IT finds effective application in all customer management activities such as evaluation of customer feedback, customer satisfaction, customer expectations etc. Application of IT for innovation in operations and production management is mainly through research and victimization activities. According to Slack et al. (2004) the main objectives of operations manage

Mgt checkpoint 3 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Mgt checkpoint 3 - Essay ExampleThe article also considers the force-out professionals to be responsible for managing substance abuse in the work place. This include offering guidance and way to people affected by substance abuse. Employees are able to perform and meet their expectations if they are unload from destructive habits. Most employees get involved in substance abuse due to work connect issue such as stress. Personnel professional such as supervisors are charged with the obligation of ensuring that employees within an organization perform to their expectations. Supervisors are therefore responsible for ensuring that employees within their organization lead a life that is free from substance abuse.Supervisors within an organization face issue of diversity in their free-and-easy responsibilities. Substance abuse is common factor that contribute to the diversity of employees within an organization. Supervisors mint use information contained in Smits and Pace article to formulate policies for the management of substance abuse in their workplace. The information can also be used to articulate workers such that they avoid getting involved in medicate abuse. This will greatly help the organization to meet its

Sunday, 21 April 2019

The impact of the anti-immigration laws that have been introduced by Research Paper

The impact of the anti-in-migration laws that down been introduced by azimuth and the participation of Hispanics in the U.S. political schema - Research Paper ExampleThe immigration issue has been taking the spotlight in recent decades in America. It has been a lingering concern for Americans who are starting to question the long-held mantra that the get together States is the land of almost endless opportunities. There is a developing fear among the citizenry that such limitless opportunities are no continuing the case today or that they no longer are as easy as they were in the past. The US government has actually wavered in terms of addressing the issue head-on. For instance from 1960 to 1970, a major immigration policy reform was enacted with the amendments to the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 and afterwards, many thought that it was enough. No significant immigration policy was introduced well until the 1990s. Recent developments, however, are significantly pu tting pressure on immigration policymaking. The US is considered to have the grittyest immigration rates globally and that more than a million people legally immigrate to the rural area annually, leading foreign-born citizens to constitute 13 percent of the entire American population. (Bardes, Shelley and Schmidt 2008, p. 482) This figure excludes the immigrants that cross the US border illegally. The former American Ambassador to Mexico, Jeffrey Davidow (2007) summed up the prevailing sentiment While race race-baiting and ruby anti-immigrant sentiment had largely disappeared from the American political vernacular, there was a nagging anxiety about the growing number of foreigners in the United States. Americans were asking, Where did all these people come from? (11) With the current protracted economic downturn, the high and constant flux of the inflation rate, the governments accumulating debt and cypher deficits, as well as the high number of personal credit line losses, the public is increasely fearful that immigrants would take away jobs that should have been taken by Americans in the inaugural place. Surveys conducted from 1960s until today demonstrate the increasing concern of Americans for immigration (Simcox 1997, 129) It is in this respect that the strict anti-immigration policy was enacted by the state of Arizona. This paper will examine the laws enacted by the state against immigration and its impact, particularly in the participation of Hispanics in the American electoral process. Background The Arizona Anti-Immigration Laws Prior to the enactment of the series of Arizona anti-immigration laws, two significant immigration statutes were enacted in the US the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA) and the felonious Immigration Reform and Responsibility Act (IIRIRA). Both of these legislations aim to manage immigration with the former rivet on permanent immigrants instead of the temporary entry in order to check the flow of unregis tered migrants while the latter, enhancing the existing law and including the permission for the Immigration and Naturalization Services (INS) authorization to bar reentry to the United States if an alien overstayed his/her visa deadline for departure (Adams 56). Many were not satisfied with the results of these measures. To borrow Adams words The spirit and simulation of both the 1986 and 1996 immigration laws failed to address the grassroots flow of aliens at the source the official government billet and immigration policy avoidance by Mexico. In spite of the fact that from 1994 to 2001 (pre-9/11) the annual U.S. border enforcement budget of the INS and the Border Patrol nearly tripled to over $2.5 billion, the immigrant flow continued nearly unchecked (56). A earnest part of the years after, a growing debate emerged as to how to best address the issue. In 2004, as part of the increasing impact of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attack in New York, immigration policy took an increasing relationship to terrorism and border security. For example, the United States Visitor Immigration Status

Saturday, 20 April 2019

EBusiness Company Comparisons Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

EBusiness Company Comparisons - Assignment practice sessionCommissions atomic number 18 also earned when users visit company sites, advertise their products, or post the link of the company. The customer base of these companies lies between 10 and 80 million people. Therefore, a sales revenue business poser for these companies therefore, can result in great profits (Rappa, 2010).Yahoo This Company uses portal advertising model. It offers products that guinea pig customer-specific needs. This is through the complex Customer Relationship Management (CRM), where the company gathers important legal and behavioural knowledge of its customers (Rappa, 2010). According to Cusumano (2004) for software business, the key aspect of its business model is understanding specific customer needs.Google This is a search engine, and adopts the Advertising Model. It utilizes Content-Targeted Advertising, where advertisements relate to the content of a web page. It also uses the Query-based paid pl acement. For instance, when searching for terms, the advertisements that are paid for will show up (Rappa, 2010). Mayer (2006) notes that Google aims at acquiring many users and retaining them through developing the products they need. brotherly media has changed how companies conduct marketing and advertising. In future, there will be increased participation of customers and information communion on company products. Customers will also highly influence the nature of company products.The use of dapple computing has resulted in low costs for online companies, especially those costs that are related to suppliers. This thus leads to bring down prices for customers. In future, more use of cloud computing will abate the financial challenges experienced by these

Friday, 19 April 2019

Concept of Loyalty Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Concept of faithfulness - Essay Example faithfulness is the exhibition of characteristics of commitment and devotion in order to strengthen a blood line or private relationship. The concept of loyalty has its roots in all fields of life. A loyal person determine the importance of faithfulness and dedication in carrying out daily activities of life. Loyalty always has a eminent appraisal value whether a person proves it to a person or to the organization for which he or she works. If we talk about loyalty in personal relationships, it is a fact that loyalty helps the people winding in a relationship build trust, faith, and confidence in each other. Whereas, in case of business relationships, loyalty plays its considerable role in strengthening the business terms between the involved parties. Loyalty not only shows its value in personal or business relationships but also it plays a critical role in the success of an organization or a business firm. The concept of loyalty is appl icable to the employees as well (Green). Loyal employees and loyal customers make a firm grow and reach reasonable market share. Employee loyalty is integral for the success of a business. Employees efforts, devotion, and dedication to their job responsibilities make a company reach a good position in the market and if the employees of a company leave behind not be loyal to their company, the company will not be able to prove its outlay in the market. It is true that a loyal employee is a key towards a companys success.

Thursday, 18 April 2019

Human Resource Management Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Human Resource Management - Assignment ExampleAccording to Russell and Taylor (2006, p. 324), Managing diversity is the process of creating and a work environment in which all employees can contribute to their full potential in clubhouse to achieve a companys goals.Diversity management is said to have originated in the get together States with the Civil Rights Act, 1964 promoting adapted employment opportunities (Mor-Barak, 2005). Realization of importance of diversity management through policies and legislation is a more recent affair in most of the countries. The main prerequisites of diversity management are equal rights legislation and affirmative/positive action policies in order to create social, legal and organisational environment conducive for diversity management (Mor-Barak, 2005 Russell & Taylor, 2006).Exemplified by IKEA in true sense, this concept reflects in their vision, To create a give away everyday life the many people. And, these people include employees, custo mer, as well as the community (Regani, 2008 p.707). mingled initiatives supporting life balance and diversity were incorporated into the human resource management practices and were customized according to the call for of its employees and the organisation. For example, flexibility as one initiative was adopted in allowing employees to choose their holiday schedule against the traditionalistic standard holidays for all employees. Secondly, the initiative, Paddle Your Own Canoe, was employed as an employee self-assessment tool that helped the employees, with assistance from managers, to decide what harming of personal development and skills were required for them to perform well or grow to the next level. These efforts were meant to reinforce employee motivating and morale through managements decisions and practices.Kosek and Lobels model (1996) of diversity management approach employs diversity enlargement, diversity sensitivity, ethnical audit and strategies for achieving orga nisational outcomes provide a

Wednesday, 17 April 2019

With reference to relevant academic and trade sources, explain the Essay

With acknowledgment to relevant academic and trade sources, explain the provision of your topic within your chosen destination and intimate how it may develop in the future - Essay Exampleilm induced touristry is not new, it is clean that it wasnt predicted in the beginning, the movie business was supposed to be well-nigh arts and not financial gains for the tourism industry. However it has changed the ov geological erall film take business. There is sufficient evidence present that shows by word-painting a place in an attractive fashion tourists and visitors would flock to that place. They might have heard about the place before, but seeing it in a movie and especially in the context of the plot, it leaves a unique impact on the audience. This is a form of subliminal advertisement.Since 1935, movies have changed how they impact the audiences. Mutiny on the Bounty (1935) was the first movie that attracted huge number of visitors to the location of the shooting (Roesch, 2009, p. 8), and Tahini turned into a study tourist location only because the film was shot there. By the filming of great masterpieces such as Lawrence of Arabia (1962), Bridge on the River Kwai (1958) and The Sound of Music (1965), their respective locations have turned them into Makkah for tourists.The great wad in tourist influx because of Hollywood movies did not come until the release of the blockbuster Jaws (1975). This movie proven that movies can be a marketable commodity, an attraction to lure tourists in to visit the locations shown in the movie. The era of the 70s is also marked by the expansion seen in the Hollywood world by the emergence of production companies like the Walt Disney, Time Warner, and Bertelsmann. These production giants were not only confined to making movies, they started investing in subject field parks and other tourist attractions. They realized how the success of the movie can contribute to business of tourism. shortly the movies were not only about fil m production, many factors started going into the production and the eventual outcome of the movie. For precedent a movie might not do very good on the box delegacy (the movie Godzilla is an excellent example of this)

Tuesday, 16 April 2019

Rosalind Franklin Essay Example for Free

Rosalind Franklin EssayWhen Watson came calling in January 1953, Wilkins revealed he had been quietly coping Franklins data. When Watson saw i of the photos, his mouth fell open. Ultimately, trial and error elevated a working model of DNA, but the information they utilize was based on Franklins data. It was March 7, 1953 that Cricke announced to the patrons of a local pub, that he and his confrere had found the mystic of life. (Parshall, 173) Soon after, the results were published into an article in Nature, along with a supporting article from Franklin. (Maisel, 1)Rosalind Franklin continued her previous(prenominal) work. She collaborated on studies of the structure of the tobacco Mosaic Virus and in any case helped determine that RNA is a single-stranded helical molecule. (Sayre, 1) While on a visit to the United States later in life, she experienced episodes of disorder in her abdomen. In the autumn of 1956, she learned she had ovarian cancer. Franklin continued her r esearch up until only a few weeks before her death on April 16, 1958 at the age of 37. (Sayre, 1) The Nobel Prize was awarded to Watson and Cricke, in 1962.Rosalind Franklin never authoritative credit for the work she had accomplished with the structure of DNA. This prestigious award it can non be given to the dead. Ironically Wilkins was also awarded for his collaboration with Watson and Cricke. The Nobel Committee credited him with Franklins stellar work as well as his own. (Parshell, 74) In Cricks view, If Franklin had lived, it would hit been impossible to give the prize to Maurice and not to her, because she did the key experimental work. (Write, 172) Even though Rosalind Franklin is no yearner alive, research continues due to her previous work.If the structure of DNA had not been ascertained, biotechnology would not be where it is to daylight. By 1952 it was known the DNA had an exclusive role, as the substance capable of storing all the information needed to stool a livi ng being. It is considered to be the handsome crimp between the living and the nonliving. Watson went on to teach at Harvard and eventually headed the National Institutes of Healths Human Genome project. This Project was begun with the intention of mapping out every gene in a human, and eventually learn their functions. This is where the field of bioethics is introduced.Many beneficial things whitethorn result from this knowledge. For example, with this information we may be able to cure many diseases and birth defects. Studying how the DNA is altered to cause these conditions forget help scientist develop what is necessary to prevent these things. This project was recently completed which caused the public to question where the line must be drawn. With this new information, a couple may be able to pre-select the gender of their pander or maybe even certain traits. The new question is, When has science gone too furthermost? Even though the mapping of the human genome may bring enormous benefits, it can be put on that someone will want to abuse this new knowledge. As always we must accept the correct with the bad. Discovering the structure of DNA and thus how it is able to replicate has also made cloning possible. This was demonstrated with the sheep named Dolly. It was cloned victimization DNA extracted from an adult sheep and inserted into an unfertilized egg. This process could be very beneficial in the future. We may be able to keep certain species from becoming extinct. As with any other situation, there is also a negative side.What if people want to clone themselves? (As pictured in the movie Multiplicity) There is a fine line between what is ethical and can be allowed and what cannot. For example, it would be unethical for people to continue to clone themselves in an effort to elude death. (Assuming this would be possible. ) Would it be unethical the clone in order to produce needed tissues or a certain blood type? Without Rosalind Franklins work , this information would not have been discovered for at least several years until the technology caught up with the project.It is because of her work that we may one day be able to cure birth defects, cancer, or other genetically related diseases. Unfortunately she has not received the recognition she deserves for her contributions to the scientific field. She spent most of her short-lived life working in the lab and most biology classes do not attribute any of her hard work to her. She has greatly wedged the world and everyones future. Stephanie Luchenfield 1. Were there any voices of the Paper that need to be more clearly explained? (ie scientific terms)?I am familiar with scientific terms so I understood what you were lecture about. 2. Did it adequately explain why she was such an important person in history? Yes 3. Was it easy to follow? I found a lot of it hard to follow mainly because there were some parts that felt up like I was reading a textbook. 4. What was your favor ite part of the paper? I liked the part when you really explain the cloning process on regular terms by related what you were talking about with the sheep and the movie. . It was also where she crossed paths with Maurice Wilkins. (maire, 1).

Monday, 15 April 2019

Organizational Structure Essay Example for Free

organisational mental synthesis EssayAn formational grammatical construction is a composition that specifies a companys hierarchical anatomical structure. There are assorted kinds of conformations that makeups can choose to build their stage business around. The organisational structure exemplifies the way in which supremacy and business affairs harbor been appointed within the organization. Organizational structure encompasses the design of an organization though masses positioning and responsibilities in order for organizational goals can be reached. Some of the time, a formal structure is not necessary due to a small informal business setting. In large organization responsibilities must be distributed. Hence, the reason that policies and procedures are established that assign responsibilities for numerous positions. The determination of these organizational functions ( such(prenominal) as marketing, finance, human resources, and trading operations) influence and d etermine the organizational structure of your an organization. The triple main types of organizational structures are utilitarian structure, instalmental structure, and intercellular substance structure.Divisional StructureThe structure that an organization is based around also is depending on(p) on the enormity of the company. Divisional structure separates the faculty based on the commodity and client look at verses geographical location. For example, each area within the organization is accountable for reliable divisions. separately division has man-to-man support systems such as finance department, marketing department, warehouse department, and maintenance department. Divisional structure is grants flexibleness and is a decentralized structure. Divisional structure also grants quick adaptability to geographical changes. Divisional structure embellishes advancements in the market and industry and allows for various plans of action. However, this structure causes replic ation of resources due to each unit having the necessity of all(prenominal) resource.PepsiCos Organizational DesignAn example of an organization design around divisional structure is PepsiCo. PepsiCo is a flexible company that is constantly looking for new innovations and consistently adapts to the geographical market. PepsiCo has a decentralized organizational structure. The functional determinations are made in individual units with corporate control and direction. PepsiCo has i CEO and three division presidents. The companys hierarchical structure continues as each division is broken down into market units. Each market unit has a director. Furthermore each market unit is divided into regional units, indeed down the chain to sales units. Each unit has its own resources, such as marketing, finance, human resources, and operations departments. PepsiCo determines responsibilities by departmentalization.Departmentalization is a conglomeration of common duties and characterization o f tasks. The influences of departmentalization are function, product, geographic, process and customer. PepsiCo maintains a span of control by making sure of correct distribution of responsibility among employees and task obligations are accounted for. For example, units are tasked with weekly, monthly, quarterly, and annual forecast for sales, operations, overhead, and labor. Reports are sent weekly to account for these actions. Human resources departments are in each division to go steady control over the organization. There are guidelines and procedures in place to ensure the rules are organism followed across the globe. Formalization sets the standard for the administered responsibility.Each unit at PepsiCo has management teams in place to ensure control of task performances. For example, a if a location has been tasked with a 1,000 case distribution for week one in the period and the sales teams are severely falling short on sales, management testament step in to centralize the issue, reiterate the method of actions, and ensure the actions are conducted in a certain manner to achieve results. PepsiCo is multinational organization made up of three units which are PepsiCo the Statess Foods, PepsiCo Americas Beverages and PepsiCo International. This structure allows the organization to focus on manifesting international markets, which allow for grant independence revenues, enabling focus on founder product advancement. The organization is spread across the globe. However, the control is local, unlike a matrix structure that is set(p) only in a single area (PepsiCo 2012).Matrix StructureA matrix structure formalizes line teams as well as the typical divisional hierarchy. The matrix structure is a crown of thorns between the functional and divisional structure, effectively creating independent business units for each product or gain created or each unique market targeted.The matrix-structured organization is a project-based business that divides individ ual groups based on functional specializations. Variation of the matrix structure divides the authority by both functional and project areas. The functional manager heads up the functional areas of the organization. The project supervisor oversees the assigned project. This allows for management to focus on areas of proficiency. Companies such as superior general Motors has based its organization around the matrix structure due to the ability to secernate in specific areas, and organizational communication through other fields.General Motors believes the differentiation of ideas creates innovational determinations. The matrix structure also allows the human resources department to be shared throughout the organization. General Motors is made up of one main chief information officer (CIO) and several divisional CIOs that control the functionalities in the organization. General Motors also has process information officers that work in various areas of expertise across the organizati on. General Motors believes the matrix structure develops global commercialism (Daft 2007).operative StructureFunctional Structured organizations group tasks according to the target. Functional structured organizations work well for organizations that have a need for departments to rely on expertise of its faculty. A major disadvantage to a functional structured organization is the communication boundaries due to variation in departments that work individually. One company that a functional structure works well is Wal-Mart. Wal-Mart is one of Americas largest retailers. Wal-Mart is designed by a functional structure. Wal-Marts target market is a consumer with medial incomes. Wal-Mart has a limited amount of functions in specialized areas with in the organization.Wal-Mart does not produce its goods, but has tolerable buying power to supply the demanded products. The organizational structure and large size enables the buying power to bribe goods at low prices. This buying power ena bles Wal-Mart to offer its target market lower prices creating a war-ridden edge over other retailers. A functional structured organization such as Wal-Mart have a chief executive officer, limited executive staff, and department heads in domineering areas of expertise such as accounting, marketing, human resources and warehouse. Wal-Marts headquarters and executive staff is made up of a oldtimer of Executive Officer, Chairman of the Board and Board of Directors, with supporting committees.ConclusionDetermining an organizations structural design that will be the most effective for a specific company has great significance on organizational success. Using an unsuitable design structure can be consequential in communication, product development, customer service, and countless situations of other organizational issues. Organizational structure can determine the successful outcome of the organization. fibreBateman, T. S., Snell, S. A. (2011). Management Leading Collaborating in a Co mpetitive World (ninth ed.). New York, NY McGrall Hill. Retrieved May 7, 2012(2012). PepsiCo. Retrieved May 7, 2012, from www.pepsico.comDaft, Richard (2007). Organizational Theory and Design (ninth ed.). Manson, OH Thompson Higher Education. Retrieved May 7, 2012.

Look Before You Leap Essay Example for Free

port forward You Leap EssayAristotle is praised for naming fortitude, First of the cardinal virtues as that without which no other virtue john steadily be practiced but he might, with equal propriety have placed discretion and justice before it. Since without prudence fortitude is mad without justice it is dangerous. Only a fool or a suicide will jump into a river without making sure about the depths, eddies and whirlpools. And even thither no one tests the depth of a river with both feet. pointlessness has been unhappy p bent of misfortune. Once in a blue moon it might bring us luck but more a good deal than not it is fraught with dangerous consequences. The Persian sovereign Xerxes, rashly enough, ordered an expedition to conquer Greece. With a wave of the hand he dismissed all pitfalls and dangers. When the trial of strength came the armies of Xerxes were dashed to smithitherens and the crestfallen monarch escaped in a solitary boat, forlorn and humiliated. Those who act first think afterwards are bound to repent forever. History is replete with such instances.Napoleon, otherwise calculating and sagacious warrior in a rash and proud moment gave signal for an invasion of Russia. He had counted without the terrible winter of that country. His armies were bogged down in the snows. The flower his army, the Iron Guards, perished and the loss became the prelude Napoleons utter downfall. History repeated itself. In the Second human race War, Hitler drunk power and pride turned his guns towards Russia, in spite of the Non- aggression Pact which he had solemnly signed.He also met disaster paid the price for his rash decision. True statesmanship lies in mentation hundred times before deciding on any course of action. A situation is assessed in all its potentialities and possibilities. Though you would like to beat the dog, you have to consider the masters face as well. Look before you leap, sums up the wisdom born out of experience. In ordinary situations the proverb holds. But there are moments crises or emergency when boldness or even rashness whitethorn be preferable cool calculation.In earthquakes, famines, floods and national calamities a person should act at once without caring for the consequences. In trying to avoid rashness one might go to other perfect of indecision and sloth. A bachelor, said a humorist, is one who looks before he leaps then never leaps. Rashness is any time better than sloth. But the right course is quickness guided by prudence. flush and rashness are storms and tempests breaking and wrecking business but nimbleness is a fair wind, blowing it with quicken to the haven.

Saturday, 13 April 2019

“Examine the reasons for changes in the patterns of marriage, divorce and cohabitation over the past 40 years.” Essay Example for Free

Examine the reasons for changes in the patterns of jointure, disassociate and cohabitation over the past 40 years. EssayThe patterns of marriage, divorce and cohabitation over the past 40 years has varied quite significantly. In 1972, the highest always add up of couples (480,000) since the Second World War got conjoin. Now, obviously there is a reason for this. check to the single-valued function for National Statistics (ONS), this was due to the baby boom generation of the 1950s reaching marriageable age and these volume choosing to hook up with at a younger age comp bed with previous generations.However, after this period, the number of marriages in England and Wales then went into decline. Most recently, marriages reached an all-time unkept in 2005 when just now 244,710 couples got married. Some plenty would say that it reached so low because people are rejecting marriage and are no drawn-out bothered about it. But in fact, statistics reveal that many people are actually delaying marriage. It is said that most people will marry at some point in their broods, but people are deciding to marry ulterior in living, most identically after a period of cohabitation.A reason for this is probably because couples trust to Test the water before they make any commit workforcets. Evidence to support the marrying later in life view is that the average age for first-time bridges in 2003 was 29 years and for all grooms 31 years, compared with 22 for women and 24 for men in 1971. In activateicular women may want to delay marriage so they can advance their career prospects. As healthful as a decline in the rack up number of marriages, there is also a decline in marriage appreciates (the number of people marrying per 1000 of the population aged 16 and over). In 1994, the marriage rate was 11.4 but this had declined to 10.3 by 2004.The male rate declined from 36.3 in 1994 to 27.8 in 2004 whilst the female rate declined from 30.6 to 24.6. Once again, e ven though there is a decline, British Social Attitude Surveys indicate that most people, whether single, divorced or cohabitating, still see marriage as a desirable life-goal, and therefore will most likely will get married at some point in the future, particularly if they are having children, because they believe that this is best d ace in the context of marriage.Another change in the patterns of marriage is that two fifths of all marriages are remarriages, in which one or both partners deplete been divorced. These people are obviously committed to the institution of marriage scorn their previous negative experience of it. The reason for this foreshorten could possibly because their first marriages were empty-shell marriages.This is where there is no delight in or intimacy between them, but the marriage persists for the sake of the children until they are old enough. They then capability have wanted to start a new life, including a re-marriage. Despite the decrease in the bo ilers suit number of people marrying, married couples are still the main type of partnership for men and women in the UK. In 2005, seven in ten families were headed by a married couple.In terms of break the legal ending of a marriage, this has increased rapidly since 1969 due to a piece of legislation that grant divorce on the basis of irretrievable break surmount the Divorce Reform Act of 1969. In addition, since 1984, couples have been able to petition for divorce after the first anniversary of their marriage.This law made the Divorce rate shoot high because it generally made it easier and cheaper to end marriages. In addition, people were finally able to legally to end all connections, as previously when divorce was either too expensive or severe to obtain, separation was very common, which was when a couple decided to live away from each other.To go into more(prenominal) detail of the turn out of increased divorces, in 1993, the number of divorces peaked at 180,000. By 20 00, this figure had fall to 154,000, although the years 2001 2004 have seen a gradual rise to 167,100. There are now nearly one-half as many divorces as marriages and, if present trends continue, about 40% of current marriages will end in divorce.An acceptable reason for this increasing trend of divorce is that it is no longer associated with stigma and shame. Britains purification is based upon Christian religion, and Christians believe that marriage is for life (till death do us part). However, over years, changes in attitudes and secularisation have emerged, and the view that divorce can lead to greater gaiety for the individual is more acceptable.A thirdly reason which could explain the increasing divorce rates is down to women wanting to improve educational and career opportunities. In 1870, the Education Act passed by Gladstones government meant that every child between the ages of five and fifteen had the opportunity for elementary education.Not only did this produce a la rge literate generation of people, but it also improved the girls reading and compose ability, which previously was much lower than boys. Now, women have their own stable careers with a good wage, and thus do not have to be unhappily married because they are financially dependent on their husband. Feminists let down that womens expectations of marriage have radically changed, compared with previous generations. In the 1990s, most divorce petitions were put fore by women.This may support Thornes and Collards (1979) view that women expect far more from marriage than men and, in particular, that they value friendship and emotional gratification more than then do. If husbands fail to love up to these expectations, women may feel the need to look elsewhere. This would also support the fact that, on average, the number of divorce proceedings started by women is about 70%. Finally, functionalist sociologists argue that high divorce rates are endorse that marriage is increasingly valued and that people are demanding higher standards from their partners.They believe that couples are no longer prepared to put up with unhappy, empty-shell marriages, as people want emotional and sexual compatibility and equality, as well as companionship. It is said that some are even willing to go through a number of partners to achieve these goals, and if they marry every time they meet a new partner, then obviously they are going to contribute a lot more to the rising divorce rates.The final area of the versatile family is cohabitation. The basic trend of cohabitation is that it is on the increase and has been for the last decade. The proportion of non-married people cohabiting has risen sharply in the last 20 years from 11% of men and 13% of women in 1986 to 24% and 25% respectively. In 2007, the Office for National Statistics (ONS) suggested that cohabiting couples are the fastest growing family type in the UK. In fact, around 2.2 one million million families are cohabiting cou ples with or without children.This family type has grown by 65% since 1997, and really, the numbers are likely to be higher than this because the ONS data did not include same-sex couples living together. In addition, the ONS data suggested that a third of teenagers in 2007 were destined to cohabit rather than marry, compared with one in ten of their grandparents. As we gathered that the general trend is on the increase, its good to know the reasons why.One of the first reasons, which I mentioned earlier on, is that people like to cohabit to test the water. During this period, they will assess whether they (the couple) are compatible with each other and whether they will be able to live with each other before making any sort of commitments. After all, cohabitation on average lasts for 5 years, which then 60% of cohabitees will then marry.Another reason for the said trend is that there are a significant number of people who live together whilst waiting for a divorce. For example, in 2005, 23% of cohabiting men were separated from a pervious partner whilst 36% were divorced. So although a person may be married, they may have separated and moved into another house to live with a person they have met. They will then be counted as a cohabitee. A third reason for the increased rate of cohabitation could be because people are put off the cost of marriage.According to Wedding Guide UK, the average cost of a traditional wedding in the UK is around 11,000. In addition to the price, some people are also put off because of the religious ceremony of marriage. This is because overtime we have become a more secular society. Both of these factors to some people will finish them from marrying, because in their eyes they see it as long as they are with each other in a happy and loving relationship, they dont need a ring or a piece of paper with their names on it.

Friday, 12 April 2019

Consumers Markets and Culture Essay Example for Free

Consumers Markets and glossiness shewComp are and contrast the changing experiences of consumers from the year 1900 until present day. How do the theories of Marx, Durkheim and weber help to explain the changing consumer experience and the emergence of contemporary consumer high purchase order?Until the eighteenth century the word consumption meant waste (Williams, 1976)As consumers our experience of consumption today is exponentially different from that at the turn of the twentieth century in the recently urbanised and industrialised modern nation. Consumer culture is traditionally described in terms of the arrival of fate consumption as a counterpart to chew production as a leave of the Fordist system (Miles, S). Choice is one of the biggest factors of the changing experience for consumers, during the 1950s after the austerity years the at a time aging baby boomers were part of large scale changes to consumption patterns.For example as women began to enter the hit place passing less time to run the home, products were being developed to ease the burden of housework, rinse machines, fridges and vacuum cleaners were among these products the forever-growing use of hire purchase to enable consumers to afford these luxury products, combined with Fordist manners of mass production reducing the manufacturing price of the products leaveed the economy to grow strong once again. As video recording grew in popularity advertize was increasely utilised by businesses to sell their products creating a far more impersonal purlieu while shopping for products. From this time the standard of living has been increasing up until present day (The Economist, 2008) with the aspirations of clubhouse increasing further still.Marx presents his theories as a materialist understanding of society, explaining capitalism as an unequal system establish on the exploitation of the rase class (Abercrombie N et al, 2006), a system based on redundancy take account be ing extracted, the capitalists entire aim is to maximise the gap between repute produced and value paid for (Slater D, 1997). Which a hundred yearsago meant using Fordist methods of production to bring round off costs and reducing the skill required of workers which in turn reduced the compensation required for workers. The Fordist method of production first seen around 1911 (Cohen and Kennedy, 2007), Alienated workers from the act of production. In his system of Alienation Marx describes human total as being realised by labour (Abercrombie et al, 2006) and working as an alien activity that offers no inalienable satisfaction as the worker has no control over what is produced this way out of ownership and loss of control over the workers own life due(p) to man daysment organising and enforcing the labour.Where during the early twentieth our working classes were exploit and Alienated, now capitalists in the quest towards decreasing wages and widening the gap between value p roduced and value paid for are increasing looking to less economically developed countries where costs of production, epically workers are lots lower. The counties known as BRIC economic group (Brazil, Russia, India and China). By indiscriminately consuming as a society, this encourages the elabo appraiseness of exploitation of foreign working classes. Bauman proposes post-industrial societies are governed by aesthetics of consumption rather than ethics of production (Cohen Kennedy, 2007). Organisations such as Apple, Nike and similarly Primark are guilty of this system, the former both retailing premium priced products produced at the lowest cost possible cost, by attaching symbolic inwardness to the products.Primark produces clothes at the lowest cost possible which are retailed for the lowest cost possible consumers buy into this system with no feelings of guilt, as these products allow consumers to display possessions acting as amicable glue possibly due in part to the incr easing Alienation of workers as society is increasingly detached from production with the service based economy we savour today. Durkheims concept of Anomie is similar to Alienation, discussing Anomic suicide due to slew no intentional how they fit in with society where possessions are used as social glue allowing consumers to display their beliefs and social groups. It is harder to relate Marxs definitions of the class system as the proximity to production is becoming increasingly removed(p) for most of society.Every capitalist is trying to decrease the wages and consumption of their own workers and entice everyone elses workers to consume to their limit andbeyond. (Slater, D 1997)Marxism, as other modern economic theories believe, that the production and consumption of products is intrinsically connected, in the sense that incomes from production and consumer buying power are two sides of the same coin. (Slater, D 1997). This theory is particularly relevant now due to the cur rent economic climate. As the recession began in 2008 more workers lost their jobs or suffered significant cuts in wages this resulted in a widespread reduction in consumer spending as a result society ended up a cycle of ever decreasing demand where the government had to intervene to stimulate spending. Of the stimulus the VAT reduction had an impact by reducing the cost of products, to reduce ever growing back up of cars as they still needed to be produced to keep the workers in employment the car scrapage scheme was introduced temporarily (Lloyds, 2009). In this scheme two thousand pounds was offered if a old car was scrapped in exchange for a new car.Capitalists driven to mass production, not by greed but conditions of capitalism (Edwards T, 2000), if not competing, competitors will capture markets done lower prices. This practice discussed by Marx leads to situations like the above were supply far exceeds demand. A good example of over production can be found by searching for any random product on a supplier listings website, Alibaba.com have over 64,979 different belt buckles available. Durkheim predicted that modern industrial societies would over-emphasise the importance of personal identity which would erode social stability and solidarity (Schmidt, R 2010), consumers are sold their own individuality through advertising campaigns a some examples are Dells Yours is here, My Yahoo. Products are increasingly customisable, mobile audio cases are a hugely popular consumer item. Durkheim argues that people can only be happy when their wants are proportionate to their means.Left to themselves, human desires are boundless together with necessarily limited recourses, creates great sadness or ultimately suicide (Abercrombie et al 2006). Society controls the problem of unattainable goals by restricting desires through values aimed at permitting only goals which have some chance of attainment. The X-Factor is currently the most popular television program ( Plunkett, J 2010) as dreams of mostly unattainable goals are being realised for a halcyon number of consumers. Thisis a stark contrast to the 1940s where society was based around family values, working together to repair Britain where jobs were expected for life. Anomie describes the situation when this framework breaks down, goals again outrun means and suicide rate rises (Abercrombie et al 2006). Weber predicted that society would experience unprecedented inner retirement of the single individual (Cohen Kennedy, 2007), this is a very accurate description of the contemporary experience, more than ever consumers are looking to the symbolic meaning of products to identify with their desired social groups and status.Social media is an interesting way to examine the inner loneliness experienced, taking facebook where consumers might have several hundred friends who are merely acquaintances, with few solid friendships, while thither is pressure to appear to have acquired huge number s of friends on social networks. To explore further into the loneliness of individuals, one in three households now have equitable one member compared with one in five in the 1970s (BBC, 2004) this is known as the meal for one society, more than half the meals eaten in the UK are now eaten alone. Traditional family unit is also becoming less common, with predictions indicating that in 2011 more than cardinal percent of marriages will end in divorce (BBC, 2004). Weber discuses formal rationalisation of society as it becomes more industrialised and that this rationality is inevitable, the greater calculability required for rationalisation has affected greatly the consumer experience (Cohen Kennedy, 2007), consumers moreover for the wealthy classes, have an impersonal consumption experience.Self service check outs are a perfect tense example of this, once a shop keeper in the local store, would ring through and looker up your products now in the national and often multinational store, consumers ring through and bag up their own shopping. The systematic measured approach to contemporary life has created a predictable almost emotionless society, the consumption of university is a relevant example to the author, students are recognised by their identification number only, few if any university staff will know students names, no individuality between the students leaving students to display their temper and attachments through the conspicuous consumption of goods with symbolic meaning. Whereas the baby boomers will remember university involving debates with kind tutors, with little care about appearances. This system creates greater efficiency, economic growth andcontrol of nature, the iron cage in describes this situation.However it does lead society towards the theories of Anomie and Alienation by Durkheim and Marx respectively. Calculability becomes an organising principle in the overall personality where ever more of our behaviour is informed by consist ent logical expectations of human beings and of the environment. Spontaneity and impress are experienced less and less in society, with calculability everything becomes increasingly predictable, unexpected events are planned for and avoided through policies and rules.The commoditisation of adventure is a good example of the disenchantment of society, Disneyland and all it represents takes the excitement out of spontaneity due to the iron cage of functionalism and rationality. Weber sees class defined by income, (Cohen Kennedy, 2007) explaining that classes form around market positions, amongst people who share similar life chances which is relevant to the differences seen in society today from that at 1900, social mobility untold more fluid with government actively perusing policies pulling people up the class system.The theories of Marx, Durkheim and Weber are relevant to society today Weber the youngest of the theorists has accurate concepts relating to the bureaucracy experien ced in the post-industrial age which explain well the changing experiences of consumers. Durkheims theories on Anomie in relation to individualism and the disruption of society while religions stability isnt the answer are partially interesting in explaining how society consumes conspicuously, using products as social glue to find a place in society.Marxs intellect on Alienation of workers, as Anomie explains aspects of the consumer mindset today. The globalisation of business taking the class sputter Marx discuses around the world. The current economic climate demonstrates that capitalism has failings even if the least of these is disconnecting individuals from a more intrinsic and meaningful existences within society.Capitalism simultaneously produces more goods and less effective demand to pay for them. (Slater, D 1997)ReferencesAbercrombie, N (2006) Penguin Reference Dictionary of Sociology. fifth Ed Pengin, London. P 235 Abercrombie, N (2006) Penguin Reference Dictionary of Sociology. 5th Ed Pengin, London. P 360 Abercrombie, N et al (2006) Penguin Reference Dictionary of Sociology. 5th Ed Pengin, London. P 14 Abercrombie, N et al (2006) Penguin Reference Dictionary of Sociology. 5th Ed Pengin, London. P 18 Alibaba.com (2010) Search for boot Buckles Accessed on 19/11/2010 Available at http//www.alibaba.com/Belt-Buckles_pid3391301 BBC News (2004) Portrait of the meal for one society Accessed on 25/11/10 Available at http//news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/magazine/3445091.stm Buttler, C (2007) The industrial Revolution. Flow of History.com Accessed on 22/11/10 Available at http//www.flowofhistory.com/units/eme/17/FC0121 Cohen, R and Kennedy, P (2007) orbicular Sociology 2nd Ed. Palgrave Macmillan, Hampshire. P 300 Cohen, R and Kennedy, P (2007) Global Sociology 2nd Ed. Palgrave Macmillan, Hampshire. P 81 Cohen, R and Kennedy, P (2007) Global Sociology 2nd Ed. Palgrave Macmillan, Hampshire. P 94 Desmond, J (2003) Consuming Behaviour. Palgrave, Hampshire Edwards, T ( 2000) Contradictions of Consumption Concepts, practices and politics in consumer society. Open University Press, Buckingham Lloyds.com (2009) Unsold cars face storage exposures Accessed on s19/11/2010 Available at http//www.lloyds.com/News-and-Insight/News-and-Features/Market-news/Specialist-2009/Unsold_cars_face_storage_exposures Miles, S (1998) Consumerism as a way of life. London, Sage. Plunkett, J (2010) Gardian.co.uk X Factor steals the show with 13.6m viewers. Accessed on 29/11/2010 Available at http//www.guardian.co.uk/media/2010/nov/29/x-factor-tv-ratings Schmidt, R (2010) Functionalism and Consumption Lecture Notes. I know sorry, I just really liked the sentence. Sekora, J (1977) Luxuary The concept in western though. Eden to Smollet, Balimore. As quoted by Slater, D (1997) Consumer Culture and Modernity. Cambridge, Polity Press. P 176 Slater, D (1997) Consumer Culture and Modernity. Cambridge, Polity Press. P 175 Slater, D (1997) Consumer Culture and Modernity. Cambridge , Polity Press. P 176 Slater, D (1997) Consumer Culture and Modernity. Cambridge, Polity Press. P 181 Slater, D (1997) Consumer Culture and Modernity. Cambridge,

Wednesday, 10 April 2019

Everyday Use by Walker Essay Example for Free

mundane Use by Walker EssayAlthough I enjoyed Everyday Use by Walker, I did not find the first person point of view to be as effective as I would assimilate liked it to be. By writing the story from florists chrysanthemums point of view Walker denies the commentator a chance to gain insight to how the other characters are feeling about the situation. The story tends to give the reader a bias opinion of the events that authorise in the story. I believe that if Walker had used an omniscient point of view instead of a first person point of view the story would have been a lot more effective. mom had a very bias opinion of Dee and by using her point of view for the story the reader may adopt her opinion.But had Walker used an omniscient point of view the reader could have gained insight into Dees thoughts and feelings. With the gained insight the reader would be given the chance to form his or her aver opinion of Dee. Further insight into Dees thoughts and feelings would exp lain to the reader why Dee acts so superior to florists chrysanthemum and Maggie. The reader would get an idea of whether she really did feel superior or if she was trying to hide her align feelings. An omniscient point of view would also give the reader insight into Maggies thoughts and feelings.Being a younger sister myself I couldnt help but wonder how Maggie felt about her sister. mamma gives the impression that Maggie feels about Dee the same way she does. With an omniscient point of view the reader would know whether or not this is true. When given more personal insight into characters I find that I feel more empathy towards them and enjoy the story more. It makes it more memorable and meaningful for me.

Tuesday, 9 April 2019

Case Study Wilton Petroleum Jelly Essay Example for Free

Case Study Wilton Petroleum Jelly EssayIf you were Morris, and if Taylor had been a conscientious employee in completely other argonas, would you still stimulate fired Taylor for committing theft? Why or why non? If I were Morris I would fire Taylor regardless if he might have been a conscientious employee inwardly the arranging. plain though Taylor had the proper knowledge, skills, and abilities that are associated for Wilton Petroleum Jelly he had a negative employee personality for the amicable club.The feature that Taylor displayed wrong behavior by stealing gas and a ten dollar hammer he should be terminated. As in most companies there is a policy that states the theft of caller-up spot is grounds for release. The behavior of Taylor determined that he could not be trusted in the phoner as an employee. Furthermore, the duty of a manger is to enforce the policy of the organization in blood to its corporate culture. In addition, the fact that Taylor was a good employee for the association did not justify the reason that he committed a crime.Fortunately, Taylor should be glad that he got terminated from the company instead of facing fine or executable jail time. Also, the ten dollar hammer that was stolen validated the grounds for termination within the organization. Taylor tried to deport the a hammer that was expense 10 dollars so he should be charge for the hammer on with the fees of the amount of gas that he stole from the company. There is no reason for Taylor to continue to work for the organization since he is clearly taking advantage of the company for his own personal gain. Employee theft is a job in which a business can lose thousands of dollars per year.According to the authors Thomas, Kimberly, Jones, et al (2001) there was a relationship associated with employee theft and turnover rates in the restaurant industry. In almost cases employees that were belike to steal, would to steal if they were passing in two weeks th an leave within a year of an organization. Equally important, in a company one of roles of an organizational psychologist is to try to understand employee behaviors. The knowledge of employee behaviors may eliminate employees from stealing in the future. Thus, Morris should discourse the incident about the theft to Taylor to find out the reason why Taylor stole from the company in advance terminating him. Next, do you approximate Taylor got what was coming to him in this case, or was he set up by Morris and therefrom was a victim of entrapment?Even though Morris did set him up within the company it did not ease the fact that Taylor committed a crime at Wilton Petroleum Jelly. As in most companies the tribute department and managers are not capable of watching employees all the time. In near circumstances it is the employees that are the ones that report thefts that occur in most organizations. In the business Taylor knew he was committing a crime by stealing the gas in the co mpany. Likewise, Taylor was not conscious(predicate) that he was cosmos set up for entrapment which occurs in most companies, and there are notifications of video surveillance on the premises of organizations.Morris may have had an later(a) motive in which he was trying to get Taylor terminated. Equally important, Taylor was not terminated for taking hundreds of dollars worth of gas he was terminated for the theft of a hammer. Further, there is a possibility that Taylor might not have been terminated had he not stolen the hammer. Taylor was a victim of entrapment but that does not validate his actions of company theft. Taylor may want to argue that he was setup by Morris and he might have not stolen the hammer in the first place.The problem that Taylor would have to present would be his explanation for stealing company property on his own defense. In reference to the author Dekker (2004) in cabaret to terminate an employee fairly and employer demand to have unanimous evidence against the employee. The used of devices such as cameras, telephone tapping, are substantial for employee termination. There are companies that invest thousands of dollars on security systems to reduce employee theft within their organization. Therefore, even though Taylor was entrapped he still violated company policy be stealing from Wilton Petroleum Jelly. Also, do you mean that spying on the employees with peepholes and cameras to detect theft or other crime violates an ethical business doctrine? Why do you feel as you do?The spying of employees with though there knowledge is an trespass privacy. On the other hand, there are circumstances where it might be necessary in order to capture employees that commit corporate crimes. In a company employees need to be aware that they are observed within the company. The process of using cameras is a good theft deterrent to save company cost and create a safer workplace environment. Further, ethics should be considered where to draw th e line as faraway as employee surveillance. Unfortunately, in society there are many crimes that occur in the workplace that are more serious than employee theft. There are some organizations in which employees are searched when they come to work and onwards they leave the company. The organization should try to take all measures to prevent crimes from occurring ethically.The ethical business principles should be within the legalities of the law when it comes to video surveillance. An employee should not have to be viewed through peepholes without there knowledge. A policy needs to be developed in which all cases of surveillance are covered so the employee is well aware they are being watched. There are places that employees should never be observed such as in restrooms which would be considered unethical. The authors Crossen (1993) in most companies the solution to unethical behaviors is the monitoring of and searches of employees. The strategy may come at the privacy of the empl oyee. Finally, the observation of employees should be ethical so that the employees rights are not violated. Too, what effect might Taylors dismissal by the company have on other employees?The effects of Taylors dismissals will cause employees to think twice about stealing from the organization. Taylor could be used as an example as to what happens when an employee steals from Wilton Petroleum Jelly. In a sense Morris tried his best to prevent stealing from occurring within the business by inform the actions that happened. The actions of Morris can create a more ethical business because employees will feel as if their being monitored. Morris was determined to try every way possible to reduce unethical behaviors.There are some companies in which a personality test is given in regards to organizational theft. Unfortunately, there are some employees that have to follow the actions of others within a positive or negative manner. The dismissal of the Taylor would most likely be stated t o new hires that they could get caught not matter how hard they try to conceal unethical behavior. According to the authors Victor, Trevino, Shapiro, et al (1993) the reporting of a theft by a peer that may have been associated withorganizational responsibility, the interest of group associates, and perceptions of justice.Actual reporting of negative behaviors was more likely to occur when peers with payback of justice. In conclusion, the example of the employee getting terminated from the company may cause prevention. The employees may feel as if they would get caught since they do not know when their being observed within the business. The example of Taylor is beneficial in the prevention of future employee thefts in Wilton Petroleum Company.ReferencesCrossen, B. R. (1993). Managing employee unethical behavior without invading individual privacy. Journal of dividing line and Psychology, 8(2), 227-243. Dekker, A. (2004). Vices or Devices Employee Monitoring in the Workplace. S. A fr. Mercantile LJ, 16, 622.Thoms, P., Wolper, P., Scott, K. S., Jones, D. (2001). The relationship between immediate turnover and employee theft in the restaurant industry. Journal of Business and Psychology, 15(4), 561-577.Victor, B., Trevio, L. K., Shapiro, D. L. (1993). Peer reporting of unethical behavior The influence of justice evaluations and social context factors. Journal of Business Ethics, 12(4), 253-263.

Sunday, 7 April 2019

What Do Expect in English 101 Essay Example for Free

What Do Expect in English 101 EssayWhat are my expectations from this course?Either write something expenditure reading or do something worth writing. Benjamin Franklin. Reading is essential for everyday living, regardless of my wanting(p) skills. At the University of the Virgin Islands, English 101 class Im determine to enhance my honor for reading and ramp up a stronger vocabulary foundation. Ive neer had a passion for reading. I was never surrounded by peers or family that influenced to me read. I always preferred to watch a movie make full with lies than read a book that would greatly impact my life. Now realizing how important reading is Im stuck in the back playing catch up, which I highly dislike, especially as a freshman student. In English 101 Im prepared to force myself to read, magazines, newspapers, novel and especially poems. Ill love to understand when other say I love reading because, allows me to go places Ive never been, subsist new things, explore possi bilities and learn something new.Im into fiction books I like knowing I can fly on the back of a dragon, turn my boyfriend into a toad, marry a prince, save a kingdom, cast a spell, swing a sword and talk to the gods. Just queasy things that never actually happens in reality. Loving reading makes everything possible, dreams travel along true, your imagination takes flight and your problems fade as you take on the problems of those you are reading about. To create a stabilize vocabulary foundation not only would I wait for my professor to assign work, Ill try my best to take the tariff of doing my own outside of class work. Gaining knowledge about words Ill read words from the lexicon just like Malcolm X did. Previous I emphasized on my love for poetry never have I been capable to share my love because of my lack of words, but Im already to make difference. Even though others may see it as a dead and done language, encyclopaedism a bit of Latin would never hurt and I intend on l earning a bit of it. Also in this class I plan to familiarize myself with lots of familiarize magazines, books and puzzles to build my vocabulary. In conclusion, enhancing my passion for reading and building my vocabulary are my expectations in this class and my endeavor is to come climb to the top, I know my professor cannot do it alone, I have applied myself and I get out succeed.

The Effects of War and Peace on Foreign Aid Essay Example for Free

The Effects of War and intermission on Foreign Aid Essay

Saturday, 6 April 2019

Great Expectations by Charles Dickens Essay Example for Free

Great Expectations by Charles daimon Essay ogre promptly introduces the lecturer to score who serves both as the retrospective narrator and as the young protagonist of the new(a). This works on a two level approach with regard to guiding us through the plot as an omnipotent narrator whilst simultaneously leading us through Pips vivification with the instancy of a first person narrative. It is clear from the beginning that it is Pips perceptions which entirely define the events and characters of the novel. Dickens utilises this dichotomy in the theory chapter by exploiting Pips narrative perspective. We are introduced to Pip as if in the midst of a pleasant conversation with him, I give Pirrip as my fathers family name Immediately after however, we are subjected to the unravelling thoughts and fears of a frightened child under threat. This serves to capture our oversight and instil a instinct of compassion for Pip, for who we fear the worst.Dickens employs Pip as the n arrator to feed a prospective and prophetic relationship between himself and the escaped convict. As a reader, this initially appears to be a strange concept solely based on the power dynamics between Pip and the convict and his de bitds, with Pip reciprocating for fear of his life. However, as they part, Pip looks back to see the man walking merely into the marshes. This illustrationical regard of the convict hugging his shuddering body in both his arms on the horizons with the gallows, is strikingly familiar to the initial image we had of Pip who was holding himself in the cold, alone in the churchyard with the tombstones of his dead parents. As a reader, it appears that their relationship seems to warm at that moment, with the two sharing a super acid loneliness and marginalisation from society the orphan and the escaped convict. Dickens uses this characterisation to develop our imagination of Pip, in that whilst Pip is afraid, he instinctively displays a sympathetic react ion and remains resolute.Pips explanation of the convict when he first meets him seems elongated in response to the clipping he would have rattling viewed him with, as he only had a moment to see it. Pip describes the convict as a man who limped, and shivered, and glared, and growled. The repetition of the word and before each verb makes the list of the convicts appearance reasoned considerably longer. The use of an iambic poetic rhythm nurture reinforces this idea that the list is made to intemperate longer. The quarrel used to describe the convict are also stressed to sound more convincing, creating an elongate metaphor of an animal. Pip is afraid of this fearful man because of his animal like features and wounds. The portrayal of the convict tailnot be easily forgotten for the reader and our imagination of him becomes almost reality. Dickens gives no clear indication of the mans future in Pips life nevertheless he does create the sense that the convict will return, larg ely by building up a sense of mystery nigh the convicts situation and his relationship with Pip.Dickens creates sympathy for Pip by making it explicitly clear that he has been deprived of parental guidance. He has never known his parents, The shape of the letters on my fathers, gave me an odd idea that he was a square, stout, dark man, with curly black hair. This image of Pip being completely alone in a desolate cemetery trying to speak up the appearances of his parents makes us commiserate with him. We are also reminded of his youth and innocence with the childish conclusions he arrives at regarding the appearances of his parents. The write in codestone reads also Georgiana, wife of the above, and in Pip thinking that his Mothers name is actually also Georgiana, we sympathise with him for his lack of awareness.We are able to establish from this that Mrs Joe Gargery never mentions or talks most their Mother, which again makes us realise his lack of parental love. This light-hea rted ponder at the gravestones inscriptions presently lifts the sombre inclination of the chapter which largely revolves around death, and allows Dickens to lessen the dramatic tension building up. We can conclude from this chapter that Pip has experienced loss and death at an primaeval age but he seems accustomed to it. However, it could also reveal how Pip is lacking in certain life experiences, which we realise could accept him and his choices negatively in the future. We discover that Pips five younger brothers gave up trying to contract a living exceedingly early in that universal struggle. Whilst they had given in but Pip himself hadnt, it reveals his resilience and strength to succeed. Knowing this, this early in the novel about Pips character, it infuses the reader with a sense of optimism about Pip and his future.Dickens concentrates heavily on the crude(a) telescopes and grave moods to prepare the reader for a sense of whats to come in the story, and of Pip. Dickens thoroughly describes the setting of the eerie Kent marshes in detail in order to deliver a definite mood early in the novel. The use of the setting in a graveyard works a mood of closing off and desolation Pip is isolated by the fact he is an orphan. The graveyard itself is described as bleak and overgrown, conveying that it has been neglected much like Pip himself. The repetition of dead and buried further lowers the mood. Pip recalls that his most vivid and broad impression of the identity of things is countersinkd at a time between light and dark perhaps symbolising the transition from good to bad, which we realise may be relevant later in Pips life. We see that Pip realises this whilst being shaken top of the inning down by the convict, symbolising that he has a distorted view of things, with them perhaps being cover down themselves.Dickens sets the chapter in a graveyard to deliver a sombre mood. A enormous open space seems gravellyer than an inside enclosed one, and Pip is less familiar with them. The external world offers Dickens a space to experiment with the idea of Pip being afraid of things he has not antecedently experienced. This makes Pip feel unsettled and isolated, which is passed on to an involved reader. The derelict setting is further reflected in the mood as Dickens describes the landscape surrounding the churchyard. He continually describes it as a dark flat tire wilderness which is dreary in appearance and has the possibility to harbour deep and unknown dangers. Obstacles in the marshes much(prenominal) as dykes, mounds, and gates work as visual obstructions for Pip but on a metaphorical level as symbols for possible upcoming obstacles in Pips life. Dickens maintains the use of words such as flat, low and dark which gives an eerie feel and dense mood to the col chapter.There is also further symbolism in Pips surrounding, in that there is both a flowing river and flat, solid ground on the same landscape. This could reflect that t here are two ways in which to travel the same distance and that Pip is soon to have to choose a path to take, which will in turn alter his life. This is thought provoking and concerning to us as a reader, whilst simultaneously intensifying the already dampening mood. The marshland is repeatedly represented as a place where good meets sin, and this is clear in the skyline. It has long angry red lines and dense black lines intermixed, and these frightening colours and the darkness of the sky all accentuate Pips vulnerability in this graveyard full(a) of misery, with the pathetic fallacy working to highlight his isolation.There are also only two erect structures on the horizontal landscape of the marshes a beacon and gallows. The beacons use is to guide sailors stand and steer them from danger, whereas gallows are used to hang criminals for crimes they have committed. These two structures symbolise good and evil and the choices in which Pip is to make leading to either a life of good or a life of sin. The green mounds and nettles all portray the hostility of everything against Pip, with connotations of something that could hurt him. The wind rushes from the distant savage lair. This metaphor is used to describe the sea from which the wind is rushing and the use of pathetic fallacy creates a harsh and tense atmosphere of a claustrophobic nature. However, to Pip, the wind is a wild beast and the savage lair is the den from which the wind comes. This further intensifies the sympathy we as a reader have for Pip.To conclude, Dickens utilises the vulnerability and innocence of Pip to evoke both sympathy and anticipation for the young boy and his future. It is the confusion of the opening chapters happenings and the title Great Expectations which makes us as a reader eager to continue the novel and our journey with Pip.

Friday, 5 April 2019

Consumer Behavior When Purchasing A Car Marketing Essay

Consumer mien When Purchasing A cable auto Marketing EssayImagine you are a consumer who is about to bargain for a machine. You whitethorn say it to be any consumer (male or female, in full period employment or student, married or single, old or three-year-old, rich or poor, children or no children, etc) simply be sure to understandably state the individualised char moveeristics you imagine this particular consumer to convey. It may similarly be useful at this pinnacle to establish whether you are able to gain information on your imaginary chosen consumer (from sources such as Mintel) so that you have credible sources from which to base your report on. Please none that this consumer invite not be youYour report is expected to describe and explain the characteristics that affect consumer behaviour and outline the consumer finding-making mould as it relates to purchasing a car for this consumer. You should also discuss the relevance of the finding-making process to Marketers of cars in general and provide recommendations of how they arse influence the stages of the decision-making process.IntroductionThe term consumer mien includes the customers of specific goods and the volume using the goods. It is usu on the wholey used to imply to any human market behavior and use of harvest-tides and service.Today, consumer behaviour is a multidisciplinary science that investigates not simply the consumer decision-making process and the acquisition of return, but also the further activities of the consumer after the bargain for of the product, such as using, evaluating and rejecting the product or service (Blackwell et al. 2001).In the look essay, the theory of consumer behavior and the consumer decision-making process will be examined together with the example of a 35 year old charr, married with whizz kid, living in a big city that wants to debase a car.The main features of consumer behaviorTo better understand consumer behavior, it should be interpreted into account the eventors that most influence the decision-making process. These instrument are the followingConsumer Behavior IncentivesAccording to the definition stipulation by Wilkie (1994) people buy and consume goods to satisfy their quests and desires. It could be said that consumer behavior is a behaviormotivated to meet specific goals, needs and desires.In most cases though not all of the consumer behavior, people buy and consume goods as a means to satisfy some of the needs corporeal and sometimes emotional. It should be noted that consumers motives are not always obvious to tertiary parties and as a result the use of theories and conduct of researches are necessary for better understanding of consumer behavior. In the present example, the woman wants a car to go to work, pick up kids from school and go to super-market. These are her stated needs. The car marketer should find out the emotional needs of the particular customer.A part of consumer beh avior derives strictly from functional motives), such as when someone buys bricks to build a house, buys a car to satisfy ecstasy needs while an new(prenominal) part of his/her behavior is stimulated by selfexpressive motives (Wilkie, 1994), as when someone buys a gift for to thank a family member or buy a car to satisfy his prestige needs. Blackwell et al.(2001),in contrast with this position argue that the needs of consumers should not be divided into two major categories, but in subcategories that should include and explain better the different consumer needs. Some of these needs are the physiological needs, the need for health and safety (as it is the case of the car safe travels), love and companionship, the need of financial resources, the need for pleasure, the need for the creation of the companionable image of the individual ( buy a specific car brand to enhance personal prestige), the need of possessing (everybody has a car) and the need of information (Blackwell et al . 2001233-245).At this point it should be mentioned that most consumer behaviors wish to make full more than one target or needs, thus not only talking about one motive, but about a group of motives which motivates consumer behavior. In the present example, the groups of motives are transportation, social image and pigheadedness needs.In addition, while some motives may be visible to consumers and third parties, differents may be more difficult to determine, for example when the decisions that should be taken are more complex and closely linked to the feelings of the consumer.The activities of consumer behaviorThe act of consuming cannot be addressed unilaterally. It should be taken into account the thoughts, feelings, plans, decisions, markets and experiences accumulated by the act of consumption. Certainly, a researcher of purchasing behavior who focuses on the act of consumption and does not consider it globally, may omit other equally important activities ( advertize, opinio ns of others, collection of information, evaluation of alternatives, purchase decision, type of payment, product use, etc.) that are contained within it and they are equally important. These activities can be distinguished into knock over and coincidental. For example, the activity of the decision of buying a product can be described in most cases as a deliberate consumer behavior as it is the case of the car where the consumer has to plan in advance the car purchase. On the other hand, when a consumer visits a store to buy a specific product in mind, s/he sees a multitude of other goods and not a few times he can buy some of these without having a plan. Such consumer behavior maybe classified as impulsive. This differentiation is curiously useful to researchers of consumer behavior and advertisers, who understand the mechanisms of behavior more comprehensively (Wilkie 1994).The process of consumer behaviorThe concept of process which includes various activity stages is a very use ful approach to better understand consumer behavior. This process has triple stages. The first stage of the activities of pro- buying could include the actions to select the product which is followed by the second stage of purchase of the product and finally the third stage of the after-purchase, which includes actions such as the depreciation of the product. The activities before buying the car could be search at auto-magazines, advertisement exposure etc., whereas at the third stage there could be activities like the evaluation of technical service etc.The treatment of consumer behavior as a process, stresses the brilliance of the stages that precede and follow the one of the purchase (Wilkie 199417), and gives guidelines to analyze the reason why a consumer makes specific purchases. diversification of consumer behaviorTwo elements that could differentiate the consumer behavior of the individual are the the time and complexity of the decision.Time refers to when the decision i s taken and the duration of the completion of the process. Complexity refers, in turn, to the number of activities involved in making a decision but also to the difficulty of this decision. Buying a car is a complex decision since it involves product and price comparison, ways of payment etc. Since it is a complex decision it is also time consuming.Relating these two concepts, it is understood that the more complex a decision is, the more time is needed for the decision. It is intelligible that the more complex a decision is the greater will be the activities of the pre-purchase. In the present case, the activities could be talking to friends, look at car magazines, go to car exhibitions etc. Many times, however, the consumer to avoid a possible delay, which may lead to a not so profitable market s/he has not seen offers for the product so s/he acts with less detail than he could. In other words, s/he tries to simplify the decision-making process in the following ways (Wilkie1994) The consumer is not always sounding for the best purchase, but for a good acceptable purchase. S/he is driven by information, advice and recommendations of third parties. The opinion of friends and family can play a significant role in the car buying decision. S/he trusts brands and stores purchased in the past and has remainedsatisfied with them. The salesman should check the previous brands purchased by the customer.Several times, the process of comforting needs, is confronted with the simplification of the decision making process. As for example, the purchase of a relatively cheap product which should have the required by the consumer quality standards. Many consumers face such dilemmas, maintaining an agility on the purchasing process, thusly they can take advantage of these situations.Roles and Consumer BehaviorA consumer in the decision process and after having make the decision,may have more than one roles, for example s/he can be the person that affects the final decision of the purchaser or user (influencer). S/he could be practicing these three roles at the aforementioned(prenominal) time as when shopping alone or when shopping only for himself. Consumer behavior, may influenced by others, so the role of the individual who affects the final decision may be played by people of the individuals wider social environment a friend / the family or otherwise it could be the salesman. In the present example this woman could be influenced by her husband in her decision. Moreover the role of the user in many cases could not be the purchaser and / or influencer, but a third person who will use the product purchased. It is understandable, that the possible combinations of these three roles could be outnumbered by those already mentioned, depending on the consumer, the external environment but also his personality. The woman, for example, may be influenced by her husband but she has her own personality thus she may cull the car brand that is more suitable to her.The roles of consumers mentioned above are born through social interactions. actually few purchases are made driven solely by the ego consciously or subconsciously peoples decisions take always into account their social circle. It is also important to note that the roles change during the lifetime of the consumer. For example, a child rarely can be an influencer and even more rarely buyer. The purchases of a childless young man usually involve himself, and a consumer with children buys largely for his family and certainly is influenced by the needs of other family members as it is the case in the present example.Extrinsic factors and Consumer BehaviorIt is a fact that the consumer is influenced by his/her environment, a fact that highlights the ability to adapt to different circumstances, depending always on the needs that should be met. This exogenous influence impacts on the consumer decision-making process. These factors areCulture refers to beliefs, set and opinions share d by members of the society where people live and has a catalytic effect on peoples behavior during their life byputting limits in peoples understanding on which products and services are acceptable. The subcultures, are groups of people who become in the broader context of culture and share similar values and attitudes. A subculture could be working women with childrenSome examples are those of gender, ethnicity, race, age and religion. Also, the social class that someone belongs to is a factor that may influence consumer behavior (Pinson Jolibert 1998). Like what is his/her job, income and education level that s/he has.virtuoso of the main factors affecting the purchasing behavior is the family. Especially in Mediterranean societies, where the family institution is still strong, people are influenced by consumer habits as children and later as adults. The social surroundings and the reference groups to which people belong is an equally important factor, since everyday conversati ons and contacts affect consumer habits.For example, if someone play sports, s/he will decidedly be affected by the advice of his/her coach regarding his/her dietary habits and clothes preferences.The external conditions such as pomposity and unemployment or an illness in the family are factors that will determine the amount to be spent to purchase a product and when it is best to purchase a specific commodity. The merchandising environment in accompaniment with the presence at mass media is an area that in recent decades has gained immense power of influence in todays consumer. For example, usually the ads aim to influence consumer for a particular product of a certain brand, while the factor culture does not suggest specific brands but more goodsfor consumption. 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