Saturday, 31 August 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"Against SchoolÃ¢â¬ is an argumentative essay that tells about how the public education system incapacitates the children of today. It was written by John Taylor Gatto. In this reading, Gatto claims that the public education system causes children to become bored with themselves, to conform to the way of the school and its teachers, and it causes them to lack the ability to deal with issues that go on in the real world, outside of school. GattoÃ¢â¬â¢s explanation for this is that it is partially the teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ fault. The students become bored because the teacher is actually bored with teaching the subject. Students would be adamant to learn if they were given and education and not a Ã¢â¬Å"schoolingÃ¢â¬ . They need to be encouraged to have the qualities to succeed in life instead of sitting in a prison style confinement, forced to learn material that society deemed appropriate. Summing up his essay, Gatto states that he believes that the students should be able to manage themselves. After reading GattoÃ¢â¬â¢s argument, my only reaction was to agree with him. I believe that the public education system only influences us to conform to society and the government. WeÃ¢â¬â¢re only taught what they want us to be taught. To me, students need more than that. They need the skills to not only succeed but to survive and to keep on succeeding throughout life. The material needs to be taught and explained how retaining the knowledge will help them in the future. If we donÃ¢â¬â¢t know how it will benefit us in some way then itÃ¢â¬â¢s almost meaningful. ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s no reason to remember it. In conclusion, I agree with GattoÃ¢â¬â¢s argument because I think it is something most students can relate to. WeÃ¢â¬â¢ve all had a boring teacher, teaching a boring class, that we thought meant absolutely nothing to us. But if weÃ¢â¬â¢re forced to take the class, then there must be some reason for it.
Friday, 30 August 2019
Income Segmentation although Guinness don't directly segment its product into different segments, Guinness beers are more expensive to the consumer because they target customers may be willing to pay more for what some pensive to be a distinctive taste Ã¢â¬â a taste which is more expensive to produce. The Japanese distribution system Distribution channels in Japan are very different from other countries; they are as inefficient as they are complex. The system is characterized by multiple layers of wholesalers who have developed close, personal relationships with other wholesalers, manufacturers, importers, and retailers.Moreover, these intimate relationships often serve as an informal barrier to foreign companies wishing to sell directly to end-users or retailers. Many exporters find retailers/end-users unwilling to disrupt their longstanding, personal relationships with Japanese suppliers even when the foreign company can offer a product of superior or equal quality at a cheaper price. Many Japanese retailers/ end-users are unwilling to make the switch to an Ã¢â¬Å"unreliableÃ¢â¬ foreign supplier. They fear a lack of commitment on the part of the foreign supplier will lead to problems.They also fear breakdowns in communication. This state of affairs has led many companies' new-to-market exporters to complain of the complexity and lack of transparency of the Japanese system. An encouraging sign is the recent trend towards greater efficiency within the Japanese distribution system, resulting in fewer smaller retailers and wholesalers. Faced with deregulation and changing patterns of consumption, many Japanese companies are modifying marketing and sales strategies to take advantage of these developments.Imports are already benefiting from these trends, as seen in increased sales by Japanese department stores and other mass merchandisers and by a variety of new retailing ventures that match changing Japanese lifestyles. There are also indications that some w holesalers are modernizing and consolidating operations, thus reducing more inefficient elements in the system. However, the process is slow. The characteristics of the distribution system are deeply rooted in the cultural history of Japan. How to Set Up Business in Japan/ Laws & Regulations on Setting Up Business in Japan Section 1.Incorporating Your Business . 1 Types of operation in Japan Foreign companies generally establish a business presence in Japan in one of four modes. 1. 1. 1 Representative office Representative offices are established as locations for carrying out preparatory and supplemental tasks aimed at enabling foreign companies to engage in full-scale business operations in Japan. These offices may conduct market surveys, collect information, purchase goods and implement publicity/advertising efforts, but they are not permitted to engage in sales activities.The establishment of representative offices does not require registration. A representative office cannot ord inarily open bank accounts or lease real estate in its own name, so agreements for such purposes must Instead De Selenga Day ten nana Outlet AT ten Torrent company or representative at the representative office in an individual capacity. 1. 1. 2 Branch office Foreign companies wishing to engage in business operations in Japan must establish a branch office or a subsidiary company. The simplest means for a foreign company to establish a base for business operations in Japan is to set up a branch office.The branch office can begin business operations as soon as an office location is secured, he branch office representative determined, and the necessary information registered. A Japanese branch office is a business location that provides services in Japan decided upon by an organization authorized by the foreign company, and ordinarily is not expected to engage in independent decision making. A branch office does not have its own legal corporate status, but instead is deemed to be enco mpassed within the corporate status of the foreign company.In general, therefore, the foreign company is ultimately responsible for all debts and credits generated by the activities of its Japanese branch office. A Japanese branch office, however, may open bank accounts and lease real estate in its own name. 1. 1. 3 Subsidiary company A foreign company establishing a subsidiary company in Japan must choose to establish the subsidiary company as a Joint-stock corporation (Kabuki's-Aisha (K. K. )), limited liability company (Good-Aisha (LLC)), or similar entity stipulated by Japan's Corporate Law.Both unlimited partnerships (Gomes-Aisha) and limited partnerships (Gosh-Aisha) are granted corporate status under the Corporate Law, but they are rarely chosen in practice because equity participants bear unlimited ether than limited liability. All types of subsidiary companies can be established by completing the required procedures stipulated by law and then registering the corporation. A subsidiary is a separate corporation from the foreign company, so the foreign company will bear the liability of an equity participant stipulated by law for all debts and credits generated by the activities of the subsidiary.Other methods by which a foreign company may invest in Japan using a Japanese corporation but without establishing a subsidiary are by establishing a Joint venture with a Japanese enterprise or investment company, and by equity participation in a Japanese enterprise. 1. 1. 4 Limited liability partnership (ALP) It is also possible to do business by using a Huge Seeking Jaggy Kumara. This type of entity, considered the Japanese version of a limited liability partnership (ALP), is not a corporation, but a partnership formed only by the equity participants, who have limited liability.
Thursday, 29 August 2019
The dates of the performances are not known because this is a review of an E-concert recording. I will begin with the piece that was personally named by Ludwig Van Beethoven, Pastorale Pastorale is a five movement symphony, the only one with five movements that Beethoven wrote. Each movement is individually titled although Beethoven noted that the names were merely suggestions and were not to be taken literally (Classicalmusiceducation. om). The music does however seem to match up beautifully with the titles. The first movement is titled; Awakening of Cheerful Feelings on Arriving in the Country, Allegro ma non troppo and begins with an opening drone. The piece has a very quick, but somehow leisurely pace that repeats itself in a typical sonata form. Themes emerge, but do not seem to be in conflict as in other symphonies, there is a lack of noticeable tension. Imagine a forest, with the sounds of nature in perfect harmony, the winds rustling through the trees and birds chirping and s inging. The movement concludes with a coda comprised of a powerful increase in volume and emphasis with a return to the opening theme as basses Join in. The second movement is titled; Scene by the Brook, Andante molto mosso and continues the calm and relaxed mood set in the first movement. This movement seems to be in variation form. A gentle melody develops and the music seems to quicken. A completely new tune is introduced by a bassoon that is repeated several times. The themes are passed from woodwinds to strings and back to the full orchestra several times. Woodwinds seem to represent bird calls throughout the movement further adding linkage to the title. The end is marked by a flute and clarinet in a virtual bird conversation. This appears to be a cadenza before the ompletion of the warm and rich movement. The third movement is titled; Merry Gathering of Countryfolk, Allegro, This movement is a classic scherzo in triple meter. The opening theme is conducted by the entire orchestra. This movement is in great contrast to the first two, much faster and more powerful. The scherzo gives way toa trio that is quite energetic. The woodwinds are splendid in their representations ot birds again . The Scherzo seems to repeat in a a compressed fashion. The movement ends with a strong cadence that ends sharply and shifts to the next movement. The fourth movement is known as; Thunderstorm allegro. The bass is deep and vibrant, the woodwinds pierce the air, and the entire orchestra create a powerful stormy atmosphere. The rise and falls of this piece are dramatic and enhanced by the strings piercing anxiety. The sounds seem to shake the environment, rhythm is hard to detect, everything is crashing and disjointed, much like a real storm. Suddenly there is calm as if the storm has dissipated and the beautiful country side has reappeared. The fifth and final movement is called; Shepherds song, Glad and Grateful after the Storm Alegrettd. The main theme is introduced by clarinets, horns and violins. The main theme is repeated several times with variations as the woodwinds are intermixed. The entire orchestra Joins in an extended transition as the opening materials are reintroduced. There is an extended coda and the main theme is varied. There does not seem to be a climax in the ending, Just a final strong cadence and a magnificent sense of completion that is enlightening. The five movements of Beethovens Symphony No. 6 Pastorale draw listeners in with a quick, but leisurely tempo and rich developed movements. The symphony seemingly flows and fits the titles beautifully. It is easy to paint a picture ofa noble ountryside, nature, and all the activities it entails. Beethovens Piano Concerto No. 5 Emperor is a three part traditional concerto, an Allegro, Adagio, and the Rondo. This concerto was named Emperor because of the powerful themes and heroic note of the composition (wrww. all-about-beethoven. com/ concert05. html). The opening of the concerto brings a main theme introduced by a solo piano with the full orchestra providing a dramatic presence of several chords. The piano flourishes grow in length until reaching a cadenza after the third time. The full orchestra Joins in and carries the theme into the full exposition. The theme is bold with a pleasant interjection of a second subject that seems to tiptoe through the movement. The orchestra stays in the tonic key as the piano modulates and reaches a wide variety of tones as the scales are worked. The development of the movement effectively flips the lead. The orchestra now leads and the piano accompanies. The main theme rhythm is reinforced by a powerful bassoon. The coda is lead by horns and Joined by the rest of the orchestra to a thrilling close. The second movement is a slow movement and begins quietly with a simple main theme presented by strings. I felt like I was in church. The melody of the movement makes it seem simple but it still has many variations within. The original theme is maintained within the development in a very refined and deliberate way. This movement evokes clarity and relaxation. The piano builds toa crescendo and backs away as if were weeping. The piano is seems to fade away as a low woodwind plays long notes and sustains the theme. A very low tone on the piano and woods is held for long periods and then the piano dashes out vibrantly and the orchestra Joins in a spirited conclusion of the movement. The third movement is a classic rondo that seems to begin without a distinct break rom the second. The piano again traverses the scales dramatically and is accompanied by the orchestra. The drums fade as the piano solo fades out. With the pause, the piano Jumps aggressively back into the chromatic scales which are a foundation of the themes throughout the concerto. The orchestra is along for the ride toa rapid and powerful finish. The Pastorale symphony and Piano Concerto Emperor present dynamic representations of nineteenth century music which represented more direct and unrestrained emotions (Strayer 209). Both pieces are energetic and lead the listener through a winding path of emotion.
Wednesday, 28 August 2019
Microbiology - Lab Report Example Thus, bacterial identification is the foremost step to accomplish further investigation procedures. The three preliminary steps for the analysis procedure comprise principal isolation, staining and biochemical reactions as the sample may contain diverse microorganism belonging to different species. Identification is based on the kind of Gram reaction shown by the organism. This is the most significant staining, also called differential staining performed to categorize microbial population into two groups the Gram positive and Gram negative organisms. The reaction displays the characteristic of the cell wall of the bacterial species. If the bacterial species possess thick peptidoglycan layer, it displays Gm +ve differential staining and if the microorganism possesses thin or single layer of peptidoglycan, it takes up the counter stain Safranin of the Gram reaction. Counter stain Safranin is added to the reaction after washing the Gram stain with alcohol. Since, Gram positive organisms possessing thick peptidoglycan retains the stain while Gram negative organisms possess thin peptidoglycan cell wall becomes colorless and therefore takes up the counter stain when stained with Safranin. The given sample displayed Gm-ve character of the organism. The cellular morphology is rod shaped (Ã¢â¬Å"Analytical solution for laboratoriesÃ¢â¬ ; Ã¢â¬Å"Antimicrobial TherapyÃ¢â¬ ; William, 2000). Part 2 MAC plate- Pink Color is observed on the culture plate, indicating that the unknown organism is lactose fermenting. Triple sugar iron agar test (TSI)- TSI contains glucose, sucrose and lactose together with iron and phenyl red as a pH indicator. On fermentation of sugar, the pH of the medium changes indicated by the color change from red to yellow. Sodium thiosulfate present in the medium is reduced to H2S which in turn reacts with the ferric ions to give sulfide of iron which turns the medium black. In the present condition the isolate is capable of fermenting Lactose and al so produces H2S (William, 2000). Imvic test TSI test is followed by Imvic test, to test the ability of the strain to produce enzyme tryptophanase. Unknown culture is unable to produce the enzyme typtophanase (William, 2000). Hydrogen sulfide test The unknown sample is able to produce H2S. Urease test Urease enzyme is responsible for the hydrolysis of urea to generate CO2 and ammonia. The unknown culture shows the presence of urease enzyme as indicated by the pink color (William, 2000). Motility indole ornithine (MIO) test MIO is a semisolid medium which is used to test the motility of the given organism. The medium contains indole and ornithine. No change in color was observed as the medium remained yellow indicating negative indole test. On the other hand, deep purple color was obtained indicating positive test for ornithine. Further, diffused growth was observed, which extended from the stab line forming cloudiness displaying the motile behavior of the organism (William, 2000). Ci trate test The unknown culture was grown on sodium citrate medium containing ammonium salts as the nitrogen source and bromothymol blue as the pH indicator. The test displays the ability to generate citritase enzyme, responsible for the breakdown of citrate into oxaloacetate and acetate. Sodium bicarbonate and ammonia are produced during the process which changes the pH of the medium, indicated through the change in color from green (neutral) color to blue (alkaline) (Ã¢â¬Å"
Tuesday, 27 August 2019
Online Social Entrepreneurship - Essay Example According to Safko and Brake (2009), the social media models have been built on a basic framework of interconnecting people regardless of their location, ethnicity, religion, educational background, or any other discriminating factor. In addition, the social media models rely on the use of the internet and various gadgets that can enable the user to access the internet. It is of essence to note that the social media models are differentiated based on the type of users, features, and capability, for example, LinkedIn interconnects professionals while Instagram mostly enable the sharing of photos. According to Shelton (2013), the number of users that a social media site has and the levels of responses as well as interactions between the users within the social media site are used as the main frameworks for evaluating the social media sites. As part of the social enterprise of the Ashoka Organisation, the social media strategy that is proposed aims at utilizing the social media sites to address the social problem among individuals who are leaving in self-isolation and have no one to talk to and share their feelings. Goleman (2007) stated that it is critical to address this social problem because these types of people have been known to committee extreme criminal activities such as the shooting cases in the United States whereby individuals shoot and kill innocent people. The perpetrators of such crimes have been commonly known to be people who leaved in self-isolation and they rarely interacted with friends, and therefore, no one in particular could tell what they were thinking. A participant will be recruited if it can be proved that he or she does not interact well with others, has no account in social media sites meaning that he or she does not interact with friends through social sites, or he or she lives in a secluded house that does not permit interaction with neighbors. Facebook is preferable for this strategy because it has numerous features that
Monday, 26 August 2019
Planning and monitoring work - Assignment Example This research will begin with the statement that different policies of the organization have a strong effect on planning and allocation different resources. Organization develops different strategic planning process in its policies. It develops policies according to its goals and objectives. The company makes plans according to those policies. These strategic plans help the company to guide and implement its policies successfully for meeting its mission and vision. Based on the strategies organization develop different plans for its betterment and employee growth. Organizational policies contribute a lot in forming various plans for improving management strategies. These plans help to implement trainings and programs within the company. The plan also influences the work process of the organization. Allocation of work depends a lot on companyÃ¢â¬â¢s policies. According to the policies the company allocates resources to its different group of employees. It helps to make different spe cific teams within the company to maintain smooth work process. The HR policies of the company help to identify the appropriate employees which are required for doing different types of work. The organizational policies help to make different financial plans for implementing its various policies. The example of an objective that a team is working on to achieve is to increase the productivity of that particular team. For increasing the productivity the team will undergo specific trainings which will improve the strengths of its different team members.
Sunday, 25 August 2019
Reflection on social media - Essay Example The cons of social media use in my organization mainly include the tendency of workers to use the office time for personal tasks e.g. blogging and chatting rather than for work leading to reduced productivity of workers, increased susceptibility to release of secret information or strategic plans to external entities, occasional experience of difficulty in using personal USB devices at the workplace, chances of distorted relations among peers or with bosses because of non-acceptance of friends requests or adjustments of the personal profile settings, and increased awareness about the ongoing changes and happenings in the personal and social lives of the workers occasionally leading to doubts and curiosity. Since use of social media is a very important element of work in my organization, management assumes huge responsibility of training the workers in the use of social media to ensure that the policies are complied with. My organization achieves this by introducing the new employees to the policy of our hospital on the use of the Internet as well as social media within the very first week of the commencement of service. In addition to that, every year, employees of the Department of Defense and military conduct a mandatory online class on the hospitalÃ¢â¬â¢s policies on media and the Internet. These measures have helped create awareness regarding the organizational policies on the use of social media among the organizational personnel. Management ensures compliance with these policies on the part of the workers by holding the violators accountable for the violations of the policies and imposing fines upon them. Because of this, violation of policies at my organization happens very r arely and the system is
Why I Chose Carl Sandburg as my poet - Essay Example People had several reasons to appreciate Sandburg in addition to his wonderful poetry. A very strong reason was SandburgÃ¢â¬â¢s overt expression of his thoughts about the contemporary issues. He is one of the poets who wrote about modern day industrial era. Unlike most poets, who get universal acclaim in very early age, Sandburg had to wait to get to the international level. In this sense, he was a true struggler. People normally lose hope if success has to come that late, and this is what makes Sandburg different. And the best thing about this is SandburgÃ¢â¬â¢s realization and confession. Ã¢â¬Å"All my life I have been trying to learn to read, to see and hear, and to write. At sixty-five I began my first novel, and the five years lacking a month I took to finish it, I was still traveling, still a seekerÃ¢â¬ (Sandburg cited in Niven). This speaks of his down-to-earth nature and
Saturday, 24 August 2019
School Resources - Essay Example Lastly, the comparisons for the required staff, allotted staff and desired staff were also provided. School Resources Introduction The aim of schools at Newton County in Georgia State is to offer learning excellence to every child. Georgia State ensures that every occupant is entitled to enhanced education since better education is the right for every inhabitant. Therefore, for the state government to fulfill this aspect, it ensures that students receive better education across the state. This is through deploying teachers with effective education skills and offering them, better incentives to enable them deliver effective services. Every state constitution ensures that every citizen has the right to education; thus, the states play significant roles in ensuring that there are fair and equitable financial resources vital for enabling teachers to deliver effective services to students (LexiNexis, 2013). The financial resources, which is available in every state has two parts including the revenue and the expenditure sides. Funds have been on increase and many fundraisers have been dedicated to varied schools in order to make education work better for all citizens. Financial Resources State The financial resources of the school will include the revenue and expenditure since these accounts for the significant part of the state money. The funding revenue taxes are produced by the states and these are allocated for varied activities at the local schools. For instance, the high school local 5 mills are 197, 117, 287 and this indicates that 1 mill is worthy 39423457.4 dollars (Barge, 2013). These accounts for the total funds generated to meet the total expenses, which is often not funded by the federal or state government. Newton district received state funds of about $ 10, 009,047 for learning purposes in the current year (GaDOE, 2013). The QBE (Quality Basic Education), which is salary and operating cost for high school grade 9-12, is $ 11, 390,203. The FTE (full-ti me equivalent) is approximated 3, 741; thus a teacher teaching in high school will earn approximately $2,744. 80 (Barge, 2013). Federal The federal funding for schools in the current year is $ 1, 814, 00 to Newton County and direct transfer for federal revenue is $ 91. 000 (Barge, 2013). The federal government transfer of income, which is provided to the Georgia state, can be categorized in varied ways. The child nutrition act is estimated at $ 580, 000, safe and drug fee to schools is $ 8.000, children with disabilities act is $ 360, 000, vocational and technological education is $ 35,000 and other federal funding is estimated at $ 238,000. The federal government to enable the local schools to meet the needs of students with disabilities meets more than 5 percent of funds for locals; these funds are generated form tax collections and the QBE act makes the decisions about the funding. Therefore, the local system should provide FTE enrollment of students in order to enable the federa l government deliver the state funding effectively. This is because the state funding relies heavily on full-time equivalent report. Therefore, it is necessary for a student in Newton County to report in class at least for ten to fifteen days before the FTE report is taken. This is vital because the funding available for every
Friday, 23 August 2019
Crisis Management and Multimedia Technology in London Underground Line Control Rooms - Essay Example The focus is on the coordination between the two to ensure that there is smooth operation of the Underground rail services. Modernization of the Bakerloo Line Control Room is to ensure that all activities related to the rail service can be done from one location for efficiency purpose and to ensure passengers get better services. The paper discusses cooperative work in workplaces in the world of technology. Introduction In modern business World technology has been embraced to bring about a revolution touching on all aspects related to the workplaces. Communication has been enhanced and itÃ¢â¬â¢s possible to easily communicate with clients who are miles away in seconds. Technology inventions started in the1850s when telegraphy was invented. There came the invention of telephone, fax machines after that among others which have really made an impact on business today. Technological developments are as a result of integration of inventions in computer designs, computer networks and aud io visual communication systems. The technology revolution in the business world took place slowly but today itÃ¢â¬â¢s almost impossible to do business without technology. Modern technology comes in terms of tele conferencing and wireless communication making business flexible and efficient. New technologies come with new opportunities and services with employees telecommunicating easily at workplaces (Heath and Luff 1992b, 327). Today we have complex computer networks, phone systems and fax machines with the aim of surviving in business .Technologies offer investors the chance to stay in business by improving their business activities and performances over time. Computer hardware and software giants are making millions of dollars every day through sales and advancement of technology related hardware and softwares.A good example is CISCO systems that have a big workforce which cost the company more than $270 million annually. This is a sign of growth in sales of electronics which are crucial in running a business today. 2. Literature review Technology offers the chance and opportunities to transact business globally without having to be physical in doing it.This can be done through the internet, calls and meetings are being conducted via video conferencing technique. Its however unrealistic to think that these scientific inventions are always without failures. According to Galegher and Kraut ignoring the usual things about social interactions in groups and organizations is the main cause of systems failures. They believe that social scientists are key to making essential contribution in designing of complex systems to enhance cooperative work (Betta 2012, n.p). 3. Methodological considerations There has to be considerations on technological systems being used in respective workplaces all over the world. The success or failure of these systems depends entirely on the social organizations ability to coordinate as they go about their daily tasks and utilization of tools available. This coordinationÃ¢â¬â¢s are derived as a result of understanding each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s strengths and abilities with a sole goal of producing desirable conduct at work. Social organizations refer to the integration of the workforce with an aim of achieving positive results in regard to collection of activities and tasks in an organization. It cannot be assumed that both the tasks and activities take place within a defined cultural framework and social
Thursday, 22 August 2019
Self-esteem and Respect Essay Ã¢â¬Å"Respect permeates every aspect of you life. Ã¢â¬ As Joe Clark said in this quote, respect takes charge of everything in a persons life. The dictionary definition of respect is Ã¢â¬Å"a feeling of deep admiration for someone or something, elicited by their abilities, qualities, or achievements. Ã¢â¬ Being respectful may come natural to most people, but for others its a difficult task. Having respect can be taught from a young age. Being respectful requires, having self respect, listening to others, and earning and giving respect to other people. Self respect is having appropriate sense of ones own dignity and integrity. If a person does not respect themselves then they probably will never respect other people. If a person notices that another person does not take care of themselves by proper hygiene, letting people run over them, or having low self esteem, then people will mostly likely not respect that person. If a person practices good psychological health, physical health, and recreational health, then they respect themselves and are a good example of self respect. On the other hand if a person never exercises, smokes, drinks all the time, and hangs out with criminals, then they do not have self respect. People who have self respect will care enough about their bodies, and will not put themselves in those type of situations. Self respect is a trait that everyone should develop at some point because it will determine how the rest of your life will turn out, and is required for having a happy and satisfying life. Parks 2 Respect is listening to other people. When a person truly respects someone they will listen to their opinions and values, even if its something that does not interest you. When listening to someone you give them your undivided attention. When a person sits down and put away all of their distractions (cell phones, computers paperwork) away that shows that they care and respect that other person. When listening to other people, try to stay present with what the speaker is saying, and do not let your mind wonder. When the person that is speaking is finished speaking, pause before you reply. Pausing shows that the listener respects what the person just said, and is carefully thinking of a respectful way to reply. If people are great listeners, this opens up doors for a lot mutually respectful relationships. Respect is not a right. Its not just given to a person just because they want it. Respect is earned. Someone who wants to be respected should carry out actions suitable enough for people to take notice of and have positive worth to the world. Respect is earned by the way a person carries themselves and the way a person treats others. If a person does not respect a persons, feelings, values, and opinions, then other people will not respect their, feelings, values, and opinions. Respect is earned by a person, by making it crystal clear that that persons care about themselves. That also sets standards for how other people should treat that person. Respect is also earned by standing up for what you believe in, even if that person is the only one standing up for that belief. Living a life with respect may be hard to do, but once other people are respectful to a person it often becomes an instinct to give that respect right back. Respect permeates every aspect of a persons life. Respect is the foundation of every aspect in a persons life and it is important to possess this trait. Being a respectful person to others and yourself opens up many doors and relationships.
Wednesday, 21 August 2019
US and US Government Formation Comparison CONTENTS PAGE (Jump to) INTRODUCTION Communication strategy used by George Bush and Tony Blair [Similarities and Differences] LITERATURE REVIEW METHODOLOGY FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION Reformation of the Labour Party Labour gets new supporters The Tony Blair effect The Media Ã¢â¬â role of press, television and papers American Value system and Image Ã¢â¬â Differences between USA and UK- Social, Cultural, Political and Electoral CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY INTRODUCTION The political environment of two of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s leading countries has always held a degree of interest amongst researchers of international relations and politics. It has perhaps to do with the level of impact that the internal and external policies of these two governments have on the global economy. In this paper, we shall attempt to understand the differences and similarities between the political setups of the UK and the USA and follow the strategies and tactics of the elected governments over the past decade or so. At this stage, it is important to point out that there are many contrasting viewpoints on some of the decisions taken by the governments of these countries, hopefully; they can in their own way provide an all encompassing picture of the political canvas that surrounds these countries. On the one hand, we shall discuss in detail the formation of the Democratic government with Bill Clinton until the current Republican administration of George Bush. On the other side of the Atlantic, we shall visit a different piece of history where Tony Blair and the British Labour Party which has been in power over much the same period. Beginning with the UK, the Labour Party has been somewhat of a trendsetter. It has been in power in the UK since 1992 with its first elected leader as John Smith. 2 years later, with the passing away of John Smith, Tony Blair was elected as the leader of the Labour Party and has remained so ever since. The party has been in existence through the most part of the 20th century and it came into being on the backs of the large labour force during the advent of the industrial revolution in the UK. It has been seen as the voice of the people and responsible for many social causes such as the introduction of free education and healthcare (when it has been in power during various pockets of the 20th century). The NHS (National Health Service) was created by the Labour Party and is the lifeline on which the people of Britain are heavily dependent upon. Over the years, the Labour party has also been known to be the Ã¢â¬ËPeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s partyÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬â as the name suggests it represent s the needs of the people at all levels of society. Interestingly, Tony Blair in the Book Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"The PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s PartyÃ¢â¬ by Wright Carter (1997) mentions that the Labour Party is different from all other parties in Britain for 2 primary reasons. Firstly, it is a relatively new party that has been created over the course of the 20th century and imbibes the modern values and cultural needs of the people. Unlike other parties, it understands the contemporary needs of people and is proxy to the more recent callings of the nation. Secondly, the formation of the party did not take place in the City of Westminster. It was created as a result of the needs of the people in the countryside and in the small towns that lined the UK. The Labour Party was also renowned for bringing in a breath of fresh values and beliefs in comparison to the Conservative Party that had become to be known as the party which didnÃ¢â¬â¢t bring about changes to the degree required by the people. With Labour in power over the last decade, things have changed today. It all began very well with Tony Blair drafting policies that was well accepted by the people, but ever since; the Party has seen a steady decline in support over the years. A few years back, there were reservations that the Labour government could not take the country beyond a certain point. Soon after, Tony BlairÃ¢â¬â¢s uncompromising support of the US to enter the Iraq War was seen as a shot in the foot for the party. The people were divided in their sentiments on supporting Labour to take down the Saddam Hussein regime. In their opinion, it was correct to go into Iraq but through the United Nations and not as part of the US Taskforce. The few who believed otherwise b egan to change their minds after the invasion of Iraq when more and more British soldiers were killed in action. This created huge waves of disappointment in the UK and the support of the British people slowly left Labour. Whilst Tony Blair was re-elected in 2005, it was by the narrowest margin in the decade old history of the government. And even though Tony Blair finds himself in power, his position at the moment isnÃ¢â¬â¢t the best it could be. Moving on to the US side of elections and government policies, the most basic difference in the US is that it has adopted a presidential form of government as opposed to the parliamentary system in the UK. Bill Clinton, a democrat was voted into power in 1993. This was around the same time that the Labour party came into power in the UK. However, the political campaign was not a bed of roses for Clinton. His character was questioned with examples being cited from the Vietnam War of a Ã¢â¬Ëcharacter issueÃ¢â¬â¢. At the same time, he was also personally attacked for alleged infidelity which both him and his wife Ã¢â¬â Hillary refuted and embarked on a campaign through television interviews and other media vehicles to reassure the American public that they had a strong and workable marriage. To add to this, just prior to the elections, the ClintonÃ¢â¬â¢s were involved in what came to be known as the Ã¢â¬ËWhitewater Real estateÃ¢â¬â¢ scandal. Through trial in 1996, the partn ers in the venture were all convicted of fraud whereas the Bill Clinton was never accused of any wrong-doings on his part. The first real challenge that Clinton faced after being elected was to allow homosexuals in the armed forces. This was faced with a lot of resentment and he received considerable flak for allowing such a rule to prevail in the military. After much debate, it was agreed that homosexuality would not be used against the people serving in the armed forces Ã¢â¬â more like a Ã¢â¬ËDonÃ¢â¬â¢t ask me and I wont tellÃ¢â¬â¢ policy. Internally, Clinton also faced problems with the issues of welfare reform, the prevention of crime and the healthcare system. The one area that Clinton really shone was on the international map. He instrumented many successes for the US and built valuable bridges for the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s future. Some of these achievements included the showcasing of America as a friend to the Israel Ã¢â¬â Jordan peace program, an improvement in the re lations with Russian by proposing economic benefits to President Boris Yeltsin, tackling the instability and security issues in countries in Eastern Europe such as Bosnia and lastly, the improving of relations between the US and India, China and the Far eastern countries. The one significant area which was worked upon together with Tony Blair was the NATO intervention in 1999. Here, the 2 leaders worked to get the NATO to respond to the ethnic cleansing that was taking place in the Serbian capital of Kosovo. As a result, they were able to bomb Serbia for 78 days. However, Clinton did face some degree of criticism of holding back the troops to enter Serbia but was rewarded soon after since the President of Serbia did sign a peace treaty in the following months after the bombing campaign. And Clinton was re-elected and stayed in power till 2001. During his stint, he was popularly renowned for giving America its most prosperous period in terms of peace and economic well-being. The US faced its lowest ever period of unemployment, the highest home ownership in the history of the country and the lowest rate of inflation as well. The only slur on his tenure came in the form of the Ã¢â¬ËMonica Lewinsky ScandalÃ¢â¬â¢ where he was allegedly involved intimately with one of the White House interns. It must be noted that Clinton was the first president to ever appear before a grand jury in an investigation. Over a period of time, the people of the US gradually forgot about this scandal and allowed him to move on with the governing of the country. On the whole, Clinton was remarkably adept at improving the American equation with a host of countries it had not done so in the past Ã¢â¬â South Africa, India, China and many more especially in the South East. (http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0760626.html) George Bush came into power in the year 2001 as the successor to Bill Clinton. However, he is a Republican and in a short space of time, came to have an impact on world politics and international relations in a way never conceived before. BushÃ¢â¬â¢s tenure has been populated wit the fight against terrorism which began with the attack on the World Trade Centre on September 11th 2001. This has been somewhat of a 2 phased campaign against terrorism. Initially, it began with the hunt for Osama Bin Laden, the terrorist responsible for the September 11th attacks and the corresponding hunt to catch him in the country of Afghanistan. More recently, the campaign trail has focused its efforts on the Saddam Hussein regime in Iraq. And this in turn, has divided the American public in their opinion on whether the act of entering Iraq was in fact, justified. The problems for Bush rose closer to the end of his first electoral period when many American soldiers were being killed in Iraq. The peop le of the US were growing more and more uneasy with the Iraq campaign and Bush was on the verge of losing his chances of being re-elected in the next election. Experts found that Bush had unfortunately concentrated his efforts and attention too heavily on the war against terror and people were getting tired of it. Additionally, the common man was looking to improve his / her standard of living and with unemployment rising and a stained economic scenario, Bush was looking like he might be in trouble. However, the primary strategy adopted by the Republican administration was to try and highlight the economic benefits that the Bush administration had created over the years and try and push into the background, the campaign against terrorism and the Iraq War. Add to this, the opposition leader from the Democratic Party did not have the political clout to seriously challenge the Republicans. All these ingredients came together to ensure that George Bush was re-elected into power for the second election term. Ever since his second elected term, George Bush and his political policies have stayed relatively sublime in the eyes of the people and the media. What has never ceased to stir interest and conflict in the minds of the people of both the US and the UK is the relationship shared by the two leaders. Both Bush and Blair have been known to share similar political agendas and Tony Blair has received a lot of flak for supporting Bush on the Iraq War and other global political campaigns. The general consensus in the UK is that Tony Blair has not done justice to the UK by bending backwards to the demands of the US. This was once again, explicitly highlighted with growing number of deaths of British soldiers in Iraq. At the time of writing this report, the feeling shared by most people is whether the War on Iraq was justified in the first place and was there a need to go in to it supporting the US as opposed to entering Iraq as the United Nations. Unfortunately, the UK has been hit by a wave of terrorist attacks in the last few months and this has made the people much more uncomfortable in the security assurances by the Blair government. Going forward, the relationship between these 2 leaders is always going to be tested as the people of these countries learn to live through problems inflicting upon them. (http://www.whitehouse.gov/) People and Democracy have been long standing battles between governments and masses. There are a lot of issues which are of prime importance to the government for resurrecting their policies and objectives, the people on the other hand have to understand the impact of these policies to determine how they vote for the government and their representative. In the current scenario, the re lections of George Bush and Tony Blair took place amidst a lot of surprise, indignation, horror and laxity, while some people were expecting it, the others had nothing but stingy remarks about how uninformed people are about world issues to bring back leaders like Bush and Blair back in the lime light. The highlight and common issue which has plagued both these leaders has been terrorism and the Iraq war. It all started with the unfortunate 9/11 attacks on the twin towers. In his quest to prove to the American public his commitment to the people, Bush extended his powers to regimes in Iraq and other pla ces which were supposed breeding grounds for the likes of Osama Bin Laden and terrorism. Tony Blair in his quest to support the American government participated in the war at an equal footing. The people and democracy in USA and UK has harnessed a notion of fight against terror yet the public has been against the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s initiatives. Communication strategy used by George Bush and Tony Blair [Similarities and Differences] Canvassing Approach and Messaging Public Meetings Agendas for these meetings Ã¢â¬â Iraq, Health, Taxation, Drugs, Education, Homeland Security, National Security and Environment Advertisements Press Relations Communication is a powerful tool which has been used many a times to gain power and win elections. The communication strategy can be based on various levels covering press releases, campaigns, canvassing, advertisement and mailers among other avenues. Even then the communication strategy used in USA differs a great deal from that of UK; this will be discussed and dissected later in another section. LITERATURE REVIEW Richards Paul(2001) in his book, How to win an election talks about preparation and planning, the different tribes of politics, planning a campaign, direct campaigning and indirect campaigning. Elections are probably one of the most components which differentiate a democratic society from a non democratic society. An election is what makes a democracy work when people truly have a right to vote and choose who is their representative and who would drive and support their. General elections decide which party goes ahead and forms a government and also how the politics and economy work for a country. There have been various attempts to increase interest in elections and their outcomes. In UK, the home office came up with a list of variations:- Ã¢â¬Å"Polling hours: variations in polling hours to allow different start or finish times. Polling days: moving polling to an alternative weekday or a day at the weekend or allowing voting over more than one day. Early voting: opening a limited number of polling stations in the period before polling day at accessible locations to allow any eligible elector to vote. Mobile polling: providing a mobile polling station which could take the ballot box to groups of voters, for example, by visiting residential and convalescent homes. Out of area voting: allowing electors to vote at any polling station in the electoral area, or even outside it All postal ballots: allowing an election to be held on the basis of postal voting only Electronic voting: supplementing polling booths and polling stations with automated voting equipment, telephone voting or online remote voting via the internet.Ã¢â¬ [Richards Paul (2001), p 20-70] No election can be fought in isolation; there are always background issues which have relevance to the election and campaigning. In September 2000 the British government almost came to a halt due to the widely proclaimed petrol price protests, yet no politician or government was prepared for this action and its repercussions. Candidates who are seen as rising stars could soon be biting dust; history is littered with example of failed careers as aspiring politicians have lost their claim to fame due to the unpredictable ways of elections. Elections have always been a ground of unpredictability and surprises, who would have thought that Winston Churchill after his brilliant win in the year 1940 would be miserably defeated in 1945. The conservatives suffered badly in the year 2001 when Tony Blair defeated them with a massive victory. One does not need massive knowledge about political theory and how it works to know that elections are random and unpredictable. The reason being, that ele ctions are all about people, people who decide who they want to vote for or who they want to disregard based on their perceptions. People are beyond scientific interpretation or calculations, how they react and what the do is beyond anyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s understanding of the human psyche. Interestingly so the way people choose a brand of washing liquid is probably the way they choose their next political leader. Elections need a lot of research and manpower; there are strategists, campaigners, sociologists, pollsters who work on the way the votes would swing in a direction. There is intense study involved about the last elections and the way they panned, the way people reacted to the campaign and the activities undertaken by the previous government. Modern politics has become an art, the most unlikely candidate can sweep house, and how does one explain the theory behind the victory of George W. Bush? Although politicians will try to sway the way voters work but in a democratic society it is always difficult to understand what really make the people tick. A lot of incidents in political history show how elections can actually sway either way for any candidate and no amount of confidence can confirm the victory or loss in a campaign. In the April 1970, Prime Minister Harold Wilson was extremely fond of using a football metaphor, Ã¢â¬Å"If I were a football manager, on present form I would be more worried about job security than I am a prime ministerÃ¢â¬ . Harold Wilson lost the elections in June, 1970, his confidence in his victory was based on real time facts like good poll ratings, sound majority in the House of Commons, media and peer opinion led him to think so. [Richards Paul (2001), p. 45-55] Yet the voters had other ideas in mind, despite all the facts pointing in the direction of a straight win, Wilson lost badly. So no matter how one campaigns, votes cannot be taken for granted as situations can change really fast. Election campaigns are a very expensive task, consuming hundreds of millions for resources like advertising, media, posters, television broadcasts, direct mail and canvassing. In short winning an election is a tough job and a risky business. Politics is similar to fashion, it runs of trends and fads which are hard to predict and adopt. Election campaigns are also dependent on unforeseen circumstances which can prop up anytime, scandals, loose press criticism, reports and issues which can blow the campaign in minutes. Campaigns are dictated by what Harold Macmillan calls Ã¢â¬Å"events dear boy, eventsÃ¢â¬ , they cannot be run with static rules, one need to get innovative and adapt to the current environment and what it seeks. A set of tactics is not what drives one to political victory; itÃ¢â¬â¢s the form of changing and learning from others mistakes and best known practices. As the soviet foreign minister said to Ernest Bevin, Ã¢â¬Å"the disadvantage of free elections is that you can never be sure who is going to win themÃ¢â¬ . [Richards Paul (2001), p 30-40] Richard Paul (2001, p. 65 75) says Ã¢â¬Å"Other than the artistry of the campaign, there is science too. There are components and buildings blocks of a campaign which are crucial to standing a chance. There are the techniques tested against real experience and real elections, and the accumulated knowledge of a thousand campaigns and campaigners. There are a plenty of representative politicians in office today all over the world who owe their positions of power not to have a better ideas or even a majority of support, but thanks to better organization. The result of the 2000 US presidential election was decided on the tiniest margins, was won by an organization Ã¢â¬â the ability to get out the voteÃ¢â¬ . This takes us to how much a campaign contributes in the election results and which way they go. Political choices are made by voters not just by weeks and months of campaigning. Neil Connock famously said that Ã¢â¬Å"elections are won in years, not weeksÃ¢â¬ , the voters get to decide whom they vote for based on a combination on reasons, one of them being a campaign which serves a reminder of what has been done in the past. Analyst David Butler echoes the idea of a campaign as a ritual. He says, Ã¢â¬Å"The campaign may to some extent be a ritual dance, a three-week repetition of well-aired themes, making no substantial net difference to the outcome. British elections are usually won over the long haul. A very large proportion of people vote out of loyalty, supporting the party that they and their parents too have always supported; those that change their minds are usually converted, not because of the final three weeks, but over the months and years because of an accumulated impres sion, positive or negative, and of the values and the performance of rival partiesÃ¢â¬ . [Richards Paul (2001), p. 50 65] Politics in America has been an integral part of International Politics and it affects all nations. If we look at the American political and electoral process and their insightful history, it would help understand how democratic they are in their ways. Richard Maidment and Anthony Mcbrew (1993) in their book, Ã¢â¬Å"the American political processÃ¢â¬ , talk about liberal democracy in the American political system. The language of the current American politics can leave little doubt in our minds that itÃ¢â¬â¢s all about democrats and upholding the values and power of democracy where the public and voters stand the strongest. A very important factor which distinguishes the American society and the people also its political stance is the society. The lack of class consciousness in the American society, the heterogeneous religious and social environment also the lack of feudal system has made it into such a democratic society. The American attitude towards government politics has bee n very individualistic. The stress has always been on the American offices being run by a place of legality and enshrined in the view that this is what makes this society and political distinctive. The nation is so heterogeneous in its approach and outlook that itÃ¢â¬â¢s difficult to pinpoint the political culture. The American politicians have had a large share of history and legacy to deal with, the American history which needs the same culture to carry on. The politicians need to make their own choices of public policy options all of which need acceptance on a wider level within the system. It just means that the boundaries are being stretched and the politicians and political systems so that there is a room for more man oeuvre. George Bush had a lot to inherit and manage considering that they were taking over from the Reagan administration right at the beginning of his political career. In 1989, the relationship between the Soviet Union and the USA were brimming the brightest and that the time due to a lot of positive activity in Easter Europe the USAÃ¢â¬â¢s position was fairly strong. In this light of the American political system one does need to consider the importance of congress in the political arena of America. The congress has always been an important aspect of the American election and political arena. In 1985, Woodrow Wilson wrote of the congress: Ã¢â¬Å"It is unquestionably the predominant and controlling force, the center and source of all motive and of all regulative power Ã¢â¬ ¦the legislature is the aggressive spiritÃ¢â¬ ¦it has entered more and more into the details of administration, until it has virtually taken into its own hands all the substantial powers of governmentÃ¢â¬ ¦I know no t how better to describe our form of government in a single phrase than by calling it a government by the chairman of the standing committees of congress (Wilson, 1956, pp.31, 44, 49, 52)Ã¢â¬ [Richard Maidment and Anthony Mcbrew (1993), p 110-140] Some years later another very distinguished gentleman who took great care in understanding the American society said, Ã¢â¬Å"Congress has been the branch government with the largest facilities for usurping the powers of the other branches, and probably with the most dispositions to do so. It has succeeded in occupying nearly all of the area which the constitution left vacant and unallocated between the second authorities it established. (Bryce, 1889, Vol.2, pp. 711-12)Ã¢â¬ . [Richard Maidment and Anthony Mcbrew (1993), p 140-180] Brian White, Richard Little and Michael smith (1997) in their book, Issues in World Politics, talks about the political environment across the world, states and statehood, trade money and markets, regions, development and inequality, arms and arms control, nationalism and ethnic conflict, environment and natural resources. An important aspect of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s political systems and elections is the role media plays in keeping everyone informed. All the information that we now receive locally, nationally or internationally is thanks to media which may come in various forms like television, radio, newspaper and the modern internet communications. Information is now available free and easy unlike the olden days when a lot of places were thought to be remote and so information traveled slower than usual. All that has changed now, all the political issues and what affects the leaders from coming to power is all available on media. The media is playing an important role now where globaliza tion is making the world a smaller place. Someone like George Bush had to see CNN to understand the Iraq situation since it brought the latest news to the public. The elections use the television as a medium to get their message across to the public and let them know of the work being undertaken by them. All of the canvassing and public debates between political opponents are covered by television on a global scale so that countries across continents have complete up to date knowledge about the happenings. Elections in USA and UK the world super powers are an important place for international policies or national policies which will affect other countries that are in business/trade with them. The selection of the political leader is also an important cause since it determines the amiability or hostility of maintaining relationships with leaders of some countries. The two last most controversial elections have been that of George Bush in USA and Tony Blair in UK especially in the wak e of the much controversial Iraq war. A lot of movies, documentaries and new articles have since then been published trying to give the general public across continents a more varied and comprehensive insight into the election process and what tipped the scales in favour of the two most contentious leaders. The American president has been surrounded with controversy since the twin tour attacks and his rebuttal to that, the capture of Saddam Hussein and finally the Iraq war which is a dark reality which has still not ended. The civil disputes are ongoing between the army and anti social elements in that society trying to keep the dispute ongoing. USA has been at the helm of lot of international criticism; all this has been made possible due to the regular broadcasts and news items being provided by television and other media mediums. An interesting name in media who has brought a lot to the fore front and what George Bush has really set out to do is Michael Moore. His book, Ã¢â¬Å"Dude, whereÃ¢â¬â¢s my country?Ã¢â¬ is an attempt to uncover some truth and factual information about George Bush, his strategies in the past, terrorism, the use of tax issues to buy the public vote and America the liberal paradise which is no more. The book is a poignant account of how much has changed in America the land of the free under the regime of George Bush who has worked on his terms and conditions against popular demands and International interventions. The history for this big calamity is set in the time when Bill Clinton was the USA president. He being a liberal did not use radical moves to counter attack everyone considered AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s enemy. Clinton was a popular leader by choice who really put USA up there as the world super power and not so by doing direct attacks on countries like Iraq and other nations who pr esented a threat to AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s prosperity. It was during the regime of Bill Clinton that one learnt in the 1990s how to fight all the wars yet keep the losses of the Americans to a bare minimum. Clinton closed down bases, reduced the number of troops, and funneled money into other projects which were indirect attacks on other nations but without jeopardizing the lives of many Americans. The Clinton era built America to become a high tech lean machine which is was really helped pentagon and the Bush government in fighting back the terrorist attacks. The book further goes on to pin the blames of the terrorist attacks in USA on George Bush and his former collaboration with the Bin Laden family. The book is highly controversial in nature as it makes factual claims about Bin LadenÃ¢â¬â¢s close association with America and with the Bush family. Despite all this being published openly in the wake of the attacks and the negative profiling George Bush underwent, he still came back successful in the next elections which followed. Is this a surprise or does it contain more fact about the truth in brainwashing the public voters into believing what one wants them to. George Bush in a very strategic move has used the war to win the elections; he has put the fear of public safety and the war against terrorism to pass more and more acts which give them control over public records, their activities and lives. The patriotic act is one such act which takes a bite out of American democracy and freedom of speech and action. George Bush has effect ively used the wars to tell the public that he won these for them and that all his actions are only to serve and protect the American public. Although there is democracy itÃ¢â¬â¢s more under pressure that people practice the same for the fear of prosecution under these new acts which give the government and officials more control over a citizens life. Some of the information in this book is insightful and frightening as it explores all the dirty facts which have been so far hidden from the public eye but the most inspiring fact is that the man embroiled in such controversy is once again been reelected as president of Unites states of America. The defense budget was increased drastically in the wake of these attacks and the office was in sync with these efforts given the attacks and the inkling of more such attacks in the future. Also George Bush has had a powerful ally in UK, Tony Blair who has
Tuesday, 20 August 2019
Study On Serial Position Curve Phenomena The Serial Position Curve is a psychological phenomena founded by Murdock (1962) in an experiment where the participants were tested for recall on a list of words previously learnt. This experiment has in turn become an accepted measure of memory testing. The theory for the serial position curve is that people recall a list of pre-learnt words best at the beginning and at the end of the given list. Typically, when a sequence of visual or verbal material is presented, the initial and later items in the sequence are remembered better than those from the middle of the sequence (Baddeley, Papagno Andrado 1993; Glanzer Cunitz 1966; Neath 1993). These effects are termed primacy and recency effects, respectively. Well-known primacy effects occur when people are forming a summary impression of a single entity such as a person, product or event. When information about a single entity is presented sequentially, there is usually a primacy or first impression effect, whereby the earliest information has a larger impact on the unitary impression that later information does (Anderson 1973; Asch 1946). In addition, sensory scientists report a primacy bias in hedonic assessment of food; the first food sampled is experienced most strongly, so it is likely to be the most memorable (MacFie, Bratchell, Greehoff Vallis 1989). One reason putforward for the primacy effect is that the initial items presented are most effectively stored inÃ long-term memoryÃ because of the greater amount of processing devoted to them. Several studies have investigated the effects of location in a sequence on end-of-sequence choices, there is still no clear answer to the question of which location in a sequence is most advantageous. Several researchers have conducted that there are primacy effects in choice (Carney Banaji 2008; Miller Krosnick 1998), and many descriptive studies of consumer choice have found such effects (Becker 1954; Berg, Filipello, Hinreiner Sawyer 1955; Coney 1977; Dean 1980). One suggested reason for the recency effect is that these items are still present inÃ working memoryÃ when recall is solicited. One suggested reason for the primacy effect is that the initial items presented are most effectively stored inÃ long-term memoryÃ because of the greater amount of processing devoted to them. There is some support backing up these ideas. Firstly, the primacy effect but not the recency effect is reduced when the items are presented faster. In addition, the primacy effect is enhanced when items are presented slowly, this suggests such factors can reduce and enhance processing of each item, therefore showing evidence of permanent storage. Secondly, the recency effect but not the primacy effect is reduced when a distracter task is given such as a maths continuous subtraction prior to recalling list items. This task in turn, requires working memory, and therefore interferes with the list items trying to be rehearsed and learned. The question of primacy versus recency dominance is not clear cut and continues to be investigated and debated. Marketing researchers generally have heeded the psychologists caution to vary presentation order in consumer product testing. However, there have been no recorded attempts to determine whether first or last position bias does influence consumer choice. Glanzer Cunitiz (1966) study investigating memory recognition and primacy-recency effects found that if a distracter task was introduced immediately after participants had learnt a list of words, that the recency effect was wiped out, but the primacy effect remained. However, Bjork and Whitten (1974) found that there was still a recency effect in free recall when the participants counted backwards for twelve seconds after each item in the list was presented. According to Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) this should have eliminated the recency effect. The vast majority of research into the serial position effect and memory has been conducted using verbal stimuli. These have found familiar bow-shaped serial position functions using a variety of theory including probed recall (Avons, Wright Pammer 1994, Nairne, Whiteman Woessner 1995) and serial reconstruction (Nairne, Reigler Serra 1991). Similar results arise if the stimulus materials are familiar pictures that can be verbally encoded (Manning Schreier 1988). Recent research has shown that serial reconstruction tasks using random matrices (Avons, 1998) and unfamiliar faces accompanied by verbal suppression (Smyth, Hay, Hitch Horton 2005) yield similarly shaped bow-shaped curves. In contrast, when memory for visual stimuli is examined using probed recognition the typical finding is not of a bow-shaped serial position curve but one with no primacy and only last item recency. Phillips Christie (1977) first demonstrated this non-standard serial position curve using a range of paradigms, with this finding being replicated using a variety of materials and methods (Avons, 1980; Avons, 1998; Broadbent and Broadbent, 1981; Hanna Loftus, 1993; Kerr, Avons Ward, 1999; Kornes, Maggnussen Reinvang, 1996; Walker, Hitch Duroe, 1993). Miles and Hodder (2005) looked at the effects of serial position on recognition memory for odours. The seven studies presented in their report looked at the contradiction in the present literature concerning the effect of serial presentation of odours on immediate recognition of test items. Usually, recognition tasks give the participant a sequence of items followed by two test items; one of which is familiar. The participant is then asked to identify the familiar item. Such a task is known as a two-alternative forced choice (2AFC) task. Using such a type of testing usually creates recency effects in the absence of primacy effects (Miles 2005). Moreover, whilst considerable primacy-recency research has been conducted by using visual and auditory stimuli (Aldridge, J.W. Farrell, M.T. 1977; Broadbent, D. Dines, R. Broadbent, M. 1978; Engle, R.W. Durban, E.D. 1977) and to a lesser extent, motor stimuli (Magill, R.A Dowell, M.N. 1977), little study has been devoted in this area to the sense of taste. However, Ward, Avons Melling (2005) reported qualitatively equivalent serial position functions for both unfamiliar faces and nonwords when applied to a two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) recognition task and a serial order reconstruction task. The recognition task demonstrated single-item recency whilst the construction task demonstrated both primacy and recency. On the basis of these analogous functions, Ward et al (2005) proposed that the serial position effect differs due to task, rather than stimulus or modality dependent. For example, a 2AFC recognition task produced recency effects only, and serial order reconstruction tasks produces primacy and recency effects. Although, research conducted on olfactory memory and recognition has suggested memory for olfactory stimuli is different from memory for other stimuli (Baddeley 1976; Herz Engen 1996) as it has been found that immediate recognition of odours is considerably worse than that noted in visual or auditory tasks (Lawless 1978). Research into taste memory has previously investigated the presentation order effects (Dean 1980). This study measured the effects of position order in consumer taste testing on overall product preference and product rating scores. It was found that consumer product evaluations appeared to have been influenced strongly by presentation order, as first position products were preferred over later ones. This was based on both food and beverages. However, it could be argued that the results were found due to underlying reasons such as attention decrement, which is an idea emerged from serial order effects research that suggests that attention decreases over the course of stimulus exposure. In addition, it is suggested another underlying reason is a possible palate desensitisation effect, which is where participants become progressively less able to discriminate as a result of an initial taste or sensory masking effect. This effect is thought to have been visible even though Dean (1980) us ed water and crackers between products, as the participants taste discrimination may have become temporarily impaired. A second study into taste preference by Mantonakis, Rodero, Lesschaeve Hastie (2009). This study found that their measure of preference revealed a primacy advantage for the 2-wine, 3-wine, 4-wine and 5-wine sequences and a recency effect for the 4-wine and 5-wine sequence only. Mantonakis et al (2009) suggested bias reasons for this, the first was a first-is-best bias which is to account for the consistent primacy effect. In addition, the second bias was the bias in favour of each new wine accounts for the recency effect, it was found that the participants with higher expertise in wine were more persistent in looking for a better wine later in the sequence. Furthermore, Melcher Schooler (1996) had investigated the verbal overshadowing of taste memory regarding a situation where domain-specific perceptual expertise exceeds verbal expertise. Three groups of participants were used, non-wine drinkers who have virtually no experience with the stimulus and have low perceptual expertise and low verbal expertise, wine drinkers who have developed a palate for wine, therefore they have moderate perceptual expertise yet low verbal expertise, and the third group was wine experts who have high perceptual expertise and high verbal expertise. It was found that verbal overshadowing did infact occur in the wine drinkers group whereby their perceptual expertise exceeded their verbal expertise. A possible explanation for this given by Lewis, Seeley Miles (2009) is that the novice wine drinkers may not have the ability to provide verbal descriptions that were sufficiently analytic in order to establish a change in style that could carry over to the wine- recognition stage. The experts on the other hand, may have been analytic in their approach to the initial wine tasting and so, even if the verbal description task did produce a carry-over of a controlled analytic style, then this style would not have been deleterious to their wine recognition skills. Another area of taste memory that has been explored is the processing of Navon letters and wine recognition in a series of tests (Lewis, Seeley Miles 2009). It was found that wine recognition was more accurate after the reading of the global letters rather than after the reading of the local letters of the Navon stimuli. The present study investigated the effects of position order in a sequence of wines and taste recognition of a trial wine in a series of trials. The experimental hypothesis for the present study was that there would be a significant difference in correct scores between the first and third position and the second position, therefore, that primacy and regency effects would be present in taste memory.
Monday, 19 August 2019
A Pentadic Analysis of Two Pleas for Christian Unity :: Religion Christians Christianity Burke Papers
A Pentadic Analysis of Two Pleas for Christian Unity Introduction The prayer for Christian unity began with Christ, himself (John 1:21), and continues today. This essay proposes to examine two pleas for Christian unity using the rhetorical theory of Kenneth Burke. According to Em Griffin, "Kenneth Burke was the foremost rhetorician of the twentieth century. Burke wrote about rhetoric; other rhetoricians write about Burke" (319). Burke's theory seems especially relevant to the study of pleas for unity because of his focus on identification. For Burke, rhetoric is identification. "You persuade a man only insofar as you can talk his language by speech, gesture, tonality, order, image, attitude, idea, identifying your ways with his" (Rhetoric 55). Additionally, Burke equates identification with consubstantiality. "To identify A with B is to make A 'consubstantial' with B" (Rhetoric 21). The two calls for Christian unity to be analyzed are Thomas Campbell's "Declaration and Address" and E. Glenn Wagner's The Awesome Power of Shared Beliefs. Campbell's address is important because of its historical significance. "This document, which calls for Christian unity through a return to the clear and unambiguous teachings of the New Testament, in many ways chartered the course for the movement the Campbells led" (Hughes 11). Wagner's book is chosen because of the contemporary prominence of the Promise Keepers movement. This essay will proceed by explaining relevant aspects of Kenneth Burke's works, including the methodology to be used, applying the methodology to the two pleas, and discussing the results. Dramatism and the Pentad Burke saw life as a drama played out in our language. By examining the words of a person, you can determine his or her motives. Motives are grammatical creations which explain "what people are doing and why they are doing it" (Grammar x). Foss provides the following explanation: We use rhetoric to constitute and present a particular view of our situation, just as the presentation of a play creates a certain world or situation inhabited by characters who engage in actions in a setting. Through rhetoric, we size up situations and name their structures and outstanding ingredients. How we describe a situation indicates how we are perceiving it, the choices we see available to us, and the action we are likely to take in our situation. (456) The pentad is a the tool used to investigate motives. Burke writes, ". . . any complete statement about motives will offer some kind of answer to these five questions: what was done (act), when or where it was done (scene), who did it (agent), how he did it (agency), and why (purpose)" (Grammar x).
In the medieval period that is described by Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, chivalry was perhaps the most recognized quality of a true gentleman. This quality is explored in Chaucer's two characters of the warrior class, the Knight and the Squire. The squire is the son of the Knight; both ride gallantly and have the air of true gentleman warriors. However, the two are very dissimilar despite their appearances. The Knight possesses the true qualities of chivalry, devotion to service, constancy in humility, and honesty. The Squire possesses none of these qualities truly; instead his demeanor is one that is less honorable and virtuous. Although both claim the same vocation, the Squire and the Knight display contradicting attitudes in respect to dedication, material possessions, and sincerity. The main point in the description of the Knight was the abundance and importance of his battles, while it was the least mentioned aspect in the Squire. The entirety of the Squire's military experience is named in two lines, "he had seen some service with the cavalry/ If Flanders and Artois and Picardy," perchance a direct consequence of the Squire's youth (5). The list of the Knight's battles clearly dominates the text of his description, running many lines. He had embarked ".along the Mediterranean coast" to such places as Alexandria, Lithuania, Russia, Granada, Algeciras, North Africa, Benamarin, Anatolia, Ayas, and Attalia (4). Not only were the battles of the knight more numerous, they were more extensive and required lengthy travels to far-away lands. The Squire had "done valiantly in little space" in these battles, but had not distinguished himself from his peers. This is implied when it is said that he had only seen "some service with the cavalry" (5). The Squire had pursued no noteworthy errands in the interest of chivalry like his father. The "distinguished knight", on the other hand, was very chivalrous because of his unconditional dedication (4). He had been in "fifteen mortal battles" and "always killed his men" which supports that he is committed to his work, as opposed to the Squire, who possessed a distracted attitude (4). "He could make sons and poems and recite, / Knew how to joust and dance, to draw and write" and so has focused his time and energy to many other things (5). The S... ...agility", he did not use it to the full extent that his father used his own. In all aspects, in comparison with his own contradictory behavior, and in comparison with the Knight's behavior, the Squire is shown to be less than sincere in his chivalry. The Knight and the Squire have distinctly different attitudes towards their vocation. As a result, they are complementing images of the medieval warrior. The Knight is the romantic image that all true knights aspire to, generously practicing such chivalrous qualities as dedication, humility, and sincerity. Contrasting this, however, is the image depicted by the Squire, that of an imperfect knight who was to some degree boastful, lusting, or superficial. The Squire was never directly criticized by Chaucer, but the implications that resulted from the description amounted to an extravagant, un-chivalrous image, perhaps a reflection of the actual knights of Chaucer's day. Therefore, Chaucer was not merely comparing two knights and defining the virtues that comprised chivalry, but on a bigger scale was revealing the corruption of humanity by comparing the difference between the realities of our humanity with the ideal of perfection.
Sunday, 18 August 2019
Analysis of Gail Godwin's A Sorrowful Woman Gail Godwin's short story "A Sorrowful Woman" revolves around a wife and mother who becomes overwhelmed with her husband and child and withdraws from them, gradually shutting them completely out of her life. Unsatisfied with her role as dutiful mother and wife, she tries on other roles, but finds that none of them satisfy her either. She is accustomed to a specific role, and has a difficult time coping when a more extensive array of choices is presented to her. This is made clear in this section of the story. As a housewife and a mother, Godwin's protagonist leads a fairly structured life. Her activities are mostly confined to caring for her husband and child and caring for their home. Though she is obviously unsatisfied with this, as shown by her attempts to discard this role, she is not comfortable without such a structure. Even when she has moved into the white room, she develops a routine of brushing her hair in the sun each day. When she decides to write a poem, she shies away from the project once she realizes how many options are open to her; the idea of so much freedom seems to distress her. Even when she thinks that "her poem could be six, eight, ten, thirteen lines, it could be any number of lines, and it did not even have to rhyme," the words themselves are rushed, the pacing of the sentence communicating her nervousness and discomfort. Her dissatisfaction with her role in life also leads Godwin's protagonist to try on other roles. Though she tries on many, none of these seem to satisfy her either; she "tried these personalities on like costumes, then discarded them." Her inability to find any role that actually satisfies her probably contributes to her general sense of helplessness and continued withdrawal from her family and, indeed, the rest of the world. Since she cannot find any particular role that suits her, she attempts not to have any role at all; the coldness and isolation of the undecorated white room make it seem that she is trying to empty herself of her previous life. Her withdrawal from the world is also presented in this passage. She chooses to move into the white room, now no longer decorated by the previous inhabitant. White can be a very cold, sterile color, and it serves to illustrate her lack of attachment to the room or to her own home.
Saturday, 17 August 2019
The American Civil War was, as all wars are, affected not only by the men fighting on the battlefield, but by the women who served on the home front, in military hospitals, and occasionally next to men on the battlefield. Just as women influenced the war, the war changed the world in which the women lived. The womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights movement began shortly before the Civil War, and continued through the war, growing stronger as women were touched by the war, and longed for rights equal to men. Women supported men by donating supplies to the effort in both the North and the South.Women served as soldiers, worked in military hospitals, and spied to discover valuable information to aid their homeland. Women were a very valuable resource during the war, and the war was very influential on the way women lived their lives in America. Before the Civil War, womenÃ¢â¬â¢s roles in America were changing. Economic modernization caused the production of items previously made by women to occur out side of the home. In some cases, families needed women to work for wages in or out of the home. [i] In most cases, however, the men left for work while the women stayed at home to tend to the house and raise the children.This caused the existence of Ã¢â¬Å"separate spheres. Ã¢â¬ [ii] With this shift in production, the purpose of the home changed. Mothers were the source of love and nurturing for the children. When families became more centered on love and affection, midle class families started having fewer children. [iii] This, in turn, caused women to be able to be more active in society, since they were not constantly expecting or nursing a newborn. [iv] In the early and middle 1800s, women moved out of the home and into the public sphere.Many unmarried women had little chance of being planters, and they were not hired in the city. [v] Most commonly, women worked from the home. Occupations that took place outside of their home were traditional feminie roles of seamstress, laund ress, or nanny. Few women were able to acquire jobs in retail, and women with larger homes could open a boardinghouse. [vi] Women (and children) worked in factories for wages and served humanity, and were generally overlooked by others. [vii] In the North, the manufacturing of cloth items such as clothing moved from the home to factories.Northern women increasingly could purchase thred, cloth, and clothing, while the South had fewer factories, so clothing was made in the home. [viii] Southern women did not question their place in society and admired the traditional way of life on their plantations. [ix] With fewer children and much less work at home, families sent their children to school more, and the public education system changed. The school became responsible for education and social skills. Women became more involved in the schooling system, and most teachers were women. Because of this, women needed to be educated, too. x] Women found work as schoolteachers because the enviro nment was safer and more comfortable than a factory. [xi] Other women worked as private music, dance, or art tutors. They did, however, make low salaries. Though women found employment as teachers and in factories and shops, they longed for a traditional family life. [xii] Education was viewed different in the North and in the South. In the North, women were expected by intelligent and independent free thinkers, while Southern women were expected to use their intellect to make polie conversation and support their ladylike character. xiii] Increasingly during the Antebellum period, women learned how to read. More families owned books and taught their children how to read. [xiv] Wealthy families may have had private libraries, from which daughters could read a variety of literature to maintain intellectual abilities. [xv] Though more women learned to read, many Southern women remained illiterate Ã¢â¬â some white women could not even write their own name. [xvi] Young women often pre ffered romantic novels that described a fantasy life out of her reach, which caused parents to encourage solid, factual literature.Surprisingly, women were interested in learning the things men learned, and yearned for an education equal to that of their husbands and brothers. [xvii] Unfortunately, the advancement of education for Southern women was far behind that for Northern women, and was only available to the rich, leaving poorer girls from farming families feeling more ignorant and belittled. [xviii] Women in the North were becoming increasingly active in the public arena, and hungered for a say in government. Previously, women persuaded their husbands on moral ground and raised moral citizens; now they began taking a tand for themselves, speaking to legislators about their concerns. [xix] The most common way that women participated in society was by serving with churches and joining temperance and antislavery societies. [xx] Some women Ã¢â¬Å"delivered political tirades, deno unced officials, gave advice on military strategy from the lecture platform, or participated in violent public demonstrations;Ã¢â¬ these were the ones that troubled the public. [xxi] One of the most well-known femal lecturers during the civil war, Anna Dickinson, delivered speeches on the conflict between the Union and Confederacy. xxii] Her skills brought overwhelming popularity, fame, and wealth for some time, but her eccentricity and womanly unawareness of business caused her time in the spotlight to be limited. [xxiii] Since many women spoke against slavery, many men assumed that the emancipation of slaves would pull them from the public eye, and keep them back in the home. [xxiv] Many women, however, quietly expressed their opinions through personal writings and private conversations. The war was a very personal event, so women were individually affected by the choices made by their political leaders.In both the North and the South, women criticized leaders and blamed them f or the heartbreak of the time. [xxv] As women became increasingly aware of and opinionated about national politics, they yearned more and more for a say in the election of governing officials. [xxvi] The first broad attempt to achieve womenÃ¢â¬â¢s suffrage was at the Seneca Falls convention in 1848. Nearly two hundred Americans gathered here, led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton, to discuss womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights. [xxvii] They drafted and approved the Declaration of Sentiments, which outlined faults in the male-dominated American government, and called for a change.Unfortunately, men continued to claim that a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s place was in the home, not politics, and no state would make a law allowing women to vote until several decades later. [xxviii] While the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights movement gained speed in the North, the South prided itself on avoiding issues of feminism. Some Southern women visited the North and attended meeting of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s right activists, and noted that they disli ked the mixing of races and equality of sexes promoted. [xxix] Louisa McCord attacked Northern movement for femal suffrage, claiming that it took away feminity from women.She said women should display their opinion in society only through their male counterparts, not by giving public speeches and voting in elections. McCord stated that Ã¢â¬Å"The true woman . . . preferred caring for her family to tinkering with constitutions. Ã¢â¬ [xxx] Some women may have agreed with female superiority, but were too scared of change to bring their thoughts forward. [xxxi] Women worked to supply materials to their armies. The United States Sanitary Commission was created only weeks after the beginning of the war by Henry Bellows.He cooperated with Dorothea Dix, who was also working on forming a Ã¢â¬Å"nursing corps,Ã¢â¬ but Bellows did not want to work with her. Through the course of the war, Northern women worked to provide valuable materials to aid soldiers in war. [xxxii] Some soldiers were accompanied by their wives, who aided soldiers. They worked doing laundry, cooking for soldiers, nursing soldiers in emergency situations, or counseling soldiers during this traumatic time. [xxxiii] These women often cared for the men and boys as if they were her own sons.Many groups of soldiers claimed a woman as its mother figure, and continued to include and honor her long after the war. [xxxiv] While it was easier for a woman to enter the army with a husband and not be questioned too intensely, women who chose to help soldiers independently were often critisized by the public. [xxxv] Many women demonstrated their patriotism by dressing as men and fighting in the army. Even more women thought and wrote, wishing that they could be allowed to fight alongside their male counterparts. xxxvi] Regulations prevented some from attempting to join, others wrote to generals asking permission to volunteer to fight, and there were women who joined battle as a confrontation was occuring, bypa ssing official enlistment altogether. [xxxvii] The physical examination was a barrier for females Ã¢â¬â while some were not able to join because of this, other doctors lied on womenÃ¢â¬â¢s behalf to allow them to join. Still others joined without a physical examination or even official enlistment (women may have joined soldiers and began fighting during a skirmish or battle). xxxviii] Women joined for many different reasons: to be with husbands, brothers, or fathers (though some enlisted secretly, against the wishes of relatives); to leave home; for the money or adventure; patriotism; and some, Ã¢â¬Å"to escape the oppresive social restrictions placed on women in that day and age. Ã¢â¬ [xxxix] While some joined with family members, others risked the end of family communications by joining. When Ellen Goodridge informed her father that she would fight alongside her fiance, her father disowned her. [xl] Young women dreamed of changing the world, of doing something important, an d joining the army could be their chance.They looked up to figures such as Joan of Arc, and wanted to achieve that kind of glory. [xli] The view of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s enlistment choices varied by gender. While men were looked down upon if they did not fight alongside their brothers, women recieved the same social treatment if they did join the army. [xlii] Women obviously faced difficulties Ã¢â¬â menstruation, concealing their figure, and the fact of voice and lack of facial hair. To deal with thease complications, women found privacy as many modest men did and posed as adolescent boys, who often made their way into the regiments. xliii] To enhance their masculine reputation, women learned to act like men by playing cards, smoking cigars and chewing tobacco , drinking, and swearing. [xliv] One thing that helped women maintain their disguise was the fact that no soldier expected to find a woman in the ranks; men were not looking for them, so it was easier to remain unnoticed. [xlv] W ounds and hospital treatment was the most common way for a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s gender to be discovered. [xlvi] Unfortunately, a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s sex was sometimes uncovered before she even set foot on the battlefield Ã¢â¬â Sarah Collins and Mary Burns, for example. xlvii] Collins, who was of very good health and Ã¢â¬Å"could have easily borne the hardships incident to a soldierÃ¢â¬â¢s life,Ã¢â¬ was an orphaned teenager living in Wisconsin who enlisted with her brother. [xlviii] She was Ã¢â¬Å"detected by the was she put on her shoes and stockingsÃ¢â¬ before being able to support the Union next to her brother. [xlix] Mary Burns, also a Northerner, joined to be with her significant other from Michigan. [l] She was arrested in Detroit, also before fighting next to the man with whome she enlisted. [li]These women fearlessly performed any task asked of them, and fought bravely in a situation where society assumed women would not be able to function, much less fight like the man stand ing next to her. [lii] Women soldiers readily performed any task given to them, just as if they were a male soldier. It was not uncommon that soldiers were pulled off of the field and asked to work in hospitals. [liii] Some women joined for medical service directly. [liv] Volunteers retrieved wounded from the battlefields and nursed patients as they waited for a surgeon. Women were usually untrained, and had to follw strict regulations.Many soldiers died simply from disease caused by new exposure to the ranks, and thousands died on the battlefield after being left unaided. [lv] Across the Confederacy, societies were formed to gether supplies and volunteers that were sent to Virginia to help wounded soldiers. Women learned to dress wounds efficiently, where they may have fainted at the sight before the war. [lvi] Soldiers and generals were hungry for information about the opposing side. Women sometimes gained insight from Federals through casual conversation, but others were sent nor th to spy and bring information to Jefferson Davis or General Robert E.Lee. Women carried notes filled with information hidden in hams or in the folds of their skirts. [lvii] Some hid in conspicuous places and acted as faithful members of the opposing side, others rode out after midnight to deliver information to officials. This was sometimes dangerous work Ã¢â¬â soldiers shot these women from afar to stop them from delivering secret plans or other information. [lviii] As citizens of America, the war undoubtedly impacted women. With the absence of men not experienced previously in America, womenÃ¢â¬â¢s roles shifted ramatically, in and out of war. When men left, women took their place, and that change could not be reverted when the war was over. The result of the American Civil War Ã¢â¬â emancipation Ã¢â¬â also altered women's home life. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â [i] James M. McPherson, Ordeal by Fire: The Civil War and Reconstructio n (New York: McGraw Hill Companies, Inc. , 2001), 19. [ii] McPherson, 19. [iii] McPherson, 20. [iv] McPherson, 20. [v] George C. Rable, Civil Wars: Women and the Crisis of Southern Nationalism (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1989), 26. [vi] Rable, 27. vii] Mary Elizabeth Massey, Women in the Civil War (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1994), 153. [viii] Rable, 27. [ix] Rable, 30. [x] McPherson, 20. [xi] Rable, 28. [xii] Rable, 29. [xiii] Rable, 18-19. [xiv] Rable, 17. [xv] Rable, 17. [xvi] Rable, 18. [xvii] Rable, 17-19. [xviii] Rable, 20-22. [xix] Jeanie Attie, Patriotic Toil: Northern Women and the American Civil War (Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1998), 46. [xx] James L. Roark, et al. , The American Promise: A History of United States, 2nd ed. (Boston and New York: Bedford/St MartinÃ¢â¬â¢s, 2002), 380. [xxi] Massey, 153. xxii] Massey, 154. [xxiii] Massey, 154-55 [xxiv] Massey, 161. [xxv] Massey, 161. [xxvi] Michael P. Johnson, ed. , Reading the Amer ican Past: Selected Historical Documents, Volume I: To 1877, 3rd ed. (Boston and New York: Bedford/St. MartinÃ¢â¬â¢s, 2005), 225-26. [xxvii] Johnson, 225-26. [xxviii] Roark, 380. [xxix] Rable, 15-16. [xxx] Rable, 16. [xxxi] Rable, 16-17. [xxxii] Attie, 78. [xxxiii] Massey, 78. [xxxiv] Massey, 78. [xxxv] Massey, 78. [xxxvi] DeAnne Blanton and Lauren M. Cook, They Fought Like Demons: Women Soldiers in the Civil War (New York:Vintage Books, 2002), 25 [xxxvii] Blanton, 25-28. xxxviii] Blanton, 25-28. [xxxix] Blanton, 30-32. [xl] Massey, 80. [xli] Massey, 78. [xlii] Blanton, 30. [xliii] Blanton, 46-50. [xliv] Blanton, 52-53. [xlv] Blanton, 57. [xlvi] Massey, 80. [xlvii] Massey, 80. [xlviii] Blanton, 33, 56. [xlix] Massey, 80. [l] Blanton, 31. [li] Blanton, 124. [lii] Francis Butler Simkins and James Welch Patton, The Women of the Confederacy (Richmond and New York: Garrett and Massie, Incorporated, 1936), 80. [liii] Blanton, 65-66. [liv] Blanton, 65-66. [lv] Simkins, 82-83. [lvi] Simki ns, 82-83. [lvii] Simkins, 82-82. [lviii] Simkins, 82-82.