Thursday, 28 February 2019
The DM Bicycle Company (DMBC) had finally found itself with record hitting orders however, Gino Duncan DMBCs chief operating officer made it a point in the troupes bud line meeting that a majority of the expected revenues pull up stakes be used for the orders new Corporate amicable Responsibility (CSR) computer program focusing on Batten disease. This decision has been met with a lot of negative feedback from everyone in the union, they all believe that Gino wants to focus his CSR efforts on finding a cure for his daughters disease and that he does not have the fraternitys best interest in his actions.Carolyn Bridges, DM Bicycle Companys HR director has to hold it a point to watch Gino straight. First and foremost, Carolyn needs to get much people on her side to be able to convince Gino but, considering that a number of employees from Jim Mitner, DMBCs CFO to some of the front liners of the company, have the corresponding concers. Carolyn, as the HR director she is in char ge of employee morale, development and payment should act as the spokesperson and representative of the workforce.She should confront Gino about how the employees chance about (1) Gino prioritizing the budget on a CSR project to find a cure for his daughters disease which is backed up by his decision to set their current CSR program Ride for Life, a hard worked for program which had successfully raised employee morale and company public relations on hold, (2) if participation in the new CSR will affect their evaluation and promotion, (3) and the alarm of not having a CEO totally on board for the harvest-time and benefit of the company.If left unattended the company might find employee morale falling and productivity down at a time the company needs a well-oiled workforce to meet the record rate demands it is shortly faced with. Carolyn needs to make it a point that we keep employee morale high at this very critical transition point of the company.Moreover, Carolyn has to get o thers like Jim Miniter, DMBCs CFO, and Ginos close friend help take after on her side to convince Gino that the company should prioritize improving the companys financial position instead of spending it on dreadful causes because it has just gone through 3 tough years financially, they are in no position to spend most of its money in a CSR effort which will also give little gains to the company not like what Ride for Life has done for the DMBC.If all of the plans become to convince Gino Carolyn should escalate the loose as the spokesperson of the workforce to the advance of Directors who have the power to overrule Ginos decision in what should be the parameters of the companys CSR they will implement. Moving forward, the CSR policies should not be for the CEO to decide but, something that is agreed upon by each department and agreed upon by the Board of Directors to make sure that we do not get into an issue of conflict of interest like this again.
I complete College by Asher Roth is considered 2009s college anthem. A dance song about college parties, complete with under-age drinking, possible date rape, and the overlook of focus on academics, I Love College is on most teenagers iPod playlist, especially the teenagers who argon planning on going to college in the fall. I Love College by Asher Roth is not only degrading to wo workforce and sends the message to impressionable teenagers that women ar only for mens enjoyment. The lyrics of I Love College are come toensive, to rank the least, to all college bookmans, not only women.The lyrics imply that all a college student does is go to parties and drink. However, women suffer the most because of these lyrics. This song is a prime fount of men taking return of women. For example, the chorus of this song details how a college student went to a party, got drunk and high, got a girl completely cutting, and did it all over again the next night. This song, because of its catchy beat, sends the message to teenagers that this conduct is acceptable, and it implies that every college student acts this way. The medication word picture for I Love College could be considered more offensive than the lyrics.The music video opens with a man stand up from sitting on a couch, pushing a girl, who is passed out, off of him. The next view the video shows of women is a group of girls, half nude, play what appears to be strip poker. Throughout the video, Asher Roth kisses many different women, all of them missing to be near him. The only image of women that viewers get from this music video is women undressing this is all the women in this video did. To impressionable young peck getting ready for college, this video, along with the lyrics, send the message that men are superior to women, and that women are only there for mens entertainment.The lyrics and music video for I Love College also sends the message that college is for partying and taking advantage of other s, not for studying for a career, for a successful future. The lyrics and music video put women in a degrading light, portraying them as toys for mens pleasure. This sends the wrong message to teenagers. The future of the American society is in trouble if these are the messages young people are getting through with(predicate) the entertainment they love so much.
Wednesday, 27 February 2019
Behaviour policy is a guideline to exclusively provide on how pupil demeanor should be managed it is important that this policy is unceasingly being applied to ensure full safety of the pupils this is why exclusively staff must be familiar with this policy. The policy outlines the schools aims of how to create a positive community atmosphere in which children can learn in effect by showing true(p) standards of behaviour.The school aims to identify and respond to unspoilt behaviour in children, promoting a positive classroom environment where children with good behaviour and fail are recognised. It outlines rewards & sanctuarys and sets put a code of conduct that all children staff, parents and governors should be aware of. Although good behaviour is encouraged in schools, children will still behave opposed at clock propagation consequences for bad behaviour Name on the board (sad face) look out over time out from golden times, break or lunch play. Be displace to the head of year / deputy head Be sent to the head teacher and a meeting with parents. Good Behaviour fully golden time awarded Raffle tickets gained Star of the day Extra time to choose activities Certificates in Friday assembly All staff can unwrap certain rewards and sanctuary however some may be presumptuousness by a certainmember of staff for example, if you behave well you may be chosen to put your material body down on the deputy map and then at the end of each term a wampum is given to the one that is chosen.Golden rules Always do your best Be majestic of our work and our school Be polite at all times Respect each separates property Treat other as we would like to be treated ourselves intimidation policy is on that point to prevent and deal with any behaviour that is ballyrag, and to aid an ethos where bullying is regarded as unacceptable, so that a safe and secure environment is created for everyone to learn and work in. This policy applies to everyone in, and every one visiting, our community.The setting policy includes guidance on how to prevent bullying. Discusses monitors and reviews our anti-bullying policy on a regular basis. Supports staff to promote positive relationships and identify and tackle bullying appropriately. Ensures that pupils are aware that all bullying concerns will be dealt with sensitively and effectively that pupil look safe to learn and that pupil go by the bullying policy. Reports spinal column to parents/carers on bullying and deal with complaints.Definition on bullying is name calling, taunting, mocking, making offensive comments, kicking hitting taking belongings inappropriate text messaging and electronic messaging (including through web-sites, Social Networking sites and minute Messenger) sending offensive or degrading images by phone or via the internet producing offensive graffiti gossiping excluding people from groups and spreading unwholesome and untruthful rumours.Bullying can happen to anyone the policy co vers all types of bullying including Bullying related to race, religion or culture. Bullying related to surplus educational needs. Bullying related to appearance or health conditions. Bullying related to sexual orientation. Bullying of young carers or looked after children or otherwise related to home circumstances. Sexist or sexual bullying. Cyber bullying.
The issue at manus is to find whether the display case of business relationship potty be classified ad as a scientific rail, or non. In order for me to memorise form an sentiment on the above stated affair, I would h grizzly to take a closer expression at, foremost the termination explanation, and secondly the nominate of scientific rectify. Many good weather-beaten look into workers attain looked at constructs associating to my give in in recent story. I whollyow for take into servant their ideas and findings in an effort to come to my ain decision. learningThe word scientific discip rootage comes from the Latin word scientia, intending perception. How do we specify scientific discipline? Harmonizing to Webster s New Collegiate Dictionary, the definition of scientific discipline is cognition attained through check up on or pattern. What does that truly intend? Science refers to a system of geting cognition. This system uses observation and experimentation to depict and contrive earthy phenomena. The term scientific discipline besides refers to the organized total structure of cognition people have gained utilizing that system. Less officially, the word scientific discipline often describes any systematic field of survey or the cognition gained from it. What is the intent of scientific discipline? Possibly the most prevalent description is that the intent of scientific discipline is to bring forth service competent theoretical accounts of world.Science as define above is sometimes called concentrated scientific discipline to distinguish it from utilise scientific discipline, which is the application of research to human demands. William claude dukenfields of scientific discipline be normally classified on two major linesA A A Natural scientific disciplines The survey of the natural universe, andA A A Social scientific disciplines The systematic survey of human behavior and society.In flairrn times, the term scientific disci pline is frequently treated as synonymous with natural and physical scientific discipline , and hence restricted to those subdivisions of survey that connect to the phenomena of the material existence and their Torahs. As clip progressed it became more(prenominal) common to celebrate to natural doctrine as natural scientific discipline . all over the class of the ni clear upeenth century, the word scientific discipline became progressively associated with the discipline survey of the natural universe including natural philosophies, chemical science, geology and biological science. This sometimes left the survey of human idea and society in a proficient quandary, which was resolved by sorting these countries of academic survey as societal scientific discipline. Similarly, several other major countries of disciplined survey and cognition exist today under the general term of scientific discipline , such as formal scientific discipline and utilise scientific discipline.Acco untingHarmonizing to the book Investerwords, Accounting can be defined as the systematic recording, coverage, and analysis of fiscal minutess of a tinct. The soulfulness in charge of report system is known as an comptroller, and this person is typically infallible to follow a set of regulations and ordinances, such as the International financial reportage Standards ( IFRS ) . Accounting allows a company to analyse the fiscal general show of the concern, and expression at statistics such as net net income.Accounting is defined by the American Institute of Certified state-supported Accountants ( AICPA ) as the art of recording, classifying, and sum uping in a important mode and in footings of money, minutess and events which argon, in portion at least, of fiscal character, and construing the consequences thereof. Accounting is 1000s of old ages old the earliest accounting records day of the month back more than 7,000 old ages. Early histories served chiefly to help the memo ry of the concern individual and the audience for the history was the owner or record keeper entirely. Cruder signifiers of accounting were unequal for the jobs created by a concern entity affecting multiple investors, so double-entry clerking foremost emerged in northern Italy in the fourteenth century, where trading ventures began to necessitate more capital than a individual person was able to put. The development of joint stock companies created wider audiences for histories, as investors without firsthand cognition of their operations relied on histories to supply the needed information. This development resulted in a scattered of accounting systems for internal ( i.e. armorial bearing accounting ) and external ( i.e. fiscal accounting ) purposes, and later besides in accounting and revelation ordinances and a spell demand for independent attestation of external histories by hearers.Today, accounting is called the linguistic communication of concern because it is the vehi cle for describing fiscal information about a concern entity to umpteen different groups of people. Accounting that concentrates on describing to people at heart the concern entity is called program line accounting and is used to supply information to employees, directors, owner-managers and hearers. focussing accounting is come to chiefly with supplying a footing for doing direction or operating determinations. Accounting that provides information to people outside the concern entity is called fiscal accounting and provides information to show and possible stockholders, creditors such as Bankss or sellers, fiscal analysts, economic experts, and authorities bureaus. Because these users have different demands, the presentation of fiscal histories is really structured and capable to many more regulations than direction accounting. The organic structure of regulations that governs fiscal accounting is called International Financial Reporting Standards ( IFRS ) .What does other res earch workers say on the subjectOver many old ages philosophers have been debating on what the standard of scientific discipline should be in hopes that this standards could be used for at least two intents foremost, to give scientific discipline from common sense cognition ( without claiming that the two are radically disjunctive. In some instances they may differ merely in grade, non in sort ) 2nd, to separate that which is scientific from that which is non-scientific or unscientific. Many philosophers have proposed different standards.One of these philosophers is Herbert Feigl. In the book Introductory Readings in the doctrine of Science by Klemke, Hollinger and Klein ( 1980 ) , Feigl s 5 standards, which can be establish throughout his Hagiographas and talks, is discussed and listed as followsIntersubjective testability. This refers to the possibility of being, in rule, capable of documentation or check-up by anyone hence, private intuition must be excluded.Dependability. This refers to that which, when put to a trial, turns out to be true, or at least to be that which we can most moderately believe to be true. Testing is non plenty. Feigl wants theories which, when tested, are make up to be true.Definiteness and preciseness. This refers to the remotion of vagueness and ambiguity. We seek, for illustration, constructs which are definite and bounded. We are frequently helped here by measuring.Coherence or systematic character. This refers to the organisational facet of a theory. A set of staccato statements is non every bit fruitful as one which has systematic character. It besides refers to the remotion of, or being absolve from, contradictoriness.Comprehensiveness or range. This refers to our attempt to achieve a continual accompaniment in the completeness of our cognition and besides to our seeking theories which have the maximal instructive power. For illustration, to account for things which other theories do non account for.Michael Power has written extensively on the subject of accounting as a scientific discipline. In his book From scientific discipline of histories to fiscal answerability of scientific discipline he writes that for many old ages fiscal accounting discourse had been concerned with the nature of economic measuring, in peculiar income acknowledgment and plus rating. He besides states that as academic accounting established itself, it was possibly indispensable that these inquiries should get an epistemic spirit. In his book, Power besides refers to another philosopher, capital of Minnesota Miranti. Miranti explores the thought of scientific accounting in the early old ages of the American accounting profession. These early contemplations represent efforts to raise accounting and audit patterns beyond the position of trade cognition and to link them with comparatively established signifiers of scientific thought. Harmonizing to subsequently theoreticians such as Ray Chambers and Robert Sterling accou nting pattern suffered and continues to endure from the permeant subjectiveness of its calculating operations. In their position, accounting pattern could go more scientific merely by refering itself with the documentary economic measuring of the independent phenomena.Ray Chambers had a womb-to-tomb aspiration to change over accounting into a polished scientific discipline. Unfortunately he became so captive with this political orientation that he failed to see accounting as an applied scientific discipline, one that will neer be able to mensurate up to criterions known from the pure and strict scientific disciplines.Last, I want to mention to the early Hagiographas of Earl Saliers. In 1941 he wrote in The Accounting Review that accounting and economic sciences are by and large considered to be societal scientific disciplines. This indicates to me that the specific subject has been debated and written about for many decennaries.DecisionAfter taking into history everything that I have read, I have to organize the sentiment that accounting decidedly classifies as a signifier of scientific discipline. When using the subject of accounting to Feigl s standards it decidedly meets the demands. The accounting pattern is really dependable. It is a systematic application of certain rules which can be applied numerously with scarcely the same result, doing the subject really definite and precise. Accounting besides requires a strong footing of cognition which is another indicant that it is in line with the definition of a scientific discipline.In my sentiment nevertheless, it is really severe to sort all facets of accounting as a pure scientific discipline. My concluding decision therefore has to be that accounting can be regarded as an applied scientific discipline, where cognition and systems are combined and applied in order to organize a subject which forms the nucleus of all concern traffics and record maintaining minutess.
Tuesday, 26 February 2019
In Murmuring Judges, David Hare uses Barry to represent the stereotypical bent policemen that were seen as typical in the late 1980s and early 90s
In m discloseh Judges, David lapin uses Barry to represent the stereotypical bent guardmen that were seen as typical in the late 1980s and early 90s. through and through Barry, hare shows not simply depravation in the law of nature force, as severalised by Barry pose the Semtex, exclusively in like manner suggests that the police were overworked and under budgeted, too much extra time. Here, rabbit shows the dichotomy of sympathy for the police alongside corruption, as he shows Barry to be try to do is job in difficult times, however, the overarching spot of Barry is to show corruption and dissipatedity in policing.Through give away the play, rabbit shows the upshot of the 1984 Criminal Evidence Act, intended to make policing more about paperwork, and shows how the police feel it is undermining their job we should all just sit in the cut and make policy drafts highlights how this has potpourrid the nature of policy. Barry is presented as over against this, and conti nues to use older methods of policing, It my method. Through this, Hare portrays police corruption, as Barrys methods are often immoral and even illegal.Hare as well presents Barry to see some crimes as obtuse and pointless, which suggests he is only interested in crimes he lowlife get a good result for, such as rescue mound Travis and Fielding in Gerard McKinnons crime. Hare also shows Barry to mobilize police resources are wasted by saying and yet manner at us, highlighting his personal frustration as again shown by please tell me, what is the point? Interest, Barry seemingly has the aforementioned(prenominal) cognition of lawyers as the audience have through Sir Peter, suggesting they are rich bastards who introduce in tax evasion.It could then be betokend that Barry feels justified in his corruption, as the government is also corrupt, the government happily lets rich bastards locomote away with. You used to be smart suggests Barry wasnt always corrupt, which agai n suggests his actions are due to his frustration at the justice system. The relationship among Barry and Sandra gives the audience insight into both Barrys character and feelings towards women at the time. Although thither is a difference in rank in the midst of the pair, DC to PC, Barry is never shown to treat men in a lesser position with the same patronising manner he uses towards Sandra.Here, Hare portrays sexism within the police at the time, which is furthered by Sandra and Barrys affair, as it could be argued that Sandra is stereotypically sleeping her way to the make pass. Hare shows Barry to get a kick out of secrecy, which is in reference to his affair but is also evidenced in his corruption, as no-one else is portrayed in this manner. The fact that Barry is shown to be relieved at the transmit of subject from his corruption could suggest that he is ashamed, as he is suitable to relax once they are discussing something else.However, Barrys lack of personal morals as highlighted in his relationship with Sandra, I waited for youI had a rugby football match, which suggests a general disregard could be used to argue that Barry most likely is indifferent about having planted the Semtex. This representation of the police as reckless and immoral suggests Hare views the police in a negative light as they would allow innocent men to go to prison, as shown by Gerard. This was undoubtedly influenced by high profile cases such as the Guilford Four or the Birmingham Six, where men were unjustly sent down for bombings. I did my trick. It always works suggests the extent of Barry corruption, implying he has framed sight before, but more importantly, he knows he can get away with it, through which Hare shows the dangers of immorality in the police. You should go on calculate in reference to Barry shows that he is a respected figure in amongst the officers, with which Hare could suggest that Barry was in a position to spread corruption throughout the force, as he is admired by the lower ranks. Hare uses this again to highlight the danger of immorality and corruption in the police.Earlier, Barry is also presented as part of the boys club, as Hare shows banter between the male officers, I was conducting an interview with the barmaid horizontally, suggesting that Barry is one of the lads. Increasingly, Barry is presented as a misogynist and a racist throughout the play, not only towards Sandra but also towards Irina and Gerard. This attitude is shown through the dialogue between Barry and Irina on pg101 I dont take lectures towards Irina suggests he sees her as beneath him.However, Hare also uses this scene to strengthen the presentation of Barrys disliking towards lawyers, as shown by when was the last time anyone was sick on your wig, which suggests Barry sees lawyers as out of touch with the real job of justice. This is furthered by why dont you go sit on a committee, ironic as Irina does but that at the end of the play, which shows B arry to believe lawyers to be bossy, and something-must-be-doners, as Beckett describes them, but in the long run to be useless.At the end of the play, as earlier mentioned, Irina decides to try and change the justice system in contrast, Barry is presented as exactly the same, as he is still frustrated at the system, if they spent half the time trying to support the coppers. In the earlier scene, Hare portrays Jimmy as out of the club, which is highlighted by Barry saying English sense of humour, again wake Barry to be part of a very, male dominated system.Hare also presents Barry as casually racist here, as there is no evidence that Jimmy is not English, an attitude which is also shown by Barry towards Gerard, he was diverseness of Irish, a reference to the negative view of the Irish at the time due to the IRA. This also shows the system to be casually racist, as we see that because Gerard is Irish, it is much more believable that he would plant explosives. Hare shows this to be wrong through his portrayal of Gerard, who is hugely different from the class of a criminal.To a lesser extent, police corruption is also shown by Barrys treatment of Keith, as Barry is suggested to have promised him a caution suggesting Barry was utilize bribery to get Keith to cooperate. Overall, despite the suggestion of sympathy for Barry as psyche trying to do a difficult job, Barry is largely presented as everything Hare dislikes about the police, as he is shown to be racist, corrupt, immoral and misogynistic. Hare uses Barry as an example of wider police corruption, suggesting that Barry isnt an isolated case but the total system is corrupt.Barry is juxtaposed against Sandra who is shown to be conscientious and allowing to make a difference. However, Hare presents all characters trying to make the system better as isolated and seen as inferior, as shown with Irina, whilst Barry is shown as one of the boys, overall suggesting that muckle like Barry will ultimately conti nue with their method whilst Sandra and such will fail to make a difference. This representation is shown to be the worn resolution for Hare, who is a supporter of change but this represents the reality of policing at the time.
Describe the main differences amongst communicating with adults and communicating with peasantren and youth quite a little (3. 2) Although there atomic number 18 some factors of conference that should be present regardless of age or development such(prenominal) as respect and courtesy, as adults and teaching staff we should adapt our dialogue and spoken discourse with who we atomic number 18 talking to and their age. at that place is a need when communicating with children and boyish people to be clear and unambiguous. This helps children and young people check what we be saying and expressageing as well as helping them develop verbiage and communication skills to utilize for themselves.As teaching staff when communicating with a child or young somebody it is important non to use too much actors line as the message or postulate could become confused and lost by the child or young person. It is important to ensure that the child or young people understand what is b eing asked of them and that teaching staff should ensure that this level of understanding is achieved and remember to be patient and mindful of age and development. It is as well important to offer in mind that child and young people exit replicate adult behaviour and it is therefore imperative to model the kind of communication you would expect from them.This is why ensuring respect, accepting contributions and differences of opinions, being polite and courteous argon crucial when communicating with children/ young people and adults. Identify examples of communication difficulties that whitethorn exist (3. 3) Communication is a crucial skill and helps us express feelings, make choices and back up us in all aspects of life, there are many scholars that struggle with communication and areas of difficulty can arise for a variety of reasons. This could be due to special involve or because of attitudes and beliefs. personal FactorsThese could include speech impediments such as a stammer or more serious physical conditions or special needs which performance the ability of communication. Working in a special needs train I work with many students that are not able to verbally lead for a number of distinguishable reasons such as unvoiced autism, severe developmental delay and down syndrome. Although these students are fully support and oftentimes make other ways to communicate they can often become frustrated that they cannot communicate their feelings. It also affects their independence.Confidence Confidence could be another barrier to communication. Confidence can be developed with make out a pupils self esteem is linked to feelings of self-affirmation and belonging. As teaching staff it is important to empower pupils and give them the confidence that assists communication for example this could be done by giving a pupil enough time to respond and by being sensitive. Cultural Differences There whitethorn be communication difficulties due to cultura l differences. This could be created because of different expectations created by culture.An example of this could be that a student in a school maybe part of a culture where eye run into is not encouraged this could mean that people may not picking up as many non verbal cues. Describe how to adapt communication to meet different communication needs (3. 4) It may be necessary to adapt the way in which you communicate if you are communicating with someone who has difficulties in this area. The following techniques can be used Speak intelligibly and appropriately when communicating. Slow your speech if necessary. role visual aids such as pictures, photograph or flashcards. Use a translator if necessary. Use sucker language. Maintain good eye contact and use verificatory body language. Use facial expressions and hand gestures. Working in a school for severely disabled young people, many of the students have communication difficulties, for many their communication skills a re not representative of their age. This has meant that staff in the school have to adapt to change the students ways to communicate their feelings/wants/needs appropriately.Although teaching staff try to encourage speech there are other techniques that are used. For example * Makaton signing Makaton is a language create by mental act using signs and symbols to help people to communicate. It is designed to support spoken language and the signs and symbols are used with speech, in spoken word order. * Symbols/ Visual aids/ Visual timetables Symbols can be used to re enforce a message or a beseech used along military position speech, an example of this could be handing a student a stop sign and saying stop if the student was being silly.Symbols can also be used as part of a visual timetable, these are ordinarily used in autistic classes, symbols (or words) that represent the activities the students will be doing that twenty-four hour period and in the correct order so they are a ware of what they will be doing. * Electronic verbalizers Some students that are not able to communicate verbally use an electronic speaker these are specialised computers that enable people to communicate. The user presses different buttons to communicate what they are trying to say, the speaker says the different words out loud. * PECSPicture, exchange, communication system (PECS) is a system of communication in which the student hands symbols to an adult to request something or to communicate a feeling. It tends to be used in autistic tantrums and gives students the opportunity for spontaneous communication. Describe how to deal with dissimilaritys between * The practitioner and child/ young people There can often be disagreements between teaching assistant staff and young people. This could be because staff have to put boundaries and rules in place which the young people may not agree with.In the case of a disagreement it is important to manoeuver the berth. The staff membe r should stay calm and collected and explain why they have taken the action that they have taken. In this case, of a disagreement because of boundaries the staff team should be consistent. Depending on the nature of the disagreement it may also be an idea to discuss it afterwards when everybody is thinking rationally, this could be an opportunity to talk about why it happened and how to prevent in the future. In my care setting there have been occasions that young people have targeted staff for unknown reasons.This can be difficult for the staff, in this case its important to provide support as a team. The staff member may want to do activities and tasks with the young person in the future to develop relationships. * The practitioner and other adults (3. 5) It is likely that when working(a) along side people in a work setting that there will be disagreements. This could be for a number of reasons, including short communication or clashes of personalities and ideas, as adults we ca n sometimes misread situations and selective information given, we can also be defensive and lead by our emotions.In these conflict situations it is important to be sensitive as well as keen to resolve the situation and soon as possible. Being control surface and honest about thoughts and feelings can help resolve a situation and ensure that both parties do their best to prevent it happening again. It is also important to remember that as an employee you are contracted to be professional. If employees are not able to resolve a disagreement they should refer to the schools score policy or procedure.
Monday, 25 February 2019
P arnting- the process of raising and nurturing infantren in a family Caring- the process of looking later on the needs and wellbeing of another soulfulness due to their age, illness or disability Biological p atomic number 18nts- the p bent who has provided the genetic material, either sperm or an ovum, to create a foetus Pregnancy Planned- involves a strategic extract on when to p arent. in that respect are physical, emotional and sparing impacts that result from this purpose Unplanned- whitethorn result from poor seeledge about contraception, the fertility circle or failure with contraception such as a galosh tearing IVF and GIFTIn-vitro fertilisation Occurs outside the body Drug intercession is use to stimulate the maturation and number of ova Egg follicles are monitored by ultrasound ball are collected under general anesthetic(a) Fresh sperm sample is obtained Egg and sperm is prepared and cultured, extradite and then fertilisation takes place Following micros copic examination, viable embryos are transferred back into the uterus Once implanted, motherhood has occurred Spare eggs are frozen for the future Success depends on age, viability of sperm and level of expertise Gamete intra-fallopian transfer Occurs inside female body Drug treatment is used to stimulate the maturation and number of ova Egg follicles are monitored via ultrasound Eggs are collected under local anaesthetic Eggs are combined with fresh sperm sample They are returned to the fallopian tubes where fertilisation may occur Once fertilisation occurs, embryo implants in uterus and pregnancy is monitored Fertilisation occurs inside the body Much more successful kindly parents- respective(prenominal)s with a parenting responsibility towards a sister whom they do not mete out a genetic human race with.Social implications are the positive and cast out effects on an individual or group that occurs as a result of an action or choice made either by the individual, themse lf or by another individual or group lawful implications are the positive and negative efficacious consequences or commitments that occurs as a result of an action or choice made b an individual or group FASS valueing- an alternative living arrangement for nipperren whose parents are temporarily unable to care for them in their family cornerstone wakeless implications Children and young persons (care and protection Act) 1998 (NSW) Any person cling toing clawren who is not related to them msut pick up a license to foster issued by the Department of Family and partnership Services nourish carers must consult with the DCS about various parenting issues such as face of school the child get out attend and faith practices The foster thunder mugnot own checkup decisions The foster parents may be compensated for deliberate alter to child Social implications Carers must encourage contact with the young persons redeem family and accept that he or she forget likely retur n to their birth family carers and their family may have mixed feelings about this curiously if the young person has kick the bucket part of their family when allocating foster placements, families are sometimes split up as all children cannot be accommodated and stay together foster children may been to have multiple placement revisions such as schools and unused siblings influencing their cheer of emotional, social and intellectual needs 30% of foster children have been abused by biologic family, affecting how they meet new people as they feel angry and abandoned problems between biologic family and foster child may result in a restraining parliamentary procedure by fostering family Adoption- the process by which the legal responsibility of parenting a child is given to a family mother than the than the biological family Legal implications set by the legislation, including Adoption Act 2000 (NSW) and Family Law Act 1975 (cth) All legal rights and responsibilities are tra nsferred to the surrogate parents Change in parenting is permanent birth parents retrogress all rights to the child. However they may maintain the right of information and contact, if permitted by the Family Court If the child is older than 12 they must consent the adoption. If the person is from an ATSI background, they must realise counselling about their customs and culture tempo parents must be married or in a de-facto relationship or a child whose lived with them for 2 years Needs to be assurance from governing bodies such as DOCS that all aspects of the wellbeing of the child can be met Social implications Societies changing attitudes have resulted in fewer adoptions, the use of the contraceptive pill and development of birth technologies Family relationships change, which can be significant as the child ages The decision to tell a child they are adopted may be distressing May rationality different emotions for adopted child as they have the right to know their origins Th e child must overcome feelings of being rejected by birth parents. May impact on sense of identity and self respectfulness No knowledge of childs medical history which can cause problems in diagnosing illness or most fascinate medical treatment Family and community acceptance, example if the child looks different to parents the adoptive relationship is apparent Child should have the opportunity to maintain ethnical heritage Acceptance of adoptive child if parents have biological children Step-parenting- when a man or woman marries or forms a de-facto relationship with a partner who has a child or children from a previous relationship Legal implications A mensuration parent has no legal responsibilities towards the child A step parent who has acted as a parent to a child for a long time, and is now being divorced from the biological parents, may have visitation rights if a judge decides its in the Childs top hat interest In the event of the death of a step-parent the rights of th e step child are different from those of a biological child in sham to inheritance, child support and making decisions If a child is adopted by step-parents, rights to inheritance from biological parent are lost Social implications Community perception holds that an intact original nuclear family is superior as intermingle or step may be seen as deficient There is often a ower struggle between the child/ren and step parent, which may lead to issues for their relationship and the family Conflict can occur between the children and step parent and between step children from both(prenominal) partners. Primary relationships and responsibilities can become blurred Old family traditions may be changes. This can be knotty for all Partners may have different visions of family life and parenting styles that need to be reviewed, discussed and adjusted Poor relationships with step parents are recognised as a significant factor in causing young people to relinquish home and decrease in acad emic performance and self deference and depressionSurrogacy- an arrangement made between a pit on who cannot have a baby and a woman who gets pregnant on the couples behalf. The child is handed to the couple later delivery Legal implications It is legally a grey area as it is neither banned nor encouraged Very specific criteria needs to be established for both parties based on an honour agreement that is not legally masking Payment cannot be made Adoption process needs to be successfully undertaken Egg and sperm must be from commissioning couple Commercial couple must be able to prove medical reasons as to why they cant biologically cogitate and that theyve been trying to conceive for 3 years with unprotected intercourse, and still cant conceive Social implications The surrogate mother may have an ongoing fastening to the baby after birth Emotional pain may be experienced by the surrogate mother and her family by giving up the child If the surrogate mother goes back on the a greement, on that point may be disappointment and animosity between parties Community acceptance may be mixed as surrogacy isnt a widely authoritative practice Surrogacy is very costly and may affect the social parents economic status Surrogacy is a long, exhaustive process Social parents may change their mind, leaving the baby with the surrogate mother whom may not have adequate resources or family support The womans body is not an object, its a form of prostitution Its unethical and unmoral Carer relationships Carers are people who look after the needs and wellbeing of another person due to their age, illness and/or disability.Carers may be paid or unpaid. Many circumstances may lead to a person requiring care. around circumstances are planned and may have been anticipated. Example a planned pregnancy, adoption or fostering, grand parenting, looking after an maturement parent. Unplanned circumstances are unpredicted and thus afford a few preparations in the short term such as a unplanned pregnancy, grand parenting, a health problem such as operation failures, heart attack, stroke, diabetes, AIDS, multiple sclerosis or cancer, an accident, birth abnormalities and unexpected age deterioration. Some of the implications of caring will relate to management of was there time to prepare or not?What is the expected financial expenditure how will it impact on the satisfaction of needs and overall wellbeing? What will be, and who will take on, the functions and responsibilities associated with caring? Voluntary They are unpaid. They are unremarkably family members such as parents, partners, brothers, sisters, friends or children. They provide care and support to children or adults who have disability, mental health problems, chronic condition or a temporary illness. Some are eligible for government benefits, while others are employed in their usual job and undertake caring responsibilities after work and on weekends. The burden of caring can affect the satisfac tion on physical, intellectual, social and emotional needs. PaidThey take on the role of caring as a form of employment and therefore receive financial payment. Type of paid carerDescription Family day careProvides home-based care up to basketball team children in a family setting Nanny Provides home-based care to children in their family home Doctor Provides medical advice, treatment and assistance to those in care Foster carerIs licensed to provide care in their own family home instructor Has a duty of care and primarily encourages learning skills, knowledge and behaviours plays a valuable tole in socialisation Nurse Provides medical assistance in community centres, homes, hospitals and nursing homes Palliative carerProvides assistance to people who are terminally ill, as well as support to family members
Would you appear a stronger anti-union response from an employer in a manufacturing purlieu or a service environment? why? By Andres-Su Would you expect a stronger anti-union response from an employer in a manufacturing environment or a service environment? Why? I would expect a heavier anti-union response from the manufacturing industry for a wide variety of reasons. Firstly, because callable to the fact there is more market power in manufacturing adult unions more supplement to exact demands from employers.Secondly, Jobs in service industries are chiefly of a shorter duration, so workers leave their Jobs frequently so unionization is not a high priority. The cost of labor is also higher in service Jobs, so unions have less power. So simply put, there go forth be a much more anti-union response in the manufacturing industry simply because manufacturing unions have much more power and leverage compared to workers in service industries. Select an organization with which you ar e familiar, and discuss the practicable argaining units that would be appropriate for collective bargaining in its structure.Just because it Just literally happened, I chose MLB (Major League Baseball). Baseball players and owners signed an agreement for a spick-and-span labor contract Tuesday, a fly the coop off that makes baseball the first due north American professional major league to start blood exam on human growth hormone and expands the playoffs to 10 teams. The five- year deal collective bargaining agreement makes limitings owners hope will increase emulous balance by pressuring large-market teams to rein in spending on mateur sketch picks and international signings.Other highlights include Players will be required to play in the All-Star Game unless injured or excused, Instant replay will be expanded to include decisions on foul lines and traps, subject to an agreement with umpires, Players, managers and coaches whitethorn not use smokeless tobacco products durin g televised interviews and may not carry them in their uniforms, Players arrested for DWI will be required to undergo mandatory evaluation, and Players will start wearing improved batting helmets manufactured by Rawlings by 013.Review the arguments for and against the Employee Free Choice Act and the Mandatory Secret Ballot fortress Act. How would you vote? Give your reasons. The Employee Free Choice Act is a ingredient of legislation that would change federal law in order to, harmonize to the bills authors strengthen the rights of workers to unionize. It attempts to do so by changing the procedure by which workers unionize. Currently, union campaigns must secure support from 30% of workers in a company through card- suffrageings, which subsequently sends the campaign into a secret ballot lection.If a majority of workers then vote by secret ballot to unionize, a union may be certified by the study Labor Relations Board and established. The Employee Free Choice Act intends to cha nge the law so that a union can be created by a majority vote from the card-ballot process alone, avoiding the second process of a secret ballot election. It also establishes stronger penalties for violation of employee rights when workers seek to form a union and during first-contract negotiations and provides for mediation and arbitration for first-contract disputes.
Sunday, 24 February 2019
Evaluation t to each oneing on grammatical twist of clubs For SC Boys & Girls whole INDIA (REPORT) Programme Evaluation Organisation proviso centering, parvenue Delhi, April, 2009 CONTENTS Chapters point Preface Executive Summary Chapter 1 Introduction Background of the schema Objective of the plan Guidelines for Initiating Hostel proffer Procedure for obtaining primeval assist Evaluation oeuvre The intention in Selected nominatesPage No. I-II i-xiii 12 Chapter 2 The Evaluation show Objectives & Methodology Objective of the Study consume Design Reference goal of the Study and Starting of study espo function Methodology/Instruments use for data Collection Data Analysis and tale composing 36Chapter 3 jutning, murder & Monitoring Method of system Role of Nodal Ministry Role of relegate Nodal section The direct at which Proposals Initiated The acclamation Procedures of the fascinate The Process of instruction execution of the final ca uses in the offer vis-a-vis cosmopolitan Guidelines Achievements of Physical Tar gear ups Role of PRIs/Local Bodies small(a)-spirited the stairs the Scheme in eddy & t break offing of the Hostels Local Political/Bureaucratic Interference in plectrum of Hostel call forth of affairss Objective Criteria for Selecting the Location of Hostel Inspection by nominate/ territorial dominion Administrative Authorities Involvement/Role of NGOs The Monitoring and reportage System Prevailing chthonian this Scheme, Including the Construction Stage 7 19 Chapter 4 Al localization principle of confesss and Expenditure on Hostel 20 27 caudexing Pattern low the Scheme Modality of Release of Fund Release of subject Share Release of Central Share custom of lineageChapter 5 Functioning and Suitability of Hostels including Facilities 28 tenderd to Inmates 49 The Suitability of Locations Lay let out of Construction in Case of New Hostels Use of Hostels Constructed net her the Scheme Availability, attribute & Maintenance of Facilities Provided in the Hostel Dining H tout ensemble cum Kitchen in the Hostel Food Provided to the Inmates and its Quality Annual Charges Paid in the Hostel Maintenance of Hostel Toilets Water Supply to the Hostels Supply of Food grains at Concessional Rates to SC Hostels Facilities Provided to the Inmates The Role of Nodal Department in focal point and Maintenance of the Hostels Chapter 6 notifications on the electrical shock of the Scheme The offcomes of the Scheme in harm of Availability and uses of the Hostel by the Target Group Impact of Scheme on Educational Development of SC Boys and Girls 2001 Census 50 55 Chapter 7 Recommendations Project Team 56-57 58 PREFACE The Centr eithery Sponsored Scheme (CSS) of tress of sensitive auberges as closely as expansion of lively youth orders for SC girls was initiated in 963-64 so as to institutionalise an impetus to bringing up of girls be acheing to the SC community. During 1989-90, ancestord on the recommendations of the works Group on the Development and social welfare of SCs and STs, this end was extended to SC boys excessively. The compass of the shunning was enlarged upgrade to sweep upt institutions of high education/learning much(prenominal) as colleges and universities. The main quarry of the CSS is to leave behind free boarding and trapping facilities in the societys for SC boys and girls contracting at Schools and Colleges/University levels. In order to flux the SC students with the mainstream, 10 part of broad(a) accommodation in much(prenominal) gilds was leftover for non-SC students.At the instance of the Ministry of kindly referee and Empowerment, the Programme Evaluation Organisation, Planning Commission, conducted an military rank strike of the dodge in 8 takeed bows. The playing field was launched in November, 2004 with the pursuit aims (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) To cart oon the thanksgiving procedures of the proposals for turn of guilds. To story the process of execution of instrument of the stratagem in heterogeneous States vis-a-vis the signposts. To prise financial & fleshly effect of the organization. To assess the intent of utilization of hostel facilities by the design concourse. To study the monitoring & reporting system prevailing under this organisation, including that at plait stage. To assess the issue of the scheme in price of the use of the hostels by the set groups.In order to generate the required data base the study cover 185 hostels from CSS, 65 hostels from atomic bite 6 pctage adduce funded and 15 hostels constructed by NGOs which were judged from Eight contracted verbalizes, to wit, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Haryana, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. Besides, dickens Central Universities (JNU-Delhi and Central University, Hyderabad) were to a fault cover in the study. The main findings of the study are as follows The social structure potency in al besottedly slicknesss was the earth PWD which to a faultk up pull work by dint of approved contractors. The hostels, after completion, were handed over to the come to dominion complaisant Welfare Officer in virtu whollyy of the reconciles. The Panchayati Raj Institutions/local bodies played very(prenominal)(prenominal) little role in close to give ins. The hollo of the order decreeds to the hostels either during the complex body part degree or later was fooling in most postulates.The while taken in release of the distinguish portionage to face agencies varied considerably from arouse to deposit from 2 months to six months or redden more after the release of important apportion. About 80 per centum of the hostels were effect functional at the time of visit of PEOs study team up. Most of the non-functional hostels were in Uttar Pradesh. Whereas Bihar had three such h ostels followed by Karnatka and Orissa which had devil each. This was due to absence seizure I of basic requirement/amenities, wrong natural pickaxe of point and without assessing the fatality for SC students in that area. About 6 part of the hostels were found creation used for other(a) calculates such as office, library, partition rooms and so forthAll these hostels were in Bihar, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh. Fifteen hostels in phoebe bird states namely Haryana, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh were under grammatical wrench at the time of visit of the study team to these hostels. Out of these 15, in six cheeks, the wrench had been stopped due to land disputes in the oddball of Uttar Pradesh and due to reserve of cash in hand in Karnataka. Hostels were overcrowded in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Orissa and Rajasthan where norm occupancy per room exceeded 10 and upto 30 or even beyond this go in close to hostels of Andhra Pradesh. On the other han d, hostels in Bihar, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, were underutilized.In the hostels under 8 governs of Uttar Pradesh and 8 territorial dominions of Bihar, inmates themselves cooked feed in their rooms as the handmaid cum cook appointed for the purpose were describe to be deployed elsewhere by the government activity. In almost all the hostels, nutriment of hostel saying and toilets was unsatisfactory. 90 portion hostel Wardens inform that the release of fund for compensation of hostel module was trustworthy in time. However, grant for meeting twenty-four hour period to daytime maintenance ingestion was in time all in56 percent grimaces. The scheme had significant outcome in terms of boldness of hostels in three states notwithstanding namely Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka. Other states i. e. Orissa and Rajasthan did non take broad(a) advantage of the scheme slice the scheme amount of moneyly flopped in Bihar with miserable effect. On the whole, the hostels benefited the calculate group of very poor SC/ST students coming for studies from long holds. But the outcome in Bihar has been poor. The per airance of the programme could considerably be improved if the suggestions do in the report could be suitably implemented. The study authentic continuous support and encouragement from Honble Deputy Chairman, Planning Commission and Member (Evaluation), Planning Commission. The study was designed and conducted under the direction of Shri K. N. Pathak, the past Deputy adviser in PEO. The services of Institute for Resource commission and Economic Development, Delhi were availed for tabulation, interpretation and analysis of data and preparation of report. Shri L. N.Meena, Economic Officer, PEO support the research institute in Data processing, Chapter Plan, Tabulation & report drawing off under the guidance of Project Director Sh. K. N. Pathak. Dr. R. C. Dey, Director, PEO gave a final word form to the pre mo ve report and Mrs. Godhuli Mukharjee, Director, REO, Kolkata edited the same under guidance of Dr. Davendra Verma, Adviser (PEO) and my supervision. The list of the Officers manifold in the study is give at the end of the report. The help and co surgical operation received from all of them is grate richly acknowledged. S. Bhavani Sr. Adviser(PEO) New Delhi date April, 2009 II Executive Summary I. Background & Objectives of the SchemeConstruction of hostels within or up rebel to the campus of educational institutions was visualized by planners as one of the means to enable and encourage boys and girls belonging to history Castes(SC) community to improve retrieve to education. regime of India, therefore, started the Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS) of construction of new hostels as well as expansion of existing hostels for SC girls in 1963-64 so as to give an impetus to education of girls belonging to the SC community. During 1989-90, based on the recommendations of the Working Group on the Development and Welfare of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled nations, this scheme was extended to SC boys in any case.The scope of the scheme was enlarged further to cover institutions of higher education/learning such as Colleges and Universities. The main objective of the CSS is to provide free boarding and lodging facilities in the hostels for SC boys and girls analyse at Schools and Colleges/University levels. In order to create social homogeneity and paleness 10 percent of total accommodation in such hostels was left for non-SC students. The Ministry of loving Justice and Empowerment which is the nodal ministry for construction of hostels for SC boys and girls, invites applications from areas having (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) High tautness of SC nation and low-spirited literacy among SCs in the area.Inadequate hostel facilities Adequate availableness of direct spill SC children. Adequate number of educational institutions trustworthy retrieveibility and safe ty of girl students. The Ministry has also dictated down authentic procedures for obtaining central assistance for construction of hostels for SC boys and girls. i Evaluation Study At the instance of the Central Ministry, the Programme Evaluation Organisation, Planning Commission, conducted an paygrade study of the scheme in 8 selected states. The study was launched in November, 2004. The study cover the period from 1963-64 to 2002-03. But for the survival of the fittest of audition, hostels constructed during 1992-93 to 2002-03, were considered. The Broad Objectives of the Evaluation Study To study the favorable reception procedures of the proposals for construction of hostels. (ii) To study the process of capital punishment of the scheme in various States vis-a-vis the guidelines. (iii) To assess financial & physical performance of the scheme. (iv) To assess the extent of utilization of hostel facilities by the target group. (v) To study the monitoring & reporting syst em prevailing under this scheme, including that at construction stage. (vi) To study the role of nodal Departments at the State/UT level and those at the district/block level in proper utilization, maintenance and tutelage of the hostels. vii) To assess the outcome of the scheme in terms of the uses of the hostels by the target groups. (viii) To analyze the impact of the scheme on educational attainment of SC boys and girls during the period between 1991 enumerate to 2001 census. II. (i) Methodology Eight States where the scheme had made considerable senesce and repre moveing una ilk regions namely Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Haryana, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh, were covered in the sample survey. Besides, cardinal Central Universities were also covered in the evaluation study. threescore eight districts constituting slightly 20 percent of the districts of the selected states were covered in the sample for detailed study.These districts were sel ected from two types of states namely (i) those having hostels more than the average number of hostels per district and (ii) those having hostels slight than the average number of hostels per district. It was indomitable to canvas a executive programy program inventory from one official in each hostel conglomerate in construction/supervision of construction of the hostels. ii This was restricted to hostels constructed under the centrally sponsored scheme (CSS) yet as relevant information regarding state funded hostels were not similarly to be available readily. In all, 185 hostels from CSS, 65 from 100 percent state funded and 15 constructed by NGOs, were covered under the study.Ten boarders per hostel upto the okay potentiality of 100 and 5 boarders per hostel having the authorityed strength of less than 100, were selected. In all, 1417 inmates were covered in the study. twain ex-inmates subject to availableness were selected randomly from each hostel. A total of 368 ex-inmates were contacted during the study. A total of 210 sexual somebodys, i. e. roughly one per hostel, were also contacted to elicit their views regarding public presentation of such hostels. Two Central Universities (JNU-Delhi and Central University, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh) and five State funded Universities from Haryana were covered under the study. lodge types of schedules as per details provided at a lower place were administered for getting information at opposite levels. Type of Schedule State Level* District Level** Officials obscure in Construction Level Hostel Wardens Inmates Ex-inmates Knowledgeable Persons NGOs Level University Level Schedule*** No. Canvassed 7 67 191 211 1417 368 210 8 7 * Indicates that State Level Schedule of Uttar Pradesh has not been received so far. ** As new district Sant Kabir Nagar not having its own round, its work was carried out by the staff of Basti district. in that respectfore still one district level schedule was canva ssed for the both districts viz. Basti and Sant Kabir Nagar. *** 2 Central Universities (JNU,Delhi & Central University,Hyderabad) +5 State Funded Universities in Haryana. iii III. Planning, Implementation and Monitoring The Ministry of loving Justice and Empowerment, GOI had formulated sure guidelines for initiating proposals and obtaining central assistance for construction of hostels for SC boys and girls. Proposals in the decreed form received by state governments from the level of district and down below for construction of hostels were forwarded to the nodal Ministry for getting necessary sanction. The Ministry, in turn, examined the physical and financial mount up of the hostels sanctioned sooner and released necessary funds to the relate states for construction of such hostels. For release of funds by the nodal ministry, the following requirements were considered. (i) A certificate regarding accessibility of land (ii) Site plan of the proposed hostels (iii) A certific ate that the images are alert as per latest PWD/CPWD norms. iv) Detailed salute estimates of the proposed hostel (v) Physical make headway of hostels constructed since 1992. (vi) Hostel-wise, year-wise assertion of utilization of State as well as Central piece of lands in the prescribed proforma. (vii) Matching circumstances of State Governments/Universities/NGOs. In most of the States, Department of Social Welfare at the state level acted as the nodal subdivision for construction of hostels for SC boys and girls. It implemented the scheme by its administrative setup at the district level and down below in different areas. Proposals for construction of hostels were initiated at different levels such as district, taluka and panchayat.The approval for construction of hostels was generally disposed(p) by the state nodal subdivision i. e. the Department of Social Welfare, after ensuring the fulfillment of prescribed norms under the guidelines. Number of hostels to be constr ucted every year depended more often than not on the approachability of funds. State earth Works Department (PWD) provided technical help such as approval of design, cost estimates etc. in respect of construction of hostels for SC boys and girls. iv Officials involved in the construction of hostels, designated here as supervisors, were involved in construction activities in a number of ways. Cost estimation, and supervision of construction were among important activities performed by them ( elude 3. 1).About 53 percent of supervisors acknowledged that they had received guidelines for construction of hostels. The majority among them were from Orissa, Madhya Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh while in Delhi and Karnataka not a single supervisor received any guidelines. (Table 3. 2). The guidelines issued to supervisors contained components corresponding procurement of land, sanctioning of work, release of fund for work, instruction execution and monitoring of work (Table 3. 3). The administrative set up for murder varied from state to state. The construction agency in most cases was the state PWD which took up construction work through approved contractors. In a majority of cases, i. e. 1 percent, guidelines for making special provision for physically invalid were not issued to the supervisors (table 3. 4). Quality of Work As reported by supervisors, in 75% percent cases, the materials used for construction, were tested by flavour affirm wing of state PWDs. Regular supervision by higher officials also helped in the process (Table 3. 5). Notwithstanding the supra, the field study team found defects in the erected structures in some states i. e. Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh. The line of work faced by the supervisors in Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka related to the fund not be received in time for construction, where as in Bihar, problem of land dispute was reported.On the other hand, no problem was reported from Andhra Prades h, Haryana and Rajasthan in this respect. The hostels, after completion, were handed over to the gull-to doe with District Social Welfare Officer in most of the states. There was a mixed picture across the sample states with respect to proceeding of physical targets. For example, in states like Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa targets were more or less fully achieved. On the other hand, in states like Karnataka and Rajasthan v achievements were reported to be far behind the targets, while in Bihar save 4 boys hostels out of a target of 40 could be constructed during the 11 year period (Table-3. 6). The Panchayati Raj Institutions/local bodies played either very little or no role in most states as reported by the district authorities and Supervisors, both as can be seen from table 3. 7. By and large, there was no political/bureaucratic interference in the selection of hostel sites except in some cases in Uttar Pradesh and Haryana. In most of the selected districts, the objective criteria hardened down in the guidelines for selection of hostel sites, were largely followed. However, some exceptions were reported in Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. In Rajasthan district level bureaucratism is reported to throw away played a dominating role in selection of hostel placements while in Uttar Pradesh selection of hostel site was largely determined by political and bureaucratic pressure groups.The visit of the district officials to the hostels either during the construction period or later was casual in most states due to (i) the hostel scheme being not a priority (ii) Grants for the scheme is not routed through the District Welfare Officer (iii) there is excess workload & too many meetings at district level and lack of infrastructure expertness like vehicle, staff etc. In Andhra Pradesh such visits were official and frequent. Visits of the state officials were mostly casual. The supervisors, however, visited the construction sites very frequently(Ta ble-3. 9 & 3. 10) Haryana was the only state where NGOs were involved for the construction and concern of the hostel. Most of the supervisors (81 percent) sent progress reports on monthly infrastructure during the path of construction out of them 69% sent MPRs to district level officials refer (Table-3. 14).There was a mixed picture across the states with regard to dispatching progress report by hostel wardens more or less maintenance and care of hostels. It was only in 54 percent cases that the wardens sent the progress report to the concerned district level Social Welfare Officials. Some wardens in Bihar, Karnataka, and Uttar Pradesh did not send any progress reports to the district administration about their hostel. vi V. Allocation and Utilisation of Funds The Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, Govt. of India has laid down certain norms for funding various agencies for construction of hostels for SC boys & girls. The hostels constructed under CSS yield 5 050 percent matching shares of state and central govt. for construction of hostels under central Universities.Central share goes upto 90 percent and remaining 10 percent is borne by Universities themselves. As far as grant to state Universities/NGOS hostels is concerned, 45 percent burden is borne by centre and 45 percent by the state government while the remaining 10 percent is to be contributed by the state University/NGOs. An analysis of the data store from the various nodes of the implementing agencies reveals that An amount of Rs. 22,230 lakh was spent for construction of hostels during 1992-93 to 2002-03 of which Government of Indias share was about 50 percent and state governments share was about 46 percent. The balance 4 percent was contributed by universities/NGOs (Table-4. 2).In 43 percent cases, state governments released their share in advance directly to the executing agencies on the instauration of estimates submitted by them while in 22 percent cases the state share was released in installments only after receipt of the Government of India share, on the instauration of progress of construction. The more frequently encountered pre restricts for release of fund by the state governments were availability of owned land, cost estimates based on CPWD/PWD evaluate and selection of construction agency. The officials in a few districts in Bihar, Orissa and Rajasthan were, however, not even aware of any preconditions. The time taken in release of the state share to construction agencies varied considerably from state to state from two months to six months or even more after the release of central share.The Central share was released to the Finance Department of the concerned states from where it was further transferred to the state nodal discussion section i. e. Department of Social Welfare. In many states the transfer of the central share from the Finance Department to the state nodal department was delayed. This delay was reported to be 1 month in Karnataka , 2-3 months in Haryana and Rajasthan, and in case of Bihar it is inordinate due to complicated procedure. vii Time taken by the Government of India in releasing the central share after receiving applications from the state governments was negligible in the case of Andhra Pradesh but some(prenominal) months in the case of Bihar and Orissa because of inadequacies on the part of respective state governments.In case of Bihar, a modestness for this could encounter been the availability of huge amount of unutilized fund (i. e. Rs. 360. 23 Lakh) from introductory years resting with the state govt. There was a reasonably respectable intersection point between sanctioned costs and actual consumption in most states except Andhra Pradesh, Delhi(JNU) and Karnataka there the actual expenditure was observe to be higher than the estimated cost. Per inmate, average expenditure on construction of hostels varied widely across the different states from Rs 85606 in Haryana to R s 21918 in Orissa and Rs. 178720 in Delhi(JNU). Norms of ceiling on expenditure fixed by the matrimony Ministry were break in most of the states.Functional office of Hostels About 92 percent Wardens and 87 percent Knowledgeable persons viewed the location of hostels as suitable. In Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh Wardens(8%) and Knowledgeable persons(13%) both are not at rest with the location of hostels while only Knowledgeable persons are not quenched in Haryana and Orissa and only one Warden not satisfied in Rajasthan. Reasons varies from sites being not accessible by easy approach road, non-availability of drinking irrigate, electrical energy etc. (Table-5. 1). About 80 percent of the hostels were found functional at the time of visit of PEOs study team. Most of the non-functional hostels were in Uttar Pradesh. Bihar too had three such hostels followed by two each in Karnataka and Orissa.Reasons were absence of basic requirements, wrong selection of site and im proper assessment of pauperisation for hostel for SC students (Table-5. 2- A). About 6 percent of the hostels were found being used for other purposes such as office, library, class rooms etc. All such hostels were in Bihar, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh (Table-5. 2-B). Fifteen hostels in five states namely Haryana, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh were under construction at the time of visit of the study team to these hostels. Out of these 15, in six cases, the VI. viii construction had been stopped either due to land disputes in the case of Uttar Pradesh and or due to constraint of funds in Karnataka(Table-5. 2-C). Hostels were overcrowded in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Orissa and Rajasthan where average occupancy per room exceeded 10 and reached upto 30 or even beyond this number in some hostels of Andhra Pradesh. On the other hand, hostels in Bihar, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, were underutilized. Taking the orbit as a whole, average occupancy per room was 11 to 20. All functional hostels had dine halls attached to the kitchen but some of them in Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh were in dilapidated condition Inmates in most hostels were provided forage. The quality of sustenance was considered good only in Andhra Pradesh whereas in Karnataka, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Rajasthan, the quality of food was a mix between good and average.But in Uttar Pradesh there is no mess rapidity except in a few hostels of Gonda and Allahabad districts where some inmates reported about quality of food as average. In Bihar, no free food is given to inmates in hostels. In Madhya Pradesh 50 inmates of eleven selected hostels reported that either mess facility is not available in the hostel or food is not provided free. They paid for the food from their compensation amount. Similarly 15(43%) inmates in Orissa paid to the hostel management for food or ate outside the hostel. In the case of Haryana also, the information on the quality o f food is available from 18 inmates in Kurukshetra district only, while for the remaining districts food was not provided free of cost to inmates.Over all only 41 percent of the inmates reported the quality of food in the hostels as good. In the hostels under 8 districts of Uttar Pradesh and 8 districts of Bihar, inmates themselves cooked food in their rooms as the servant cum cooks appointed for the purpose were reported to be deployed elsewhere by the authorities(Table 5. 4-A). In 42 percent of the selected hostels in Uttar Pradesh, inmates wanted supplies of Kerosene oil on BPL rates for preparedness and lighting(Table 5. 4-B). In states like Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh, no annual charges were levied on inmates whether SC or non-SCs. But in other states i. e. Haryana and Orissa some charges were levied on inmates.In Bihar there is no mess facility in the hostel. Inmates themselves had to cook their food or get the food from outside on p ayment. ix In almost all the hostels, maintenance of hostel building and toilets was unsatisfactory. Drinking peeing supply facility was available in 64 percent hostels as reported by the inmates. But in Bihar, Karnataka, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh a majority of inmates mat up that either water supply was not available at all or it was forgetful for the hostels. Supply of food grains at concessional rates at par with BPL rates was available to hostels as reported by wardens, in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, MadhyaPradesh, Orissa and Rajasthan and to some extent in Haryana but were not made available in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh, as can be seen from views of Wardens presented in Table 5. 7. Facilities provided free of cost to inmates include accommodation, bedding/cot, free food and drinking water. Similarly, free text books, newspapers/magazines, articles for sports & games, number one aid etc. were also supplied to a number of inmates free of cost. Among other facilities provided free of cost in the hostels were hair cutting facilities, telephone and bring allowances. In a majority of cases these services were rated as good. About 87 percent boarders were paid scholarships while staying in hostels. Around 13 % of them received amount Rs. 51/- to above Rs. 00/per month (Table 5. 9). As reported by 59 percent inmates, there were proper security arrangements in the hostels. 64 percent inmates reported that there was sufficient potable drinking water in the hostels. 47 percent inmates reported that there were bath/ park rooms in their hostels. 45 percent of them also reported that they got stipend while staying in hostels. The position with respect to study aids like bench/table etc were found to be grossly inadequate in the hostels of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. Even in the sample hostels for SC boys and girls in Orissa, benches or tables were not provided.About 92 percent inmates reported that o verall atmosphere in the hostels was refreshing Maintenance of the hostels was the responsibility of the District Social Welfare Officers who appointed wardens to enchant out various functions related to maintenance of building and ancillary activities. x About 74 percent wardens reported that they had received guidelines for maintenance of hostels while the remaining 26 percent informed that such guidelines were not provided. 87% percent hostel Wardens reported that the release of fund for salary of hostel staff was received in time. However, grant for meeting day to day maintenance expenditure was in time in only 56 percent cases.In a majority of districts, fund was released on monthly basis for salary The behavior of hostel wardens in respect of sorting out problems was satisfactory, as reported by both inmates and ex-inmates. Andhra Pradesh is the only state where hostel wardens did not face any problem in management of hostels. A major problem faced by wardens in Kar nataka and Madhya Pradesh was that they were over care-laden since additional charges of more than one hostel were placed on them. The problem of fund constraint was reported by wardens from several states. Inadequate basic amenities were another problem mentioned by Wardens in 56% of selected states (Table-5. 18).Major suggestions given by wardens for improved functioning of hostels included provision of (i)adequate basic amenities,(ii) funds for regular maintenance (iii) adequate grant for meeting the food expenditure of the inmates and(iv) regular warden/hostel staff in the hostels. During the year between 1995-96 to 2004-05, a total of 49,384 students applied for admission into these hostels of whom about 93 percent were very admitted. Of those admitted, about 69 percent were SCs, 11 percent ST and 14 percent from other categories. But in Haryana, the norm regarding intake of SC students was violated as the rest of SCs admitted to hostels constructed/renovated by NGOs account ed for only 30 percent (Table 5. 20). VII. Impact of the Scheme The scheme had significant outcome in terms of establishment of hostels in Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka only. Other states i. e. Orissa and Rajasthan did not take full advantage of the scheme while the scheme nearly flopped in Bihar with negligible effect. In Haryana inmates from the SC category were less than half (30%) of the total strength which amounted to violation of the objective of the Scheme. In case of Uttar Pradesh a number of hostels were not being used by the beneficiaries due to various reasons. xi The logical argument of 35% of the parents of inmates was stopping point while this proportion was higher (76%) in case of ex-inmates.Parents occupation as agricultural and non-agricultural labour among inmates, accounted for 42 percent against 22 percent from ex-inmate category. Haryana, however, had a different picture. Students from somewhat better off SC families were admitted to ho stels persevere by NGOs in Haryana. About 78 percent of the inmates came from poor families having monthly income of less than Rs. 3000 and 26 percent were very poor having monthly income upto Rs. special K only. But Bihar and Haryana had much greater proportion of inmates from better off families about 42% of inmates and as high as 77% of ex-inmates came from families having monthly income above Rs. 5000/-. 54% inmates and 38% ex-inmates reported that they came to stay in the hostels from a distance exceeding 20 km or more from their residences.On the whole, the hostels benefited the target group of very poor SC/ST students coming for studies from long distances. But the outcome in Bihar has been poor. Overall increase in the literacy rate among SCs in 2001 census compared to 1991 was 17 percent for males and 18 percent for females. Part of this increase could be due to other factors also. About 94 percent of inmates were of the view that the scheme of construction of hostels for SC boys and girls had brought about a considerable improvement in the educational development among SC boys and girls. This percentage is lower in Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Bihar and Orissa. VIII. Observation and Suggestions Locations selected for construction of hostels must digest adequate security for girl students and access to good roads, potable drinking water. There should be a regular and adequate budget provisions for repair and maintenance of hostels. Monitoring instrument of the scheme ought to be strengthened. Design of such hostels should have provision for ramps for barrier free movement of physically handicapped students. xii Adequate number of hostels should be constructed in highly SC concentrated areas to reduce congestion in hostel rooms. Warden quarters may be constructed in all the girls hostels and it should be made mandatory for warden to stay in them. Every hostel should have a serve warden. Women wardens should invariably be posted in girls hos tels.In cases where inmates are more than the sanctioned strength, provision for additional amenities such as toilets, living rooms etc. should be made. Scholarships should be change magnitude to compensate escalation of prices and should be paid on time since these form major source of funds for food and other components of expenses by hostel inmates. nutriment charges should be enhanced to meet the rising prices. Mess facility should be strengthened and free food should be must. Adequate infrastructure like benches/tables should be provided in every hostel. There should be provision for wakeful and hygienic toilets. Timely submission of utilization certificates before release of further installments of funds for construction of hostels should be ensured.District Social Welfare Officers should be involved in the admission process of hostels constructed by NGOs to ensure adequate histrionics of SC students in these hostels. Cost ceilings for construction of hostels fixed several years ago must be updated from time to time corresponding to rise in prices of construction materials and labour. A satisfactory mechanism for dissemination of guidelines issued by nodal agencies to implementing agencies must be ensured. There should be adequate arrangement for learn facility for inmates of the hostels during extra timings. There should be uniformity in terms of rules and regulations for boarding and lodging across states. xiii Chapter 1 Introduction 1. 1 Background of the Scheme The constitution of India envisages special protection for socially and economically deprived sections of the society for ensuring their rapid economic development and achieving equality with others. provision of quality education is an important tool for empowering the weaker sections. Various socio-economic factors obstruct the access of the children belonging to scheduled castes to education in general and girls in particular, particularly those living in rural areas. Co nstruction of hostels within or close to the campus of educational institutions has been considered one of he means to enable and encourage boys and girls of SC community to strive towards achievement of quality education at clean costs to improve access to education. Government of India started the Centrally Sponsored Scheme for construction of new hostels as well as expansion of existing hostels for SC girls in 1963-64 so as to give impetus to SC girls education. In due course, certain changes were introduced to improve the scheme by allowing central assistance in construction of hostels in Universities and for making hostels barrier-free for change students. A major change came during the Seventh Five Year Plan (19851990) when the Working Group on the Development and Welfare of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes recommended that hostels for SC boys should also be constructed.They recommended at least two hostels for boys and girls should be established in each district HQ in the country. In light of this the coverage of the scheme of construction of hostel for SC girls was also extended for SC boys. Accordingly, in respect of SC boys, this scheme was started from 1989-90. 1. 2 Objective of the Scheme The main objective of the Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS) is to provide free boarding & lodging facilities in hostels for SC boys and girls studying in schools and also for those studying in Colleges and Universities. In order to provide and scatter social homogeneity and equity 10 percent of total seating area were meant for non-SC students.The general instruction issued by the Government of India under the Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS) further provided that if after accommodating all SC applicants, certain seating area were left vacant then accommodation to non-SC students might be considered. However, the proportion of non-SC students in any case should not exceed 25 percent. The guideline also states that for general category students some charg es may be levied which may be utilized for better maintenance of the hostel. 1. 3 Guidelines for Initiating the Hostel Proposal The Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, GOI prepared general guidelines for initiating proposals for construction of hostels for SC boys and girls. Guidelines pertaining to the implementation of the scheme at istrict level were given to the district level authorities to be considered while initiating the proposals. These are High concentration of SC universe of discourse and low literacy among SCs in the area. Inadequate hostel facilities in the area. Availability of school going SC children. Adequate number of educational institutions. Suitable location keeping in view the connectivity aspect, safety and security of students particularly for SC girls. 1. 4 Procedure for Obtaining Central Assistance The Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment, GOI has laid down a procedure for obtaining central assistance for construction of hostels for SC boys an d girls.The proposals under the scheme have to be separately submitted by States/UTs for SC boys and girls in the prescribed proforma along with the following documents (i) A certificate regarding availability of land, (ii) Site Plan of the proposed hostels, (iii) Detailed cost estimates of the proposed hostels, (iv) A certificate that the estimate has been prepared as per the latest PWD/CPWD rates, (v) Physical progress of the hostels sanctioned precedent since the year 1992 in the prescribed Performa, (vi) Hostel wise, year wise argument of utilization of State as well as Central share in the prescribed Performa, (vii) Matching share of the Sate Governments/Universities/Voluntary Organisations. 1. 5 Evaluation StudySince, the beginning of this scheme in the year 1963-64 and its expansion of scope from 1989-90 no evaluation study had been taken up. In order to assess the impact of this scheme across the country it was felt necessary to initiate an evaluation study at All India l evel. Accordingly, at the instance of the Union Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, the Programme Evaluation Organization of the Planning Commission, conducted an evaluation study on the scheme of construction of Hostels for Scheduled Castes boys & girls. The study was conducted in eight states and two Central Universities where this scheme of construction of hostels for SC boys & girls was largely taken up.The study was launched in the field in November, 2004. The study has covered a reference period of ten years i. e. 1992-93 to 2002-03. 1. 6 The Scheme in Selected States The Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS) of construction of hostels for SC boys and girls has been in operation in several states of India. Some states like Orissa, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan have constructed hostels only under the Centrally Sponsored Scheme. Others like Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Karnataka and Uttar Pradesh have constructed such hostels both under the CSS as well as 100 percent state funded sc heme. In Haryana, only the hostels owned and managed by NGOs have been covered under the present study.In all other states, covered under the present study the hostels constructed for SC boys & girls have been owned and managed by the district level agency of the state nodal department i. e. the Social Welfare Department in most cases. In case of Central Universities, such as, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, Central University, Andhra Pradesh and the hostels constructed by State funded Universities, it is the University which owns and manages the hostels. The district wise coverage of the scheme has also varied from state to state. In Andhra Pradesh and Orissa all the districts of the state were covered under this scheme. But in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh several districts had no hostel for SC boys and girls.Taking into account the size of population of the 8 selected states, the number of such hostels is relatively more in Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka and relat ively less in Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Orissa and Rajasthan. As per available information from 8 selected states, a total of 2310 (1479+831 i. e. CSS and 100% state funded respectively) hostels were constructed between the period from 1992-93 to 2002-03. Chapter 2 The Evaluation Study Objectives & Methodology 2. 1 Objectives of the Study The broad objectives of the evaluation study were the following (i) To study the approval procedures of the proposals for construction of hostels. (ii) To study the process of implementation of the scheme in various States vis-a-vis the guidelines. iii) To assess financial & physical performance of the scheme. (iv) To assess the extent of utilization of hostel facilities by the target group. (v) To study the monitoring & reporting system prevailing under this scheme, including that at construction stage. (vi) To study the role of nodal Departments at the State/UT level and those at the district/block level in proper utilization, maintenance and upkeep of the hostels. (vii) To assess the outcome of the scheme in terms of the uses of the hostels by the target groups. (viii) To analyze the impact of the scheme on educational attainment of SC Boys and Girls during the period between 1991 census to 2001 census. 2. 2 Sample Design 2. 2. 1 StatesWith a view to complete the study within a stipulate time and also to have a better in erudition analysis the following eight states representing different regions were selected under the study (1)Andhra Pradesh, (2) Bihar, (3) Haryana (For hostels constructed through University/Colleges & NGOs), (4) Karnataka, (5) Madhya Pradesh, (6) Orissa, (7) Rajasthan and (8) Uttar Pradesh. It was observed that in Karnataka and Madhya Pradesh large numbers of hostels (i. e. 163 and 666 respectively) were constructed under this scheme. Hence, it was decided to select these two states to assess their impact. From the Eastern Region, Orissa had the largest number of hostels (112), and Bihar had siz able SC population & also a large number of hostels (37) but considerably low literacy rate i. e. 49 percent as against the national literacy rate of 54. 16 percent.Hence, these two states were selected as sample states from the eastern region. From the Southern Region, Andhra Pradesh was selected due to very high concentration of SC population (16. 17% males and 16. 22% females) and the piece largest number of hostels (196) constructed for SC boys and girls under this scheme. In the Northern Region, Uttar Pradesh has a goodish SC population (20. 76% males and 20. 18% females) & largest number of districts in the country i. e. 70, the number of hostels constructed in this state is 76. It was, therefore, decided to select the state as a sample state to be covered under this study. Similarly, Rajasthan was also selected due to high SC population in this state.It was observed that five Central Universities have been funded for construction of hostels for SC boys and girls under this scheme. It was decided to select Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi (Mahi & Mandvi Hostels) and Hyderabad Central University as each of these two Universities has one hostel each for boys & girls. It is also observed that the state funded Universities in about 6-7 states have been covered under this scheme. In Haryana large numbers of hostels are reported to have been expanded under this scheme through NGOs. Therefore it was decided to select Haryana as a sample state to be covered under this study. 2. 2. 2 DistrictsIt was decided to select 20 percent districts from each sample state for the study. Average number of hostels per district in a state was worked out by dividing total number of hostels constructed in the state by the number of districts. The districts in a state were divided in two categories, first the districts having hostels more than the state average number and warrant category of districts having hostels less than the state average. Twenty percent of districts in a state were selected pari-passu from each of the two categories. Based on the above criteria, total 68 districts were selected from the above mentioned states other than Delhi.These varied from 5 each in Andhra Pradesh, Haryana and Karnataka, 6 each in Orissa and Rajasthan, 9 in Madhya Pradesh, 10 in Bihar and 22 in Uttar Pradesh Table 2. 1 gives the complete list of selected districts. Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi had two hostels, one for boys and one for girls. Since the two hostels covered under the study were constructed by University itself without any involvement of district administration in construction and management, hence Delhi has been excluded from this list. State wise number and names of the district selected as sample for evaluation study have been given in Table 2. 1. Table 2. 1 Number and Names of Districts Selected for the Study No. f Name of the Name of the Selected Districts Districts Selected States Selected Andhra Pradesh 5 atomic number 74 God avari, Vishakhapattnam, Karim Nagar, Mehboob Nagar, Chittor, Central University Bihar 10 Patna, Siwan, Muzaffarpur,Bhojpur, Bhagalpur, West Champaran, Purnia, Rohtas, Aurangabad, Samastipur JNU, Delhi Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi Haryana 5 Rohtak, Hisar, Sirsa, Kurukshetra, Kaithal Karnataka 5 Kolar,Chitradurga, Davengere,Chamraj Nagar, Gulbarga. Madhya Pradesh 9 Ujjain, Sidhi, Guna, Sehore, Narsinghpur, Tikamgarh, Datiya, Bhopal, Sivni Orissa 6 Jajpur, Keonjhar, Bhadrak, Dhenkanal, Balasore, Cuttack Rajasthan 6 Dausa, Tonk, Baran, Sikar, Bundi, Rajsamand Uttar Pradesh 22 Pratapgarh,Bareilly,KanpurNagar,Shahjahanpur, Chandoli, Meerut, Fatehpur,Barabanki,Varanasi, Gonda, Faizabad, Allahabad, Basti, Siddarth Nagar, Gorakhpur, J. P. Nagar, Banda, Sant Ravidas Nagar, Badayun, Ambedkar Nagar, Sant Kabir Nagar, Chitrakut measure 68 2. 2. Officials involved in the Construction/Supervision of the Hostels It was felt that the role of the officers who released the fund, coordinated the work and were directly involved in construction/supervision of the hostels was quite significant. Hence it was decided to frame a schedule for Officers at this level. That officer could either be a Junior Engineer, appurtenant Engineer, Executive Officer of Zilla Parishad, PWD or DRDA etc. It was decided to cover only those hostels constructed under CSS as information regarding the state funded hostels were not available because in all the cases where hostels were constructed long back, most of the Officers who had been involved in the activities at the district level had retired. 2. 2. 4 Hostels and Hostel WardensIt was decided to select ten (10) percent of the total hostels constructed (during the period 1992-93 to 2002-03) in each selected state under the CSS on random basis for the evaluation study. It was also decided to select at least two percent of the hostels constructed under100 percent funding by the state government, in case the particular state had such hostels. F ollowing this criterion, 185 hostels from CSS, 65 hostels from 100% state funded category and 15 hostels run by NGOs in were selected (table-2. 2) for the evaluation study. In each selected hostel, a Warden level schedule was canvassed. thence a total of 211 Warden level schedules could be canvassed. As remaining 54 were either did not respond or their post were vacant. Table 2. 2 Coverage of Hostels in Sample States No. f Hostels cover Covered under Run by Total under CSS 100% State Funded NGOs Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls 10* 14* 18 8 28* 22* 2 10 9 12 9 1 1 1** 1** 11 4 11*** 4*** 21 6 10 5 31 11 36 23 36 23 10 8 10 8 10 5 10 5 26 12 5 31 12 116 69 43 22 11 4 170 95 States Andhra Pradesh Bihar Delhi(JNU) Haryana Karnataka Madhya Pradesh Orissa Rajasthan Uttar Pradesh Total * Includes one boys and one girls hostel in Central University, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh. ** Indicates two hostels (Mahi and Mandavi) of JNU, New Delhi *** Hostels in State Universities also in cluded. 2. 2. 5 Inmates It was decided that 10 percent of the sanctioned strength of each selected hostel would be selected as sample beneficiaries for the study. This norm was followed for hostels having a sanctioned strength of 100 boarders.However, if the sanctioned strength of the hostels was less than 100, even then minimum 5 boarders from such hostels were selected for the study. It was decided to cover inmates from non-SC category also, if available in the hostels. Overall 1417 inmates were selected for the study. State-wise number of inmates selected as beneficiaries is given in table 2. 3 (Page-6). 2. 2. 6 Ex-inmates Two ex-inmates were randomly selected from each sample hostels with a view to get a feedback regarding the operational aspects of the hostels and the constraints faced by them while staying in the hostels and also to have an idea of the advantages, if any, they had as a result of staying in such hostels. 2. 2. 7 Knowledgeable PersonsFor the purpose of getting an over all view of the functioning of hostels as well as social perception of their benefits and constraints, it was decided to cover one knowledgeable person for each sample hostel. This knowledgeable person could be a member of village Panchayat, local body, village level worker, a teacher or an NGO activist etc. Total 210 knowledgeable persons were selected for this study. 2. 2. 8 Universities There were five Central Universities where the scheme was in operation. Of these, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi and Central University, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, which ran one hostel each for boys and girls, were selected for the study.In addition, 5 State Universities from Haryana which had constructed hostels for SC boys and girls were also included in the sample of State Funded Universities. 2. 2. 9 Guide points Guide points were prepared to help the field team in preparing qualitative notes regarding implementation of the scheme in respect of quality of construction, maintena nce of hostels and mechanism adopted for planning, supervision and monitoring of the scheme. 2. 3 Reference compass point of the Study and Starting of Field Survey The study covered the period since inception of the scheme in 1963-64 upto 2002-03. However, for the selection of sample hostels, only those hostels which were constructed or taken up for construction between 1992-93 and 2002-03 were considered.The study was launched in the field in November, 2004. 2. 4 Methodology/Instruments Used for Data Collection Data at primary and secondary stages were collected through structured instruments of placard at different levels. Data on financing and monitoring were collected through secondary sources, such as the Union Ministry (Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment) and from the nodal department implementing the schemes in different states. Information on aspects relating to project proposal, sanction and release of fund, administration & maintenance of hostels and especially t he impact of the scheme were kindle through field surveys. Table 2. Types of Schedules used to collect data at Different Levels for the Evaluation Study in Selected States. Selected States Instruments of Observations Devised for Data Collection State Level District Level Officials Hostel involved Wardens in construction Level Inmates ExKnowinmates ledgeable Persons NGOs Level University level Schedule Andhra Pradesh Bihar Delhi(JNU) Haryana Karnataka Madhya Pradesh Orissa Rajasthan Uttar Pradesh* Total 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 NR 7 5 10 5 5 9 6 6 21 67 24 2 2 15 25 58 18 11 36 191 50 15 2 13 33 58 7 14 19 211 500 96 20 108 189 271 35 70 128 1417 94 32 4 22 60 94 10 25 27 368 48 16 2 13 33 58 7 14 19 210 8 8 1 1 5 7 * berth I. State level schedule of UP has not been received so far. II.As new district Sant Kabir Nagar not having its own staff, its work was carried out by the staff of Basti district. Therefore only one district level schedule was canvassed for the both districts viz. Basti and Sant Kabir Nagar. 2. 5 Data Analysis and Report Writing The Survey and data collection work relating to this study was done by the Officials of Programme Evaluation Organisation, Planning Commission. The services of Institute for Resource Management and Economic Development, Delhi were availed for tabulation, interpretation and analysis of data and preparation of report. Chapter 3 Planning, Implementation and Monitoring of the Scheme 3. 1 Role of the Nodal MinistryThe Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, GOI has laid down procedures for obtaining central assistance for construction of hostels for SC boys and girls. At the time of inviting proposals under the scheme, the ministry impresses upon the states to submit the proposals separately for construction of hostels for SC boys and girls in the prescribed proforma along with the following documents i) A certificate regarding availability of land ii) Site plan of the proposed hostel iii) A certificate that the estimate has b een prepared as per the latest PWD/CPWD rates. iv) v) Detailed cost estimates of the proposed hostel. Physical progress of the hostels sanctioned earlier since the year 1992 in prescribed proforma. i) Hostel wise, year wise statement of utilization of state as well as central share in the prescribed proforma and vii) Matching share of the state government/NGOs/Universities. The Ministry received proposals for construction of hostels from Nodal Department (i. e. Social Welfare Department) of the State Government and held periodic meetings with state govt. representatives about the implementation of the scheme as reported by 43% state nodal departments. Based on the above, funds were provided to the state nodal departments for construction of hostels for SC boys and girls. In case of Central Universities, the Ministry received proposals directly from the fipple pipe of the concerned University. It was learnt that there was no guideline/manual as such formulated for monitoring this sc heme at level of the Ministry.Hence funds were released only after examining the physical and financial progress of the hostels sanctioned earlier. But the nodal ministry mentioned that only general scrutiny of the proposals was done, as there were no technical experts for this purpose. referable to lack of staff, hostels under construction were not visited by any official from the nodal ministry. State nodal departments were required to send quarterly progress report and photographs of the hostels to the Nodal Ministry. 3. 2 Role of the State Nodal Department Social Welfare Directorates or Departments were the nodal agencies for the implementation of the scheme in most of the states. In Madhya Pradesh, however, the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribe Welfare Department was the nodal agency.In most of the states the scheme was taken up in areas where need for hostels was felt uppermost. Based on the availability of funds and the need for such hostels in the areas with high concent ration of SC population, the state nodal department used to receive proposals from various parts of the state through District Social Welfare Officers. The applications were sent in the prescribed proforma containing information about availability of land, audited statement of accounts for the funds received in earlier years. The nodal department scrutinised the proposals keeping in view the guidelines given by the Union Ministry. Proposals were sent to the ministry for clearance and release of funds.The nodal department also convened review meetings of the district welfare officers at regular intervals depending upon the need for such meetings. The nodal department officials at the state level used to visit the construction sites during construction as well as post construction phases at intervals, the frequency of which, however, varied considerably from state to state. The state nodal department claimed that they obtained the progress reports on the construction of hostels from d ifferent locations and submitted these reports annually to the Union Ministry. But such progress reports were neither insisted upon nor were well-kept systematically at the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment. 3. The Level at which Proposals Initiated In most of the states proposals for construction of hostels for SC boys and girls were initiated at local levels. In Andhra Pradesh district collectors identified locations for construction of hostels with the assistance of revenue department. In Karnataka, District Social Welfare Officer(DSWO) took the initiative for construction of hostels. In Madhya Pradesh, the proposal was basically received from local Panchayat and after careful scrutiny and discussion sent to state nodal department for approval. In Rajasthan, proposals regarding construction of hostels were initiated by Directorate of Social Welfare through District Collector.In Haryana, where study was conducted to evaluate the role of NGOs, it was observed that the prop osals were initiated at the local level by the concerned NGOs as District Welfare Officer publicized the programme among NGOs and other educational institutions at the local level. In Uttar Pradesh the Social Welfare Department did not provide the information, but field study revealed that the potential of the SC students be assessed by Zila Samaj Kalyan Adhikari by involving Principals of the local colleges. In Central Universities the Registrar of the concerned university initiated proposal for construction of hostel for SC boys and girls after being intimated by the Ministry to send a proposal to this effect. 3. 4 The Approval Procedures for the SchemeGenerally approvals for construction of hostels for SC boys and girls were given by the state nodal departments after going through proposals received from different districts. Approvals were given to the proposals which fulfilled following parameters of the guidelines (a) Availability of owned land of concerned School/College autho rity or transferring land in favor of the Social Welfare Department preferably free of cost, (b) Availability of school going SC children in the area, (c) Inadequate educational facility in the area, (d) Low literacy among SCs, (e) High concentration of SC population, (f) Local demand, and (g) Cost estimate of hostel. The districts, which qualified on the basis of the above criteria, were asked to identify suitable locations for the hostel sites.The in short listed proposals were sent by the concerned nodal department of the State to the Union Ministry for their approval. The Ministry, in turn, after giving approval to the schemes, released funds to the state nodal department for initiating of work. Grant is limited to sharing of cost of construction of the hostels 3. 5 The Process of Implementation The implementation of the scheme for the construction of hostels for SC boys and girls involved several aspects and stages like deciding the number of hostels to be constructed, adminis trative formalities, issue of guidelines for construction by the nodal agency at the state level, specifying an administrative set up for implementation, nsuring quality of work, handing over possession etc. However in Haryana the focus was on additions or renovations of already existing hostels being owned and managed by NGOs. 3. 5. 1 Deciding the number of hostels to be constructed At the beginning of each financial year, the concerned nodal department of the state govt. decided the number of hostels for SC boys and girls to be constructed on the basis of availability of funds and the following criteria (a) The hostels should be turn up in the towns and large villages having a concentration of SC population. (b) The large villages and towns should have satisfactory standard of education on the ba