Thursday, 31 January 2019

Cause and Effect Essay: Unemployment :: Cause and Effect Essays

Its hard to live a normal hygienic life without a job and bills. There argon a build of reasons why mickle be unemployed. macrocosm unemployed endure exercise one to beat financial, emotional, and personal problems.The al virtually common causes of unemployment are acquire fired and layed rancid for specific reasons. People might ticktack layed absent if a comp all is going out of business or by chance if there are positions in the caller-out that are no nightlong needed. Its hard-fought to denudation a job right out-of-door after existence fired. Companies foundert want to hire individual who has just been fired for reasons such as failure to do a sufficient job, non showing up to proceed, stealing, etc. Its besides hard to find a job instantly after organism layed off. In well-nigh cases the economy is down and it is hard to find any work in general. Some people cant get hired because they wear downt have an education and they are non qualified to do the work required. Most companies call a persons references and if they dont have a good work record they are not likely to get hired. Employees will ever so hire the most qualified person based on their resume, or brief paper of ones education and professional experience. early(a) people cant find jobs because of disabilities or health problems. If fewbody gets into a railroad car accident and gets physically injured long-term or becomes dis fitd, it becomes difficult to do many types of jobs. In an early(a) case a person whitethorn become ill and not be able to work for a long period of cartridge clip or at all.One of the most life changing effects of unemployment is the loss of income. oddly if they are a single parent of if they have a great family to support. Having no money means eventually having no food, no c locoweedhes, no shelter, and no car. It to a fault prevents one from doing many things and activities, even though their sum of leisure quantify has increased. One might not have money to go to the movies, maneuver on sports teams, or do any other recreational things. Being unemployed for a long enough time leads to a component of debt. Any money that has been saved ends up acquire spent instead quickly with all of todays sustentation expenses. Twenty gigabyte dollars may seem like a lot of money to some people, but with no income that money gets spent forrader you know it.Cause and Effect Essay Unemployment Cause and Effect EssaysIts hard to live a normal healthy life without a job and money. There are a variety of reasons why people are unemployed. Being unemployed can cause one to experience financial, emotional, and personal problems.The most common causes of unemployment are getting fired and layed off for specific reasons. People might get layed off if a company is going out of business or maybe if there are positions in the company that are no longer needed. Its difficult to find a job right away after being fired. Compani es dont want to hire someone who has just been fired for reasons such as failure to do a sufficient job, not showing up to work, stealing, etc. Its also hard to find a job instantly after being layed off. In some cases the economy is down and it is hard to find any work in general. Some people cant get hired because they dont have an education and they are not qualified to do the work required. Most companies call a persons references and if they dont have a good work record they are not likely to get hired. Employees will always hire the most qualified person based on their resume, or brief account of ones education and professional experience.Other people cant find jobs because of disabilities or health problems. If someone gets into a car accident and gets physically injured long-term or becomes disabled, it becomes difficult to do many types of jobs. In another case a person may become ill and not be able to work for a long period of time or at all.One of the most life changing effects of unemployment is the loss of income. Especially if they are a single parent of if they have a large family to support. Having no money means eventually having no food, no clothes, no shelter, and no car. It also prevents one from doing many things and activities, even though their amount of leisure time has increased. One might not have money to go to the movies, play on sports teams, or do any other recreational things. Being unemployed for a long enough time leads to a lot of debt. Any money that has been saved ends up getting spent rather quickly with all of todays living expenses. Twenty thousand dollars may seem like a lot of money to some people, but with no income that money gets spent before you know it.

Wednesday, 30 January 2019

Review of “Peer-E-Kamil” Essay

Pir-e-Kamil (SAW) center The Perfect Mentor, is one of the fiction invigorated written by vigorous known and famous Pakistani author Umera Ahmed. The hold back was firstly published in 2005 in Urdu language and later on in 2011 the have was published in incline language too. I have unconquerable to write review on this withstand because I found the script an extraordinary attempt by the writer Umera Ahmed. I have selected this guard for review because the facts shown in the loudness were pith & soul shaking. galore(postnominal) among us dont think round these facts and coming vitalityspan provided scarce consider it as to have the luxuries and to relax after(prenominal) lending hard for gathering as much luxuries as they can. The only right path starts from ALLAH and ends at his beloved last Prophet Hazrat Muhammad (SAW) scarcely unfortunately not as many of us thinks about it.Umera Ahmed was born(p) on December 10, 1976 in Sialkot. Umera Ahmed completed he r masters in English literature from Murray College,Sialkot. She began her writing c arr in 1998 with her initial stories published in monthly Urdu digests. She has written 16 curbs, ranging from complete novels to compilations of short stories. Her most touristy book is the current book of which I am presenting the review Pir-e-Kamil (SAW). This book became identity for Umera Ahmed. Later she became an English language lecturer for the students of O and A levels at Army Public College, Sialkot. However, she left the job a hardly a(prenominal) years back in order to devote her full assistance to writing. Her novels and her plays have been adapted for television. Umera Ahmed is one of the most widely-read and popular Urdu fiction novelist and screenplay writer of this era. Her stories revolves slightly many social, domestic and spiritual issues and consists of colours of true love, friendship, doubt and tragedy. What differentiates her from others is her ambition of bringing li ght on certain contr everywheresial issues of modern era.Pir-e-Kamil, is our Prophet (S.A.W) someone the whole Muslim Ummah loves. The story of Pir-e-Kamil is about a girl named Imamah who went through many changes in her life because of her love for Allah and His courier S.A.W. Pir-e-Kamil is a story of Imamah Hashim, who belongs to a family of Qadiyanis. Qadiyanis are a group of mickle who choose divergence from true Islam by selling their faith and these are considered non-believers by Islamic Law and according to the Law of Pakistan too. Imamah grews up in that family but feels something to be missing in her life. She found what she was looking for in Islam. Her conversion to Islam brought some serious and difficult challenges to her life, and faced rejection and harsh port of her family on becoming a Muslim.Her family planned her wedding with her cousin Asjad who was similarly a Qadiyani. As It isnt permissible for a Muslim woman to marry a non-Muslim, so she asks for her Muslim neighbors, Salars help. Salar was one of those additional raft who have 150+ IQ level and amazing memory. This book is also about the story of Salar Sikander, a very different and modify character, who was sustenance a sinful and worse life like the life of anyone in the world but not that of how a good Muslim should live. He had tried to commit suicide a few propagation respectable because he urgencys to feel the pain. After that story the book is about the hardships these characters face in life. The book tells us that Any success in this world and in the next World, is only granted for the love of sanctum Prophet (SAW) and beyond that there is nothing that a person requires. Nothing.The writers communicative style does justice to the wonderful plot and by the end of the novel you cant help but at least think over the lessons and morals in the book. The novels plot, facts expressed in the novel, the scenes hence, everything was heart touching, heart shaking and perf ect. It is not just an ordinary novel, but Pir-e-Kamil depart let you examine your own life and see if the lives we are living are in accordance with what Allah (God) wants us to live like in this World. The story of the book is much(prenominal) a great one that no one can sit without admiring it. It shows the people who love Allah and His Messenger (SAW) and how people have changed by the will of Allah through other people. It is spiritual story. Im sure that there are many people who go through such phases in their lives, infact I think everyone gets a take a chance at least once in their lives.It also depends on who want that change. Surely, Allah listens and knows whats in our hearts. One of my favorite parts was when Salar was in a fishy area and hears the name Imamah and the way Umera described his reaction was just superb and fabulous. Great characterization shown by Umera Ahmed in this book. Your heart all in all went out for Salar even when you knew he wasnt a good blac kguard what a great way to craft a character in the book. It is really a masterpiece of Umera Ahmed and no doubt the book has a magic spell .Although it is totally a fiction novel but after tuition this you will just think that may be Salar Sikandar exists or Imamah exists in this World. The concepts , the characters , the dialogues every single thing in book was amazing. Personally the character of Salar Sikandar left me totally mesmerized. I loved the musical passage of his characters the way he changed is quite interesting.Overall this book is a chef-doeuvre from the Author. I will surely recommend this book to all people. It is such a type of book which have everything In it and once reading it no once can be restricted from appraising the work of author. A surely recommended book to everyone. I highly recommend this book to everyone because it has got to be one of the most amazing novels ever. It is definitely worth reading.In life, at sometime or another we come to a inst itutionalise where all relationships ceasewhere there is only us and Allah. There are no parents, brother or sister, or any friend. Then we take in that there is no earth under us nor is there cast away above, but only Allah who is supporting us in this emptiness. Then we bring our worth it is not more than a grain of sand or the leaf of a plant. Then we realise our existence is only check to our being. Our demise makes not a whit of difference to the world around us, nor to the scheme of things. Umera Ahmed, Peer-e-Kamil

Tuesday, 29 January 2019

Academy Awards Ceremony

At the very first Academy Awards ordinance in 1929, the writing awards were already split into two categories Best Writing, sure Story and Best Writing, Adaptation. (For the record, that first course of study saw the only instauration of an Oscar for Best Title Writing, an art that had become obsolete by the sideline year.)Over the next few decades, the delineation of the screenplay awards morphed a bit.For a while, triad awards were presented Best Original Screenplay, Best Original Story, and Best Story and Screenplay- confuse categorizations that speak to the tortured distinctions made by the Writers Guild when determining authorship. only for the last half century, the sensible division between an original screenplay and a screenplay based on a preexisting work has held.Writers and their audiences see a difference between the art of creating characters, situations and conference out of whole framework and the art of turning an existing work into a film paw with all the r equisite transformations that such a translation entails.This is not to avow that the distinction between an original and adapted work is always clear. In 2000, Joel and Ethan Coen s O Brother, Where Art Thou? was nominated for Best competent Screenplay thanks to a credit on the film that cheekily say it was based on Homers Odyssey.Eyebrows rose all over Hollywood O Brother had about as much to do with the Odyssey as did The supernatural of Oz or really any story about someone helpless who wants to go home.The Coens were perhaps prompt- ing the age-old debate as to whether any artwork, oddly a narratively driven artwork, is ever truly original. In a bulky sense, every storyteller obviously builds on the stories that came before him or her and relies on pre-programmed audience expectations.Harold Blooms Anxiety of Influence addresses this topic with great insight, and an entire academic discipline, the study of Intertextuality, analyzes this phenomenon.The Oscar nominees for B est Original Screenplay this year American Hustle, Blue Jasmine, Dallas Buyers Club, Her, and neon all utilize existing genre tropes, standard (or subverted) plot devices, patterns of dialogue derived from previous works, and so forth. Blue Jasmine is quite consciously based on Tennessee Williams A Streetcar Named Desire, with virtually every character and situation a direct outgrowth of the earlier work.The dialogue is new, but its debatable as to whether the work is Original in the strictest sense. Certainly it is much more of an allowance than O Brother, Where Art Thou? Conversely, one of the nominees for Best Adapted Screenplay this year is

Monday, 28 January 2019

Drug Courts

The dose hook is a unique effort that uses the office of a dose offence arrest as an intervention prospect for drug off remnanters even though historical problems in criminal judge diversion and referral programs the Dade County success appraises have shown that these problems can be spank through unique collaborative relationships, innovative treatment design, and the elimination of stately gaps in the referral- treatment-monitoring process.It is the purpose of this paper to explore the concept that drug courts are a far more effective method of punishment for drug offenders than the traditional route of enslavement. The Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement bend of 1994 provided a potential one billions dollars for the subsequent five years to mark up drug courts.As jurisdictions move forward in the make-up of such courts, it is essential to consider the conceptual and clinical elements that have do drug courts successful in drug rehabilitation and crime legal p rofession far more than incarcerations. The first drug court in Dade County, Florida, created in 1989, was the prototype. The terzetto-phase Miami program for first and second cocaine offenders begins with arrest and overnight incarceration in the Dade County Stockade, and appearance the following morning before the drug court judge.The program was developed under the direction of Dade County Superior Court articulate Herbert Klein, with the assistance of Michael Smith, MD, and Director of Substance Abuse. After two years of the drug courts operation, 4296 felony drug possession arrestees had been diverted to the program. Of these, 1600 had graduated the three-phase program with a 3% re-arrest rate 1153 were still in the program with a 7% re-arrest rate 500 had their charges dismissed after program entry and 1043 failed to comply with the program.Also, 90% of the arrestees who were offered the program accepted the program the other 10% were arraigned in stiff Supreme Court no scr eening for treatment-readiness was conducted, meaning that this was a non-selected, common group of cocaine addicted offenders 60% of the program graduates required at least a brief in-patient stay during their treatment most of the bereavement to comply drop-out group left the program in the first three weeks of bureauicipation 30% of the dropout sgroup later returned to the program either voluntarily, by summons, or by repeat minor arrest.The cost was effrontery at $750 per client, per year. Clients stipend mandated fees for the program, and the program is partially funded by a special fine levied on a certain class of traffic offense. When the program began, seized assets were used for part of the program startup costs. References WWW. DDRS. COM Promptly at 8 o quantify on Tuesday night at the community church in my photographic plate town largo, Maryland, there are vivification changing effort from alcoholics in the community, I have had the pleasure of witnessing these e fforts with my own eyes and I mustiness say it is truly eye opening.The reason for these meetings is for alcoholics to have time to assort to others and share their feelings and concern with their peers. At the start of the meeting the group loss drawing card leads the group with a prayer and words of wisdom, shortly after they throw in the towel the person in a attends to help themselves to snack and drinks alcohol free, commonly the administer telephone tags but on the particular day on my attendant they were out. The group leader made it clear that if you were not in the mode to speak all you have to do was say run through in order for me to not insult the others in attended at the meeting I sat in the circle with the group.The group leader asked each individual person to introduce there selves being that the name tags where not at the groups disposal, after being ask for their names they were given an opportunity individual to share what was on their mind most of everyone spoke, A guy named Louis who shared said he is ready for the rain to end and broke down in tears. Right then and there I realize that being a alcoholic was not a life chose but more so a sickness. The group leader would lots lecture as advantageously as ask others very detail questions to different individual.At the end of the meeting the group leader virtually with more words of wisdom as well as a prayer. The A. A meeting was a great experience as well life changing I was very proud to see others with courage talk about their biggest life problems. I would defiantly recommend these meetings to anyone with addiction, on the simple fact of other and peers being able to relate to the like problem that you have make you feel like youre acquiring thru it together. copied directly from the notepad I brought to the meeting wanted to keep it authentic no-account for all the eras

Sunday, 27 January 2019

How Far Does Luck Explain the Rise and Fall of Napoleon Bonaparte Essay

How far does draw explain the rise and fall of cat sleep nap? forty winks nap like humany a nonher(prenominal)s rose to prominence during the turbulent times of the french revolution- he was therefore bunchy to have been born at such(prenominal) a time in to justify his advancing position. However his record as a skilled tactician and strategist enabled him to initially capitalize on the reforms of the french Revolution to improve the lives of French citizens. short sleep Bonaparte emerged as an all important(predicate) figure for re-establishing order in France and initially gained the trust and guard of his countrymen, winning many bang-up legions victories against the nations of Europe. But over time, short sleeps lust for designer overcame his good economic, political and war machine accomplishments, and his mutation into a selfish dictator led to his fall. To say he was fated at this point is an understatement. naps upbringing is one that could be considered un conventional (at first) for a successful ruler of France. cat sleep was the son of a middle class Corsican family, at a time when Corsica had non even been French for long. Being formerly subject to Genoa, the Corsican mass did not speak French entirely a dialect of Italian. They were, and are, a fiercely independent Mediterranean people, with a Mediterranean temperament. forty winks was ever self-conscious about his humble origins and provincial background. He came from a honest family and went to a mediocre military academy, where his railmates make fun of his thick Corsican accent.Despite this however he was probabilityy in a sand that his noble background afforded him to a greater extent opportunities than were available to a normal Corsican at the time. In January 1779, nap was enrolled at a religious school in Autun, mainland France, to learn French. In May he was admitted to a military academy at Brienne-le-Chateau. He excelled in various subjects including mathemati cs and was viewed by one examiner as a candidate for an excellent skimmer. Napoleon was the first Corsican to graduate from the Ecole Militaire, a testament to his rational abilities in the field.Of course his application to maths determined his specialisation as an artillery officer. This can be considered a stroke of luck in his favour, one of many that he bene traveled from inas ofttimes as the artillery was the most honored branch of the army under the old regime. But the biggest stroke of luck Napoleon had was to be born when he was in the age of the French Revolution. Napoleon, like many others, was do by the Revolution. The Revolution turned the unhurt world upside down and presented an ambitious young man (he was evermore ambitious a consequence of his resentment at his inferior status) with bare-ass and vast opportunities.Looking again at the perspective of Napoleons capabilities as a man rather than his luck during his ascension we mustiness likewise consider h is fluidity. Despite his early one sidedness and his view of himself as a devout Corsican, he was ostracized by his countrymen when trying to attempt to infix himself as the head of the Corsican national government. The Corsican nationalists were inclined to far-right and monarchist ideas and distrustful of the ideals of the Revolution. They were also distrustful of Napoleon, who had the misfortune of being seen as a Corsican provincial to the French and a French intruder to the Corsicans.Rejected by his compatriots, Napoleon abandoned all his nationalist ideals. He later on became transformed from an ardent Corsican patriot to a earnest advocate of French centralism. In a sense it was luck that Napoleon now saw France as an area would he could advance to power, but there nothing surprising about this sudden turnabout. Napoleon neer had any fixed principles about anything, except his own advancement. His early republican sympathies may have been genuine but they were certainl y tempered with a heavy dose of opportunism. He specialised in currying favour with his superiors in order to climb the ladder of careerist advancement.When it was advantageous to appear as a Jacobin, he donned the tricolour, but later he swung against the Jacobins with equal alacrity when their sense experience waned. Napoleons big opportunity came in 1794 at the military exclude of Toulon. This key Mediterranean port had declared for the English and allowed British contracts to pack it. England was the real bulwark of re work on and bankrolled the wars against revolutionary France that others fought. Napoleon saw his obtain to make a mark and did so by conspicuous gallantry and a high degree of skill in the uptake of artillery, which mulish the battle in Frances favour.His rapid rise to fame and success had begun. His abutting big military success came with the onslaught of Italy in the strategic stir against Austria. It was at this point Napoleon demonstrated excellen t qualities as a tactician and a politician. Napoleon vetoed the idea of the Directory atheists to march on Rome and divest the Pope as he reasoned this would create a power vacuum which would be exploited by the Kingdom of Naples. Instead, in march 1797, Bonaparte led his army into Austria and constrained it to n self-importancetiate quietude.The resulting Treaty of Leoben gave France deem of most of northern Italy and the Low Countries, and a secret clause promised the land of Venice to Austria. Bonaparte marched on Venice and forced its surrender, ending 1,100 years of independence he also authorised the French to loot treasures such as the Horses of holy person Mark. His application of conventional military ideas to real-world situations effected his military triumphs, such as creative use of artillery as a mobile force to support his infantry. He referred to his tactics thus I have fought lx battles and I have l earn nothing which I did not greet at the beginning.Look a t Caesar he fought the first like the last. His conclusion to record his exploits through two newspapers he founded for the army and circulation in France earned him wide critical acclaim. But again he was known to present military glory in favour of preserving his position, as shown by negotiations in Austria and the treaty of Campio Formio in response to Barras and the French republican allies in control of the French government becoming dependent on Bonaparte following the Coup of 18 Fructidor in order to depose the French royalists who feared Napoleon was becoming a dictator.It was not unlucky that this happened, as Napoleon handled the situation effectively and was able to continue his quest for power. His capa city as a strategist in military campaign against nations hostile to France move to shine when he conceived an expedition into Egypt in order to seize it and thereby undermine Britains access to its trade interests in India.Although this invasion failed, mostly due t o his loss in the battle of the Nile against Horatio Nelson, Napoleon- unlike his later years was able to take defeat well, speeding up the bed by poisoning plague stricken men- this supposed act of friendly fire was deemed necessary by his supporters given the continued harassment of stragglers by hassock forces, and indeed those go away behind alive were tortured and beheaded by the fairys. Back in Egypt, on 25 July, Bonaparte defeated an Ottoman amphibious invasion at Abukir.The coup of Brumaire in 1799 while being the main event for Napoleons ascension to ruler of France for the most part defines how far his luck went in his rise to power. The reasons for General Bonapartes coup may have lain more in his defeats than by his victories. In November 1799, France was suffering the effects of military reverses brought on by Bonapartes adventurism in theMiddle East. The looming threat of opportunistic invasion by the Second unification had provoked internal unrest, with Bonapart e stuck in Egypt. When he returned he stormed into the house escorted by grenadiers.At this point his nuisance value at speechmaking failed to impress the dissolutioned directory, and he was heckled out and even assaulted at the council of Five degree centigrade. It was only by the intervention of his comrade Lucien that he was spared great injury or death, and luciens skill at organising the troops to expel the violent deputies from the chamber yelling kick em all out and dispersing the council. This spelled the end of the directory and the establishment of the consulate. Napoleon had hoped that the his French imperium would last for centuries, but the reality was practically more disconcerting.His downslope however was not so much attributed to bad luck as it was his ego and complacency due to his earlier military successes. deuce main things contributed to his downfall, Economics and Military failure. In the Treaty of Tilset, Napoleon establish the Continental system which basically was a boycott of conveying and purchasing of goods with the British. He realized that England depended heavily on other countries to buy from and exchange to.However Napoleon underestimated the fact that England could trade with the U. S and controlled India (even though he tried to restrain British Trade with India in his invasion of Egypt) and was not limited to Prussia, Russia and Austria. The continental system did not hurt England as much as he had hoped, but it hurt other countries because they loved English goods and got them any way they could. This was also just another reason for the Austrians, Prussians and Russians to bob up against him. Napoleon tended to try and get his way in negotiations by shouting at those who didnt agree with him, and on one occasion physically assaulted an Austrian diplomat who disagreed with his demands.Napoleon believed military dominance was sufficient to confab his will on Europe, but this necessitated constantly ke eping a large(p) army in the field, which strained French finances and alienated the characterless population of Europe, as French troops lived off the country when electioneering or stationed abroad. His failure to compromise through fineness after military victories meant he was never able to consolidate his gains long term and confirm them through any prolonged period of later(prenominal) peace. Napoleon was never accepted as one of them by other European rulers.His physical exercise of dethroning monarchs and replacing them with members of his own family, who had no right to them and who were certainly no break away as rulers, scared all other European monarchs, who were afraid they energy be next. Napoleon didnt really understand seapower, nor its importance and how to use it effectively. The French navy got few resources-manpower and money being directed principally to the army. This left the French fleet underequipped, undermanned, and undertrained, which led to a d rop in morale and its easy defeat in battle.No attempt was made to rebuild the French fleet after Trafalgar, global naval achievement being left wholly in British hands. Napoleon didnt realize that this would have long term economic effects as well as military ones. In the Treaty of Tilset, Napoleon schematic the continental system which basically was a boycott of selling and get of goods with the British. He realized that England depended heavily on other countries to buy from and sell to.However Napoleon in a moment of political ineptitude underestimated that though was that England could trade with the U. S and and controlled India (even though he tried to stop British Trade with India in his invasion of Egypt) and was not limited to Prussia, Russia and Austria. The continental system did not hurt England as much as he had hoped, but it hurt other countries because they loved English goods and got them any way they could. This was also just another reason for the Austrians , Prussians and Russians to rebel against him. Instead of crippling the British economy, it crippled that of much of Europe.Britain had responded with Orders in Council, a close blockade of Europes major ports that cut off all remote seaborne trade to continental Europe. This impoverished many people, denied Europes aristocracy luxury goods, and led to endemic smuggling that undermined the economy of France and other European states. When Napoleon created the Continental System, Portugal refused to comply with a treaty that would soberly weaken its trade. Promptly, the French marched in with their armies and overran Spain and Portugal.The Spanish people feared that the Catholic church building would be thrown aside by the French, causing unrest. In addition, Napoleon further humiliated the Spanish by deposing their king, to whom the Spaniards were loyal, instead putting his brother on the throne. This was the spark that would set off the true Peninsular warfare with constant guerr illa warfare that would end with Napoleon losing 300,000 troops by 1813, after 5 years of fighting. Harsh treatment of the population, in special(prenominal) atrocities committed by French troops against any resistance by the peasantry, led to a opular Spanish uprising against French occupation forces in 1808.A British army sent to Portugal invaded Spain in support of the uprising,and its operations in conjunction with Spanish guerrillas caused the so called Spanish ulcer which diverted troops and resources away from Napoleons main army and forced France into a war on 2 sees. But possibly the great blunder of Napoleon was his decision to invade Russia. Under pressure from important nobles who were losing money, the Tzar withdrew from the Continental System.Napoleon determined to invade Russia in 1812 so as to force Russia back in. ossibly due to his inflated ego in becoming the superior leader and incessant wanting of more land, he was convinced that Moscow was the heart of Russ ia and was determined to march there straight off and take control. Napoleon was overconfident in that he allowed himself only cabaret weeks to defeat Russia and return to Italy and so did not provide cold live on gear for his soldiers nor frost nails for his horses. At the point of his expedition he was initially unlucky that the Russian army did not decide to fight attend to face, although their initial retreat and the Russian Autumn inticed Napoleon too much, and he was lured deeper into Russia.The Russians instead implemented a scorched earth policy, destroying and burning anything cum laude of supply and nourishment for Napoleons men, stretching the French emperors supply lines still further and demoralising his army. When the French and Russians at long last met head on at the Battle of Borodino on 7 September, it was the largest and bloodiest single-day action of the Napoleonic Wars it involved more than 250,000 soldiers and resulted in at least 70,000 casualties. The French captured the battlefield, but failed to destroy the Russian army.Moreover, the French could not replace their losings whereas the Russians could replace theirs. Napoleon was caught out by the Russian tactics, but could not adapt to them effectively due to his overreliance on previous tried and tried and true techniques, thinking he could still win the war on his tired strategy, he was badly wrong. Napoleon entered Moscow on September 14, after the Russian Army had again retreated. But by past the Russians had generally evacuated the city and even released criminals from the prisons to inconvenience the French furthermore, the governor, Count Fyodor Rostopchin, ordered the city to be burnt.Alexander I refused to capitulate and the peace talks that Napoleon initiated failed. In October, with no clear sign of victory in sight, Napoleon began his disastrous Great Retreat from Moscow, during the usual autumn Russian cadaver season. Napoleon at this point found himself amongst a disorganised aggressive force that could only retreat via a single route slowly blocked by the Russian army thanks to inadequate maps and science gathered on the Russian geography and Topography the aforementioned mud made the retreat slow and bloody, with better clothed Cossack troops able to ask with impunity against the confused French army.In the following weeks, the Grande Armee underwent catastrophic blows from the onset of the Russian Winter, the lack of supplies and constant guerilla warfare by Russian peasants and strong troops. When the remnants of Napoleons army crossed the Berezina River in November, only 27,000 fit soldiers remained the Grand Armee had lost some 380,000 men dead and 100,000 captured. Napoleon then abandoned his men and returned to Paris to protect his position as emperor moth and to prepare to resist the advancing Russians.This disaster encouraged the formation of the ordinal Coalition, Prussia and Austria quickly joining Russia and Britain in arms against Napoleon. The strain of fighting a multi front war became apparent to him The Peninsular War (known to the French as the Spanish ulcer) combined with the Russian disaster of 1812 to weaken him so much that he was exiled, for the first time. When he returned in the Hundred Days, Napoleons downfall was that he did have so much power. He promised peace to the other European Powers if they let him have the throne.However, no-one could bear to see the man who once ruled most of Europe in power again, so it was off to war. This conflict led to Waterloo, and his final exile. In conclusion it was a combination of luck based on skill and merit that allowed Napoleon to ascend to power from such a foreign position in the lead the French to establish great military successes In his early years. The great French military leader Napoleon Bonaparte had initially capitalized on the reforms of the French Revolution to improve the lives of French citizens.However his focus on conquering Europe had eventually overridden his economic and military accomplishments. His previous successes exacerbated his ego to the point at which he became complacent with his standard tactics twain on the battlefield and in the council. A sequence of poor diplomacy and belief that he could hold the European countries together by crystal clear force led to European countries rising in vengeance, such as the Spanish ulcer. Napoleons failure o deal with these threats and subsequent failing to enforce the ill fated continental system meant his empire was being dismantled piece by piece. Another reason for his downfall was his war tactic of constant Napoleonic Warfare. His main goal was to tout ensemble destroy the enemies army to the point where they no longer had the men to fight. But, this also caused heavy causualities on his side. Also, during his Invasion of Russia, he was hurt by the infamous Russian winters.When he retreated from Russia, almost all of his men got left behind (alo ng with Michael Ney) and were completely annihilated by the enemy forces. After this, he suffered because of his army, or lack thereof. The resultant strain of fighting a multi front war against the united European forces was more failure of effective leading than simple bad luck. Although he successfully returned from exile in the Hundred Days, his military defeat at Waterloo was the final nail in his coffin.

Thursday, 24 January 2019

P&G and SK-II Essay

Paolo de Cesargon heads to lacquer to make a decision on one of P&Gs most successful and fast growing harvest-times SK-II. SK-II was a high annihilate overlap that had developed a strong fol scummying among japanese women, who were increasingly conscious about skin c atomic number 18 and involuntary to spend a signifi bottomlandt amount of their income. Cesare must decide among three options continue to focusing on the lacquerese mart, represent the product in china, or introduce it in Europe. Decision After careful consideration and analysis, I would advise that Cesare pursue a strategy that prioritizes a focus on the lacquerese market and eventually transitions into chinaware.SK-II is a proven product in a market that is has yet to be fully tapped. With a penchant for meter and analysis, lacquers consumers are some of the most sophisticated easiest to channelise in the world. However, Chinas expected prestige-beauty segment step-up cannot be ignored. Intense riva lry from companies that have already coiffure up campsite in China is to be expected, but core ethnical similarities can be extracted from the success of SK-II in the Hong Kong and Taiwanese markets. A table with pros (+) and cons (-) is listed beneath for each country detain summary of the DecisionA CAGE (cultural, administrative, geographic, and sparing) analysis was performed to support this decision. Cultural As far as cultural distance, staying in Japan poses the least amount of threat as P&G would be staying in a market that they are familiar with and have established a strong understanding of consumer needs through massive amounts of market research. China has close ties to Hong Kong and Taiwan, which are countries where SK-II has alike been established strongly, however, the European cosmetics market is tranquil in an infancy item for P&G.Administrative P&G is a global company with administrative support available in discordant regions. The brand in Jap an is well established and makes distance conspicuous for managers. P&Gs presence in European also well established and would not pose much administrative difficulties in setting up. China is still a red-hot market to P&G in terms of political/ political systems and building administrative support would be difficult. Geographic Geographically, Europe is the at hand(predicate) to P&Gs headquarters in the US, however, a strong establishment of R&D facilities in Japan would arguably remove any worries about physical remoteness.Again, China is still a new market and has only recently accepted impertinent retailers. Economic Japans economic humour is in stagnation, however, Japans target market for SK-II is strong as women are willing to spend up to $1,000 of their yearly income on the product. While the economic climate of European markets is strong, a high concentration of high-end cosmetics producers are already established and create high bargaining power among buy ers. China is the most harming in terms economy and the prestige-beauty segment is growing significantly alacritous than that of Japan and Europe.However, high economic trade costs do jolly offset Chinas potential. found on the CAGE analysis, Japan is clearly the best choice as it provides the least distance for P&G. China is attractive as it can take reward of the cultural similarities to the established markets in Hong Kong and Taiwan and provides the most robust growth opportunity in terms of economic prowess. Adding order Scorecard Analysis In order to establish a more robust analysis, an Adding Value Scorecard was used to evaluate Japan, China, and Europe.Adding Volume In terms of judge creation and economies of scale, adding volume may very well reduce product costs when expanding into all three markets. Further information such as proximity to inputs and raw materials would provide a better view of this perspective. fall Costs In terms of decreasing costs, China would have the highest integration costs as P&G would have to set up a business in a completely new market. Japan and Europe are already well established. Differentiating Differentiating SK-II in Japan is one of the leading reasons for the products success.Consumers value the analysis of scientifically proven benefits that the product provides. Establishing this ideology in China will be difficult for P&G but the success of the product in Hong Kong and Taiwan may help alleviate the issue. European markets are saturated and have a high level of competition with sundry(a) established products, and thus, differentiation in this market will be difficult. astir(p) Industry Attractiveness De-escalating or escalating the degree of rivalry will be a crucial factor when deciding which market to prioritize.Focusing on Japan will further strengthen P&Gs foothold among competitors such as Shiseido, Lion, and Kao. Companies have already been in China for three years (at the time the case was written) and a active entry for SK-II would foster early entry benefits. European markets are similarly highly competitive prioritizing this market may induce price wars. Normalizing attempt International operations can provide geographic risk reducing but can also create new sources of risk.While China will provide a new market to diversify P&Gs portfolio, it has still only recently opened its borders to foreign retailers. Strict governmental regulations and lack of transparency in economic predictability may actually increase risk. Europe and Japans economies, fleck slow in growth, are established and can be considered low risk. Generating and Upgrading Knowledge/Capabilities Utilizing Japans strong R&D foundation, SK-IIs proven success can help the product personal credit line as it expands to capture more market share.For Europe, P&G does not have the expertise to deal with the perfumeries in Germany and France, two of the largest markets in the regio n. Developing SK-II in China may very well provide additional research findings in a new and growing market. Based on the above Adding Value Scorecard analysis, P&G can capitalize on its competitive advantage and enter the Nipponese market in full force. Further research and developments in Japan may possibly fuel a new strategy for submission the Chinese and European markets.

Wednesday, 23 January 2019

The links between school bullying and mugging and there affects on individuals lives

Is it achievable that groom bullyrag and mug ar closely data linked? If so, corporation they gain permanent side set up on an separates life? Too t any, too short, too fat, too exquisite. I hate my hair I affect a bettor car I rumpt wear that dress as I wore it remainder week. these be the questions I faced the new(prenominal) morning, the silly topic is that I am confident that millions of other sight be waking up and lobbying mini arguments wi pure their minds of homogeneous matters. But why be these matters so important?A really open question, yet in all generalisation can be linked to the word SOCIETY. Blumer (1969) identifies this as n mavind below Basically human doings is non contumacious by kind forces. Rather, people ar simply self accepted existences He states that cod to one and precisely(a)s self intellectes, questions similar to the ones asked above arise. The self consciousness of an somebody is induced by those labels binded to us through the shooter cultures in which we exist. These ar closely linked to our childhood educational experiences. guard theory implies that neighborly service of processs will decrease levels of degenerate demeanor by streng indeeding the bond surrounded by the adolescent and society. Labelling theory implies the reverse, that the treat of formal adjudication through the juvenile court will first stabilise and then increase levels of deviant behaviour. Diversion programs were originally developed as an operation of labelling theory, with the objectives of minimizing involvement with the juvenile court, referring adolescents to less stigmatizing accessible services, and ultimately cut back levels of deviant behaviour.An additional issue has been the effect of gender on service delivery to adolescents in the juvenile justice system. This paper examines these four issues victimization panel data and multiple regression of follow-up on baseline variables. The term strong-arm refers not simply to physical and verbal abuse, but psychological attacks in tennerded to inflict fear, distress and to physically harm the victim (Farrington, 1993). vast research into the bully/victim relationship shows that in that respect are cardinal distinct hosts (or triggermancultures).For example, Olweus (1991) found that scarce one bully in ten was in addition a victim, while lonesome(prenominal) one victim in eighteen was too a bully ( bookn from Fishman, Mesch, Eisikovits, 2002). This assumption shows that victims and offenders originate from assorted parts of society and are in fact judged upon favouriteity and peer credenza rather than merit. In fact personal merit i. e. educational achievements, aboard cordial and physical appearance (Salmivalli, 1998) can turn an ordinary individual into a victim within an educational setting.In comparison, perpetrators saw themselves as organism physically fit and popular among their peer group. Those who were victims were often those who felt unpopular and lacked the loving skills to form peer relationships. check to Farrington (1993), Adolescents who lack dear friends have no support when exposed to an offenders militant behaviour. The term mugging refers to a psychological fear and practicable physical attack on a victim. When pupils are constantly being assessed and signifierified, it is on this basis that they are checkd as able or less able.Then placed then in occurrence sets or streams, entered for particular examinations and given or denied rile to certain parts of the school curriculum. Teachers are more likely to define middle rather than working class pupils as the able bodies, the costly educatees and the well behaved ground on first impressions or certain stereo-types much(prenominal) as a middle class family is more likely to take interest in there childs education. This in turn disadvantages the working class pupils. A label is a major identifying ch aracteristic.If for example, a pupil is label as bright, others will respond to him/her and interpret their actions in terms of this label. thither is a tendency for self receiveling prophecy to result. The pupil will only act in terms of the label and see themselves as bright, thus fulfilling the prophecy others have make. Muggings are thought of, at times, worse than blusterous as the ordeal can leave a psychological gull in the representation that person may perceive people in the forthcoming. The level of this can set forth depending on the loss of items or the ordeal itself.All these factors will cause the victim to look at people in a different way, or even change their cause behaviour in the future, asking themselves questions like should I take this much money with me? or should I tuck this chain in? . browbeat is some super Cly thought of as occurring in classrooms but unluckily has a netting effect on ones development from adolescence to adulthood to the extracurricular realism. It is the name calling and constant teasing that makes the individual being bullied i. e. the victim, begin to turn into themselves and hark back about who they really are.They create questions and insecurities within their own thoughts, as to why they in particular have been singled out as the odd one that does not fit in. Questions much(prenominal) as what are they calling me, why are they calling me by such names and what factors of myself do I indispensableness to change to avoid being called the latter (Which takes us back to the very beginning of this analysis) Too tall, too short, too fat too thin. I hate my hair I need a break out car I cant wear that dress as I wore it last week. The creation of societyIf bullying and mugging were earthquakes, the understanding of the epicenter is imperative, the 2 tectonic plates grinding, causation the earthquake, would be the Labelling theory and Subculture theories. These two theories supply a hand in pardoning how and why anti complaisant behaviour such as bullying may arise and its effects on society at large. The Sub heathen theory suggests that society is made up from several sub cultures that can each be defined by their own set of values and norms, separate from those of the wider society.Members within a sub culture share common values and have similar behavioural patterns, often based around social characteristics, such as ethnicity or styles generated by individuals within a sub culture. Sub cultures usually share some features with the host culture, but may as well as be oppositional to it. Sub cultural theories attempt to explain why these groups, most of which are c at oncerned with youth gangs and gang delinquency, engage in deviant acts. The theories also analysed the formation of delinquent youth subcultures within the context of strains and pressures exerted by society.According to Cohen (1955) sub cultures are formed within an educational setting due to of fice deprivation. This is where a desirable placement such as being popular or accepted by peer groups would be sought later on by students and invariably be found through creating a sub culture. For those individuals where status was denied, Cohen (1955) again suggesting this to be a form result of ill luck by the educational system leading to failure at work, status deprivation was resolved by the formation of primary groups (the most common form of which was gangs) (Cohen, 1955).By creating specific sub cultures, members, predominately young males, allowed themselves to achieve status positions within a structured group therefore satisfying their confide for some form of status (Cohen, 1955). These sub cultures often resulted to violent and aggressive behaviour towards their peer groups, taunting and victimising other youths, some(prenominal) physically and psychologically. Cohen claimed that if the educational system were to allow an alternative outlet for such status sati sfaction, then the need to create a sub culture would be done for(p) thus avoiding the anti social behaviour such as bullying. employ Cohens ideas, it can be said that a bully will be looking for a desirable status. The mugger can be seen as one of these subgroups, and can be seen as a subgroup of bullying (taking it one measure further by taking someone elses possessions) or as a subgroup of a gang (where the act is carried out within a group). It is possible for this to give the individual, or an individual within a group, a certain level of status and gained acceptance within a group.Where the Sub cultural theory attempts to explain bullying as a result of social definitions and status, interactionsists suggest that this is not the case. Interactionism, according to Blumer (1969) indicates three central beliefs that characterise social behaviour. Firstly, human beings act towards things on the basis of the implication that things have for them. This delegacy that human behavio ur is not determined by social forces but rather that people are simply self conscious beings. Secondly, the meaning of things is derived from, or arises out of the social interaction that one has with ones fellows.Here Blumer (1969) suggests that meanings are not fixed but are continually tailored and change as individuals integrate with one another. Thirdly, group action takes the form of a fitting together of individual lines of action. Thus society is not so much a determinant of human action as a product of human activity. amicable order is therefore inherently fragile, as it is highly dependant on dual-lane, miscellaneous meanings. So the Interactionism idea would explain mugging as the 1st central belief, human beings act towards things on the basis of the meaning that things have for them.Thus supposeing, that a mugger may protract out their act based on what they will gain from it, which could be anything from increased wealth to other possessions. An alternative would be that the person only carries out a mugging based on meanings that are adjusted, such as the person will have carried out the mugging based on a new circumstance or new scenario, which would not have been the case the day, week or year before. Already it is correct to see how these two theories present opposing explanations to bullying and mugging.On one hand the sub cultural theory claims that there are plastered norms and values within society, forcing individuals to comply with the rules. It implies that those who do not conform or are deprived the chance to gain social recognition and desired statuses within society are forced to create their own group in which they can achieve status satisfaction. On the other hand, interactionism argues there are no fixed rules but rather ever changing, shared values that are dependent upon social interaction.It suggests that the extent of bullying and mugging is dependent upon how individuals interact within society. From interactionism stems a new approach which once initiated is widely known as the Labelling theory. The classic formation of this theory is that of Howard Becker 63&8242, who said .. The central fact about deflection (is that) it is created by society. I do not mean this in the way it is ordinarily understood, in which the causes of deviance are located in the social situation of the deviant or in social factors which prompt his action.Rather, those social groups create deviance by making the rules whose infraction constitution deviance and by applying those rules to particular people and labelling them as outsiders. From this point of view, deviance is not a pure tone of the act the person commits but rather a consequence of the application by others of rules and sanctions to an offender. The deviant is one to whom that label has success fully been apply deviant behaviour is behaviour that people so label. Howard Becker 63&8242 Labelling and bullying both occur simultaneously throughout levels in schools.For example, the breakdown of a typical classroom layout is that of many diversities and similarities at the same time. There are two different approaches when discussing the relationship amidst social cognition and social behaviour, and specifically, between emotion and bullying. An information-processing model which shows how aggressive behaviour as resulting from processing biases in one or more steps in a 5 stages social information process (Dodge, Pettit, McClaskey and Brown, 1986 Dodge and Feldman, 1990 Crick and Dodge, 1994).It is this theory when utilize to bullies and victims that this social skill deficit model tells us that bullies do in fact have similar deficits to aggressive children. However the victims, on the other hand, lack these social skills of assertiveness and group entry. As a direct result, this in turn means they have less experience in social interaction, in the teasing and play fighting which both in family and peer relationships, may enhanc e the interpretation processes of emotional expression, social skills, sentience of control and self-efficacy (Smith, Bowers, Binney and Cowie, 1993).Labelling and mugging occur early on, during school. For example, the mugger is grouped as being from a poor family or labelled as a nettle maker by their elders. Giving the child a negative image and possible loss in their confidence to perform to what society expects. The muggers emotion can vary one could say that they lack any compassion to their victim and only have their eyes on their reward. But from another perspective, one could say that the mugger may feel compassion but due to the circumstances they are in, they feel like this would be their only solution.Advocates of this power-based theory (i. e. bullies simply bullying others around them to gain power over other less supreme individuals than themselves), argue that bullies desire for power or control is often fortify by various social stereotypes about bullying includ ing the negative living of the media (see the earlier sermon on social tolerance of bullying). It is has been said that bullies behaviour is cold and manipulative and that they are experts in social contexts.The problem of their behaviour can be directly related to the many emotions that surround lesson transgression such as guilt and shame. Can it then be questioned as to whether bullies actually understand other childrens emotions but simply do not share them thus lacking in empathy? Or mayhap they merely are unable to identify the suffering and pain in the victims and therefore they lack social skills? How do they feel during a bullying episode? Can and do bullies feel great for having been tough or have they the human emotion of guilt and feeling responsible for what they have done?If labelling exists within the educational system, and we have seen above how it is valid, then it is not only the behaviour of the bully and mugger that must be reprimanded but that of those who at tach these labels. Looking at the educational system, it appears that those in authority, like teachers and others working on base schools and the pupils inflict these labels upon them. By labelling these individuals, teachers will group these individuals into categories or boxes, thus causing divisions and a hierarchy within the class, and the educational system as a whole.This is because individual will tend to act according to the labels attached to them, thus fulfilling a self fulfilling prophecy. So from this we can see that there is a link between muggers and bullies. It can be seen that both want, in most cases, some level of status or acceptance and that both are categorised and labelled. Any individual that experiences either of these will also be left with psychological scars, which in-turn will change the victim in the way they behave or perceive things. The perception and behavioural changes are not likely to change with ease, and could possibly be detrimental to the in dividual.Social identicalness argues that social cooperation is a product of activation of a social identity. Social identity can be thought of as the psychological link between the self and the collective, in this case the school conjunction. Through social identification, the school becomes a positive reference group for the pupil. When a student identifies with the school community, he or she sees themselves as interdependent with this community and he or she behaves cooperatively, upholding the schools rules and values.Tyler 1998, made a similar point. He argued that there were two inter-related aspects to self-worth the collective and the individual. The collective aspect is reflected in pride in being a member of a school community, in terms of education. The individual aspect is reflected in having respect within this community. Tyler said, As self-worth within a community increases in terms of pride and respect, social cooperation within that community also increases.In ot her words, what each of us does is strive for a sense of belongingness and significance. Not only meeting our individual needs, but enough a member of a positive reference group is also importance to us in society. After all, we are social animals. give by Eliza Ahmed and her colleagues (2000) suggest that one barrier that needs to be address is the affective barrier associated with shame. The shame associated with a harmful act acts as a barrier to us thinking of ourselves as a fully integrated member of a community.Indeed, recent findings have shown that shame-management has been found to be an important mediating variable in the understanding of bullying and victimization (Ahmed et al. , forthcoming). The guardianship of bonds is mutually related to emotion emotions are a means of cohesion. Nathanson (1992) has also argued that shame is the central social regulator that governs our social relations with others. Shame, as such, is closely connected with solidarity (in group coo peration) and alienation (out group competition).Humans are inherently social animals lapses in important social bonds affect us as individuals. Threatened or damaged bonds create an environment for shame. A long period of unacknowledged shame arises from and generates failure of social tie as stated by Retzinger, 1991. Shame can be conceptualised as a thermostat if it fails to function informatively about the state of our social relationships, regulation of relationships becomes impossible. Thus, shame is an important signal about the state of our social relationships.Shame management involves the search for coherence of identity. Acknowledgment of shame can lead to a greater integrity of the self and our social world shame avoidance can lead to social alienation and appointment with the self and our social world. To conclude, it is safe to say that the links between school bullying and mugging and their affects on individuals lives are very prominent, and it seems both issues ar e here to stay in the twenty first century. It seems studies have shown that both bullying and mugging can have permanent side effects on an individuals life.However, it would appear that if these bullies had not been boxed into groups, thus they would not fulfil their prophecy. Batsche and Knoff (1994) assert that the goal of creating safe schools cannot be achieved unless the issue of bullying is adequately addressed. In order to fully examine the issue of bullying, one would need to pay close attention to the structure of determinants of bullying from personal to social factors focusing on various forms of relationships that exist in not only our personal lives but in our social lives.For example, relationships between bullies and families, schools and society all affect the way we behave. It is these other relationships among the victims, bullies and bystanders as well as relationships between counsellors and other school staff, that are all working together as a team combat bu llying. These two theories have shown in this discussion that school bullying and mugging are linked and that bullying can only lead to far worse behavioural problems in the future both physical and mental.

Tuesday, 22 January 2019

The Dark Side of Customer Analytics

HBR CASE STUDY AND COMMENTARYHow brook these companies supplement the guest schooling responsibly?The Dark Side of client AnalyticsFour commentators chap effective ad doubting Thomas H. Davenport and Jeanne G. HarrisReprint R0705A An amends union finds close to ch totallyenging patterns in the truth card tuition it bought from a marketplace r from to each one and only(a) onethe correlational statistics between condom sales and HIV-related claims, for instance. How bed both companies leverage the selective information responsibly?HBR CASE STUDY The Dark Side of client AnalyticsCOPYRIGHT 2007 HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL PUBLISHING CORPORATION.ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. by Thomas H. Davenport and Jeanne G. Harris Laura Brickman was glad she was al nigh d unmatched grocery shopping. The lines at the local ShopSense supermarket were in particular long for a Tuesday as yeting. Her pressure was nearly over? owing in preparation for nigh(prenominal) days away from her family, and she still had packing to do at home. Just a few to a greater extent than items to go A dozen eggs, a half(a) gallon of orange juice, anda recession of Dip & Dunk cereal? Her sixyear-old daughter, Maryellen, had obviously wontd the measuring stool to gain at the list on the counter and had scrawled her high-fructose emand at the fag of the paper in b recompenseorange marker. Laura made a mental bank n angiotensin converting enzyme to speak with Miss Maryellen close to what sugary cereals do to kids teeth (and to their pargonnts wallets). pickings cargon non to crack both of the eggs, she squeezed the remaining items into the cart. She wheeled erstwhile(prenominal) the ShopSense Summer Fun displays. Do we collect more than(prenominal) sunscreen? Laura wondered for a molybdenum, before deciding to go with dress forth. She got to the check aside area and waited. As regional manager for West Coast operations of IFA, genius of the largest sel lers of life and wellness insurance in the United States, Laura ormally expertness non select remunerative much attention to Shop-Senses checkout professionalceduresexcept maybe to supervise how accu runly her bargain fors were being rung up. still now that her fellowships fate was intertwined with that of the Dallas-based national grocery chain, she had less motivation to peruse the magazine racks and more inducing to evaluate the s derrierening and tallying going on forrard of her. few 14 months earlier, IFA and ShopSense had joined forces in an intriguing venture. Laura for years had been interest in the idea of boldnessing beyond the traditional sources of customer entropy that insurers ypically used to set their premiums and develop their products. Shed read every denomination, book, and heart-to-heart site she HBRs pillowcases, which are ? ctional, present common managerial dilemmas and run intoer concrete solutions from experts. harvard line of merchan dise organization round off may 2007 varlet 1 H BR C A SE S T UDY T he Dark Side of Customer Analytics Thomas H. Davenport (email&clxprotected babson. edu) is the chairwomans Distinguished Professor of Information Technology and Management at Babson Col pointe, in Wellesley, Massachusetts, and the director of inquiry for Babson Executive Education. Jeanne G. Harris (jeanne. g. email& one hundred sixtyprotected com) is an executive research fellow and a director of research at the Accenture Institute for high- act Business. She is based in Chicago. Davenport and Harris are the coauthors of Competing on Analytics (Harvard Business School Press, 2007). paginate 2 could ? nd on customer analytics, suck upking to memorize more about how organizations in different industries were wringing every last pearl of honor from their products and processes. Casinos, credit card companies, still staid old insurance ? rms were connective airlines, hotels, and fresh(prenominal)wise ser vice-oriented lineagees in gathering nd analyzing speci? c details about their customers. And, according to recent studies, more and more of those organizations were sharing their entropy with business partners. Laura had read a pro? le of ShopSense in a business publication and l gain grounded that it was one of only a handful of retailers to grapple its analytics in-house. As a result, the grocery chain possessed sophisticated data-analysis methods and a particularly deep trove of information about its customers. In the article, analytics point Steve Worthington described how the organization employed a pattern-based approach to issuing coupons.The merchandising department still, for instance, that subsequentlyward three months of purchasing nonhing however WayLess bar and shakes, a shopper wasnt susceptible to discounts on a rival commemorate of diet aids. Instead, shed probably respond to an offer of a cede doughnut or pastry with the purchase of a coffee. The comp whatever had even been experimenting in a few markets with what it called Good-Sense messagesbits of useful wellness information printed on the backs of receipts, based partly on customers current and previous buying patterns. nutritionary analyses of or so customers most recent purchases were eing printed on receipts in a few of the test markets as well. Shortly after reading that article, Laura had invited Steve to her of? ce in San Francisco. The two met several durations, and, after near fevered discussions with her bosses in Ohio, Laura made the ShopSense executive an offer. The insurer precious to buy a clear sample of the grocers customer committal card data to hold its quality and de composedability IFA precious to and out if the ShopSense information would be conveying(prenominal) when stacked up against its own claims information. With top managements blessing, Steve and his convocation had agreed to provide IFA with ten ears worth of loyalty card data for cust omers in southern Michigan, where ShopSense had a high share of walletthat is, the supermarkets werent located within ? ve miles of a club store or other major rival. Several months after receiving the tapes, analysts at IFA ended up ?nding some fairly strong correlations between purchases of unwellnessy products (highsodium, high-cholesterol foods) and medical claims. In response, Laura and her actuarial and sales teams conceived an offering called Smart extract, a low-premium insurance plan aimed at IFA customers who didnt indulge. Laura was ? ing the adjoining day to IFAs galleryquarters in Cincinnati to envision with fellow members of the superior team. She would be seeking their approval to buy more of the ShopSense data she wanted to continue mining the information and re? ning IFAs determine and marketing efforts. Laura understood it office be a tough sell. by and by all, her industry wasnt exactly retiren for embracing radical kindeven with proof in hand that cha nge could work. The make-or-break issue, she thought, would be the reliability and richness of the data. Your CEO call for to hear only one thing, Steve had told her several days earlier, while they were comparing notes. unshared rights to our data go away move on you information that your competitors wont be able to match. No one else has the historical data we flummox or as some customers nationwide. He was right, of course. Laura also knew that if IFA decided not to buy the grocers data, some other insurer would. Paper or plastic? a young son was asking. Laura had ? nally made it to await of the line. Oh, paper, please, she replied. The cashier s bearned in the groceries and waited while Laura swiped her card and subscribe the touch screen. Once the narration printer had stopped chattering, the cashier kink the long strip of aper into a thick wad and turn over it to Laura. Have a nice night, she said mechanically. Before wheeling her cart out of the store into the s lightly cool evening, Laura brie? y checked the bring on the receipt and the information on the back coupons for sunblock and a reminder about the importance of UVA and UVB protection. Tell It to Your Analyst No data set is perfect, save based on what weve seen already, the ShopSense info could be a pretty rich source of insight for us, Archie Stetter told the handful of executives seated around a table in one of IFAs recently renovated throng fashions.Laura nodded in agreement, silently cheering on the insurance harvard business analyze may 2007 T he Dark Side of Customer Analytics H BR C A SE S T UDY comp eachs uberanalyst. Archie had been invaluable in guiding the pilot burner project. Laura had ? own in two days ahead of the meeting and had sat down with the expansive statistics expert and some members of his team, going over results and gauging their support for continuing the kindred with ShopSense. Trans fats and heart diseaseno surprise thither, I guess, Archie sai d, using a laser pointer to direct the managers attention to a PowerPoint slide project on the wall. How about this, though Households that purchase both bananas and cashews at least quarterly seem to show only a negligible jeopardy of developing Parkinsons and MS. Archie had at ? rst been skeptical about the quality of the grocery chains data, but ShopSenses well of information was deeper than hed imagined. Frankly, hed been having a blast slicing and dicing. Enjoying his moment in the spotlight, Archie went on a bit longer than hed intended, lecture about typical patterns in the purchase of certain nonprescription(prenominal) medications, potential leading indicators for diabetes, and other statistical curiosities.Laura celebrated that as Archies presentation wore on, CEO Jason Walter was jotting down notes. O. Z. Cooper, IFAs general counsel, began to clear his throat over the speakerphone. Laura was about to rein in her stats guy when rust-brown Ware, IFAs chief actuary, addressed the free radical. You fill in, this roll in the hay isnt really as much of a stretch as you might think. He pointed out that the society had for years been buying from information brokers lists of customers who purchased speci? c drugs and products. And IFA was among the best in the industry at evaluating external sources of data (credit histories, demographic studies, analyses f socioeconomic status, and so on) to predict depression, back pain, and other expensive chronic conditions. likely IFA customers were required to disclose alive medical conditions and information about their in-person habitsdrinking, smoking, and other high-risk activitiesthe actuary reminded the group. The CEO, meanwhile, felt that Rusty was overlooking an grievous point. But if were ?nding patterns where our rivals arent even looking, if were coming up with proprietary wellness indicatorswell, that would be a huge hurdle for everyone else to witness over, Jason noted. arvard business r efresh may 2007 Laura was keeping an eye on the clock there were several themes she still wanted to hammer on. Before she could mention up on Jasons comments, though, Geneva Hendrickson, IFAs senior vice president for ethics and corporate responsibility, posed a blue-sky question to the group Take the fruit-and-nut stat Archie cited. Wouldnt we pass water to share that kind of information? As a bene? t to society? Several managers at the table began talking over one other in an attempt to respond. Correlations, no exit how interesting, arent conclusive evidence of causality, someone said. dismantle if a correlation doesnt hold up in the medical community, that doesnt mean its not useful to us, someone else redeed. Laura adage her opening she wanted to get back to Jasons point about emulous advantage. hold back at reformist Insurance, she began. It was able to steal a march on its rivals simply by recognizing that not all motorcycle owners are created equal. around ride h ard (young bikers), and some hardly ride (older, middle-class, midlife crisis riders). By pose these guys into different risk pools, Progressive has gotten the rates right, she said. It wins all the business with the prophylactic set by offering low remiums, and it doesnt lose its enclothe on the more dangerous set. Then O. Z. Cooper broke in over the speakerphone. Maybe the company should formally position Smart Choice and other products and marketing programs developed using the Shop-Sense data as pick out in, he wondered. A lot of race signed up when Progressive gave discounts to customers who agreed to put devices in their cars that would monitor their driving habits. Of course, those customers realized later they might conciliate a higher premium when the company ground out they routinely exceeded the speed limitbut thats not a legal problem, O. Z. noted.None of the states that IFA did business in had laws prohibiting the sort of data exchange ShopSense and the insurer were proposing. It would be a different story, however, if the company wanted to do more business overseas. At that point, Archie begged to show the group one more slide sales of prophylactics versus HIV-related claims. The executives continued taking notes. Laura glanced again at the clock. No one seemed to care that they were going a little over. Exclusive rights to our data give give you information that your competitors wont be able to match. No one else has the historical data we overhear. scallywagboy 3H BR C A SE S T UDY T he Dark Side of Customer Analytics Data decorousness Customers find out, they stop using their cards, and we stop getting the information that drives this substantial train. page 4 Rain was in the forecast that afternoon for Dallas, so Steve Worthington decided to drive rather than ride his bike the nine and a half miles from his home to ShopSenses corporate of? ces in the Hightower Complex. Of course, the gridlock made him a few minutes late for the early morning meeting with ShopSenses executive team. Lucky for him, others had been held up by the traf? c as well. The group gradually came together in a lightly cluttered room off the main hallway on the 18th ? oor. One recessional of the space was being used to store prototypes of regional instore displays featuring several members of the Houston Astros pitch shot staff. I put one overt know whether to grab a instill of coffee or a bat, Steve joked to the others, gesturing at the life-size cardboard cutouts and cave in into his seat. Steve was hoping to persuade CEO Donna Greer and other members of the senior team to approve the foothold of the data sale to IFA. He was pretty con? dent he had majority support he had already spoken unmarriedly with many of the top executives.In those one-onone conversations, only Alan Atkins, the grocery chains chief operations of? cer, had raised any signi? sewert issues, and Steve had dealt patiently with each of them. Or so he thou ght. At the start of the meeting, Alan admitted he still had some consults about marketing data to IFA at all. Mainly, he was worried that all the hard work the organization had finished with(p) go oning up its loyalty program, honing its analytical chops, and maintaining deep customer human relationships could be un assumee in one fell swoop. Customers ? nd out, they stop using their cards, and we stop getting the information that rives this whole train, he said. Steve reminded Alan that IFA had no interest in revealing its relationship with the grocer to customers. thither was always the chance an employee would let something slip, but even if that happened, Steve doubted anyone would be shocked. I declarent heard of anybody canceling based on any of our other card-driven marketing programs, he said. Thats because what were doing isnt gross to our customersor at least it wasnt until your recent comments in the press, Alan grumbled. There had been some tension within the gr oup about Steves theatrical role to everal widely disseminated articles about ShopSenses embrace of customer analytics. Point taken, Steve replied, although he knew that Alan was aware of how much positive attention those articles had garnered for the company. Many of its card-driven marketing programs had since been deemed cutting abut by others in and outside the industry. Steve had hoped to move on to the ? nancial bene? ts of the constitution, but Denise Baldwin, ShopSenses head of human resources, still seemed concerned about how IFA would use the data. Speci? cally, she wondered, would it range individual consumers as employees of particular companies?She reminded the group that some big insurers had gotten into serious ado because of their pro? ling practices. IFA had been looking at this relationship only in the context of individual insurance customers, Steve explained, not of group plans. Besides, its not like wed be directly drawing the risk pools, he said. Then Steve began distributing copies of the spreadsheets outlining the ? ve-year returns ShopSense could realize from the deal. Directly being the operative word here, Denise noted wryly, as she took her copy and passed the rest around. Parsing the InformationIt was 650 pm, and Jason Walters had canceled his sitting with his individualised trainer againto stay late at the of? ce. Sammy go out understand, the CEO told himself as he sank deeper into the love seat in his of? ce, a yellow legal pad on his lap and a pen and cup of espresso balanced on the arm of the couch. It was several days after the review of the ShopSense pilot, and Jason was still weighing the risks and bene? ts of taking this business relationship to the next stage. He hated to admit how giddy he was almost as gleeful as Archie Stetter had been about the number of meaningful correlations the analysts had turned up. pretend what that guy could do with an even larger data set, O. Z. Cooper had commented to Jason after the m eeting. Exclusive access to ShopSenses data would give IFA a leg up on competitors, Jason knew. It could also provide the insurer with proprietary insights into the food-related drivers of disease. The deal was certainly legal. And even in the court of public opinion, people understood that insurers had to perform risk analyses. It wasnt the same as when that harvard business review may 2007 T he Dark Side of Customer Analytics H BR C A SE S T UDY online bookseller got into distract for charging ustomers differently based on their shopping histories. But Jason also saw dark clouds on the horizon What if IFA took the pilot to the next level and found out something that maybe it was better off not knowing? As he watched the minute hand sweep on his wall clock, Jason wondered what risks he might be taking without even realizing it. Donna Greer gently swirled the wine in her glass and clinked the stemware against her economizes. The two were attending a wine relishing hosted by a friend. The focus was on varieties from Chile and other Latin American countries, and Donna and Peter had yet to ? nd a sample they didnt like.But despite the lively patter of the event and the plentiful food. Donna couldnt keep her mind off the IFA deal. The big question is, Should we be charging more? she mused to her husband. ShopSense was already sell its scanner data to syndicators, and, as her CFO had reminded her, the company currently made more money from selling information than from selling meat. Going forward, all ShopSense would have to do was send IFA some tapes each month and collect a zillion dollars annually harvard business review may 2007 of pure pro? t. Still, the deal wasnt without risks By selling the information to IFA, it ight end up diluting or destroying valuable and hard-won customer relationships. Donna could see the headline now Big Brother in Aisle Four. any the more reason to make it worth our while, she thought to herself. Peter urged Donna to d rop the issue for a bit, as he scribbled his comments about the wine theyd undecomposed sampled on a rating sheet. But Ill go on record as being against the whole thing, he said. Some poor soul puts potato chips in the cart instead of celery, and look what happens. But what about the poor soul who buys the celery and still has to pay a fortune for medical overage, Donna argued, because the premiums are set based on the people who cant eat entirely one? Isnt that the whole point of insurance? Peter teased. The CEO shot her husband a playfully peeved lookand reminded herself to send an e-mail to Steve when they got home. What if IFA took the pilot to the next level and found out something that maybe it was better off not knowing? How can these companies leverage the customer data responsibly? Four commentators offer expert advice. See Case Commentary page 5 T he Dark Side of Customer Analytics H BR C A SE S T UDY C ase Commentary by George L. JonesHow can these companies levera ge the customer data responsibly? The message coming from both IFA and ShopSense is that any marketing opportunity is sensibleas long as they can get away with it. page 6 Sure, a customer database has honour, and a company can increase that value in any number of waysgrowing the database, mining it, monetizing it. Marketers can be tempted, despite pledges about privacy, to use collected information in ways that seem attractive but may in the long run damage relationships with customers. The arrangement proposed in this case study seems shortsighted to me. incomplete company seems to particularly care about its customers.Instead, the message coming from the senior teams at both IFA and ShopSense is that any marketing opportunity is validas long as they can get away with it legally and customers dont ? gure out what theyre doing. In my company, this pilot would never have gotten off the ground. The culture at Borders is such that the managers involved would have just assumed we w ouldnt do something like that. Like most palmy retail companies, our organization is customer focused were always seek to see a store or an offer or a transaction through the customers eyes. It was the same way at both Saks and Target when I was with those companies.At Borders, weve built up a signi? cant database through our Borders Rewards program, which in the past year and a half has grown to 17 million members. The data were getting are hugely important as a basis for serving customers more effectively (based on their purchase patterns) and as a source of competitive advantage. For instance, we know that if somebody buys a travel transfer to France, that person might also be interested in reading Peter Mayles A Year in Provence. But we assure our customers up front that their information will be handled with the utmost respect. We carefully bear the nub and frequency of even our own ommunications with Rewards members. We dont want any offers we present to have negative con notationsfor instance, we avoid bombarding people with e-mails about a product they may have absolutely no interest in. I honestly dont think these companies have hit upon a responsible formula for mining and sharing customer data. If ShopSense retained keep back of its data to some degreethat is, if the grocer and IFA marketed the Smart Choice program jointly, and if any offers came from ShopSense (the partner the customer has built up trust with) rather than the insurance company (a stranger, so to speak)the relationship could work.Instead of ceding complete control to IFA, ShopSense could be somewhat selective and send offers to all, some, or none of its loyalty card members, depending on how relevant the grocer believed the insurance offer would be to a particular set of customers. A big hole in these data, though, is that people buy food for others besides themselves. I rarely eat at home, but I still buy tons of groceriessome healthy, some not so healthy for my kids and thei r friends. If you looked at a breakdown of purchases for my household, youd say Wow, theyre consuming a lot. But the truth is, I hardly ever eat a bite. That may e an thorough example, but it suggests that IFAs correlations may be ? awed. Both CEOs are subjecting their organizations to a possible public relations flinch, and not just from the ShopSense customers whose data have been dealt away to IFA. Every ShopSense customer who hears about the deal, loyalty card member or not, is going to lose trust in the company. IFAs customers might also think twice about their relationship with the insurer. And what about the employees in each company who may be uncomfortable with what the companies are stressful to pull off? The corporate cultures suffer. What the companies are proposing here is ery dangerous curiously in the world of retail, where loyalty is so hard to win. Customers information needs to be protected. George L. Jones is the president and chief executive officer of Borders Group, a orbicular retailer of books, music, and movies based in Ann Arbor, Michigan. harvard business review may 2007 T he Dark Side of Customer Analytics H BR C A SE S T UDY C ase Commentary by Katherine N. Lemon How can these companies leverage the customer data responsibly? Customer analytics are effective precisely because firms do not violate customer trust. harvard business review may 2007 As the case study illustrates, companies will oon be able to create fairly exhaustive, highly accurate pro? les of customers without having had any direct interaction with them. Theyll be able to get to know you intimately without your knowledge. From the consumers perspective, this trend raises several big concerns. In this ? ctional account, for instance, a shoppers grocery purchases may directly in? uence the availability or price of her life or health insurance productsand not ineluctably in a good way. Although the customer, at least tacitly, consented to the collection, use, and transfer of her purchase data, the real issue here is the nintended and uncontemplated use of the information (from the customers point of view). Most customers would probably be quite surprised to learn that their personal information could be used by companies in a wholly unrelated industry and in other ways that arent readily foreseeable. If consumers lose trust in ? rms that collect, analyze, and utilize their information, they will favour out of loyalty and other data-driven marketing programs, and we may see more regulations and limitations on data collection. Customer analytics are effective precisely because ? rms do not violate customer trust.People believe that retail and other organizations will use their data wisely to enhance their work throughs, not to abuse them. Angry customers will certainly speak with their wallets if that trust is violated. Decisions that might be made on the basis of the shared data represent another hazard for consumersand for organizations. Take the insurance companys use of the grocers loyalty card data. This is limited information at best and wrong at worst. The ShopSense data re? ect food bought but not necessarily consumed, and individuals buy food at many stores, not just one. IFA might end up drawing rroneous conclusionsand exacting unfair rate increases. The insurers general counsel should investigate this deal. Another concern for consumers is what I call battered customer syndrome. Market analytics allow companies to identify their best and worst customers and, consequently, to pay special attention to those deemed to be the most valuable. Looked at another way, analytics enable ? rms to understand how poorly they can speak individual or groups of customers before those people stop doing business with them. Unless you are in the top echelon of customers those with the highest lifetime value, sayyou ay pay higher prices, get fewer special offers, or receive less service than other consumers. Despite the fac t that alienating 75% to 90% of customers may not be the best idea in the long run, many retailers have ad opted this top tier approach to managing customer relationships. And many customers seem to be willing to live with itperhaps with the unrealistic hope that they may reach the upper echelon and reap the ensuing bene? ts. Little research has been done on the negative consequences of using marketing approaches that discriminate against customer segments. Inevitably, however, customers will ecome savvier about analytics. They may become less tolerant and take their business (and information) elsewhere. If access to and use of customer data are to remain viable, organizations mustiness come up with ways to address customers concerns about privacy. What, then, should IFA and ShopSense do? world-class and foremost, they need to let customers opt in to their data-sharing arrangement. This would address the unintended use of data problem customers would understand exactly what was be ing done with their information. Even better, both ? rms would be engaging in trust-buildingversus trust-erodingactivities with customers. The esult improvement in the bottom line and in the customer experience. Katherine N. Lemon (kay. email&160protected edu) is an associate professor of marketing at Boston Colleges Carroll School of Management. Her expertise is in the areas of customer equity, customer management, and customer-based marketing strategy. page 7 T he Dark Side of Customer Analytics H BR C A SE S T UDY C ase Commentary by David Norton How can these companies leverage the customer data responsibly? Would customers feel comfortable with the data-sharing arrangement if they knew about it? page 8 Transparency is a critical division of any loyalty card program.The value proposition must be clear customers must know what theyll get for allowing their purchase behavior to be monitored. So the question for the CEOs of ShopSense and IFA is, Would customers feel comfortable with the data-sharing arrangement if they knew about it? ShopSenses loyalty card data are at the c slip in of this venture, but the grocers goal here is not to increase customer loyalty. The value of its relationship with IFA is solely ? nancial. The company should explore whether there are some customer data it should exclude from the transferinformation that could be perceive as exceedingly sensitive, such as pharmacy and lcohol purchases. It should also come across doing market research and risk modeling to evaluate customers potential response to the data sharing and the possible downstream effect of the deal. The risk of consumer backlash is lower for IFA than for ShopSense, given the information the insurance company already purchases. IFA could even put a positive spin on the creation of new insurance products based on the ShopSense data. For instance, so-called healthy purchases might earn customers a discount on their standard insurance policies. The challenge for the in surer, however, is that there is no proven correlation between the urchase of certain foods and fewer health problems. IFA should continue experimenting with the data to determine their richness and predictive value. Some companies have more leeway than others to sell or trade customer lists. At Harrahs, we have less than most because our customers may not want others to know about their gaming and leisure activities. We dont sell information, and we dont buy a lot of external data. Occasionally, well buy demographic data to ? ne-tune our marketing messages (to some customers, an offer of tickets to a live performance might be more interesting than a dining discount, for example).But we think the internal transactional data are much more important. We do rely on analytics and models to help us understand existing customers and to progress them to stick with us. About ten years ago, we created our Total Rewards program. Guests at our hotels and casinos register for a loyalty card by sharing the information on their drivers license, such as their name, address, and date of birth. Each time they visit one of our 39 properties and use their card, they earn credits that can be used for food and merchandise. They also earn Tier attribute that give them higher status in the program and ake them eligible for severalize service. With every visit, we get a read on our customers preferencesthe types of games they play, the hotels and amenities they favor, and so on. Those details are stored in a central database. The company sets rules for what can be done with the information. For instance, managers at any one of our properties can ply their own marketing lists and programs, but they can target only customers who have visited their properties. If they want to dip into the overall customer base, they have to go through the central relationship-marketing group. Some of the information captured in ur online joint promotions is accessible to both Harrahs and its busines s partners, but the promotions are clearly positioned as opt in. We set up customers the value proposition up front Let us track your play at our properties, and we can help you enjoy the experience better with richer rewards and improved service. They understand exactly what were capturing, the rewards theyll get, and what the company will do with the information. Its a win-win for the company and for the customer. Companies engaging in customer analytics and related marketing initiatives need to keep win-win in mind when compile and andling customer data. Its not just about what the information can do for you its about what you can do for the customer with the information. David Norton (email&160protected com) is the senior vice president of relationship marketing at Harrahs Entertainment, based in Las Vegas. harvard business review may 2007 T he Dark Side of Customer Analytics H BR C A SE S T UDY C ase Commentary by Michael B. McCallister How can these companies leverage the customer data responsibly? When the tougher, grayarea decisions need to be made, each person has to have the companys core principles and values in ind. harvard business review may 2007 Companies that can capitalize on the information they get from their customers hold an advantage over rivals. But as the ? rms in the case study are realizing, there are also sess of risks involved with using these data. Instead of pulling back the reins, organizations should be nudging customer analytics forward, keeping in mind one critical point each collection, analysis, and sharing of data must be conducted in a protected, permission-based environment. Humana provides health bene? t plans and related health services to more than 11 million embers nationwide. We use proprietary datamining and analytical capabilities to help guide consumers through the health maze. Like IFA, we ask our customers to share their personal and medical histories with us (the precarious behaviors as well as the good habits) so we can familiarize them with programs and preventive services geared to their health status. Customer data come to us in many different ways. For instance, we offer complimentary health assessments in which plan members can take an interactive online survey knowing to measure how well theyre taking care of themselves.We then suggest ways they can reduce their health risks or treat their existing conditions more effectively. We closely monitor our claims information and use it to reach out to people. In our Personal Nurse program, for example, well have a registered nurse dramatise up with a member who has ? led, say, a diabetes-related claim. Through phone conversations and e-mails, the RN can help the plan member institute changes to improve his or her quality of life. All our programs require members to opt in if the data are going to be used in any way that would iodine a person out. Regardless of your industry, you have to start with that.One of the biggest probl ems in U. S. health care today is obesity. So would it be useful for our company to look at grocery-purchasing patterns, as the insurance company in the case study does? It might be. I could see the upside of using a grocers loyalty card data to develop a wellness-based incentive program for insurance customers. (We would try to ? nd a way to build positives into it, however, so customers would look at the interchange and say Thats in my best interest thank you. ) But Humana certainly wouldnt enter into any kind of datatransfer arrangement without ensuring that our customers personal information and the ntegrity of our relationship with them would be properly protected. In health care, especially, this has to be the chief concern in a higher place and beyond any patterns that might be revealed and the sort of competitive edge they might provide. We use a range of industry standard credentials measures, including encryption and ? rewalls, to protect our members privacy and medical i nformation. Ethical behavior starts with the CEO, but it clearly cant be managed by just one person. Its important that everyone be reminded often about the principles and values that guide the organization.When business opportunities come along, theyll be screened according to those standardsand the decisions will land right side up every time. I cant tell people how to run their meetings or who should be at the table when the tougher, grayarea decisions need to be made, but whoever is there has to have those core principles and values in mind. The CEOs in the case study need to take the front page test If the headline on the front page of the newspaper were reportage abuse of customer data (yours included), how would you react? If you wouldnt want your personal data used in a certain way, chances are your customers wouldnt, either.Michael B. McCallister (email&160protected com) is the president and CEO of Humana, a health benefits company based in Louisville, Kentucky. Reprint R07 05A Case only R0705X Commentary only R0705Z To order, call 800-988-0886 or 617-783-7500 or go to www. hbrreprints. org page 9 To Order For Harvard Business check out reprints and subscriptions, call 800-988-0886 or 617-783-7500. Go to www. hbrreprints. org For customized and quantity orders of Harvard Business Review article reprints, call 617-783-7626, or e-mail email&160protected harvard. edu www. hbrreprints. org U. S. and Canada 800-988-0886 617-783-7500 617-783-7555 fax