Friday, 29 November 2019
Appropriate language use and Pedagogic purpose in EFL classrooms Introduction Appropriate language use and Pedagogic purpose in EFL classrooms IntroductionÃ Appropriate Language Use in EFL classroomsPedagogic PurposesAppropriate Language Use in Conjunction with EFL classroom techniquesDiscussionConclusionReferencesRelated Introduction Language is the only key that could open the doors of a particular culture when it comes to accessing its treasure trove of literature, history, and philosophy. It is impossible to know more about a people groupÃ¢â¬â¢s way of life, if an outsider is unable to grasp the basic rudiments of their language. It would be impossible to understand how a certain society has been formed and how it is being sustained without a basic ability to use the language. It is the code breaker, an interpreter and investigative tool rolled into one. When it comes to the English language its importance goes beyond that of a code breaker and interpreter because it is the lingua franca of the modern age. The one who can speak the language does not only have access to the culture of the English speaking world; the person proficient in the said language also have the capability to create a massive network that spans all over the globe. This is due to the fact that English is spoken by many hundreds of millio ns of people. The person desiring to learn English must seek out an institution or a teacher that knows the importance of using appropriate language based on pedagogic purposes. Before going any further it is important to point out that the existence of superb curriculum and a set of effective teaching techniques have no value unless a passionate and knowledgeable teacher comes along to pick up and use these tools. These are just tools and nothing more. It is the teacher with dedication and clear understanding of his or her purpose that can infuse energy and intelligence into an EFL classroom making it an effective place for learning a second or even third language. It all begins with the realization that the teacher has the power to change the learning environment depending on the need. The teacher is not only the drill sergeant but also the coordinator, dictating the pace of the learning process while at the same time expertly using all the resources at his or her disposal to create a particular classroom dynamic that increases the capability of the students to learn and master a foreign language. Although the teacher has mastered the English language to such an extent that he can teach it to others does not mean to say that the teacher is the centre of the EFL classroom universe. It is crucial to appreciate the importance of collaboration. It is always advantageous to work with other English teachers. But more importantly it is imperative to be kept abreast of new teaching practices. One of the most helpful is the idea that teachers learn to use appropriate language in EFL classrooms. The key word here is context. The following are some of the definitions of context such as: Ã¢â¬Å"the part of a text or statement that surrounds a particular word or passage and determines meaningÃ¢â¬ (Walsh, 2011, p.24). The second definition focuses on the circumstances in which an event occurs; a setting (Walsh, year, p.24). And the third definition is states as the Ã¢â¬Å"parts of a piece of writing, speech, etc., that precede and follow a word or passage and contribute to its full meaningÃ¢â¬ (Walsh, 2011, p.24). Ã Appropriate Language Use in EFL classrooms The most important skill to develop is the ability to use appropriate Ã¢â¬Å"teacher talkÃ¢â¬ , which is the speech that is comprehensible to the students but not oversimplified (Richards Farrell, 2011, p.16). The assertion that it is imperative for EFL teachers to use appropriate language may be confusing at first glance. The objective of learning institution like EFL is to teach the English language to a non-native speaker. Naturally, the teachers would have to use the English language as a medium of instruction. Thus, it requires clarification when scholars pointed out the need to evaluate the language use in the classrooms. Upon close examination the meaning of the phrase Ã¢â¬Å"appropriate language useÃ¢â¬ has to be interpreted in the context of EFL. It is the use of metalanguage to teach another language. In this case metalanguage can also be symbols and other expressions that the teachers can use with other teachers to help them evaluate the teaching style. The metalanguage can be seen as common language shared by teachers in EFL and this can be used to unify all the strategies and techniques. Problems are to be expected if teachers cannot find common ground and the Ã¢â¬Å"lack of an agreed metalanguage makes the processes of comparison and generalisation practically impossible, as the constructs used have different meaningsÃ¢â¬ (Walsh, 2011, p.109). A metalanguage can be developed using a research tool called the self-evaluation of teacher talk or SETT (Walsh, 2006, p.133). This is a framework that can be constructed by teachers or administrators to evaluate teacher talk or how they interact with their students (Housen Pierrard, 2005, p.217). An example of SETT framework is the use of audio-recordings of what transpired within an EFL classroom. In other cases teachers uses video cameras to record the activities within the classroom. Aside from using the SETT framework, teachers must engage in reflective practices with other colleague or professionals in order to clearly evaluate teaching techniques and strategies in an EFL environment (Walsh, 2011, p.147). Another way to discover the appropriate language for EFL is to carefully analyse feedback coming from students, fellow teachers, and collaborative teams. The students are the primary source of feedback. The teacher does something in the classroom and he or she immediately sees the reaction of the student. This comes in the form of a questions, a confused expression on their faces, or the excitement of learning as evidenced by their happy chatter. Feedback also comes from the results of exams and various tests to determine student progress. Another way to benefit from feedback is to learn from the experience of other teachers. In the faculty room or in other formal meeting fellow teachers that are also part of an EFL program shares the challenges and the triumphs that they had faced in the classroom. There are also occasions when a more experienced EFL instructor gets to observe another while teaching and offers a feedback regarding on areas that requires improvement. One expert pointed out the reason for doing collaborative work and he wrote that collaborators Ã¢â¬Å"may wish to create an environment in which learners, teacher and researchers are teaching and learning from each other in an equitable way (a trend which is enhanced by the growing interest in action research); or they may wish to experiment with ways of incorporating principles of learner-centredness into their programsÃ¢â¬ (Nunan, 1992, p.162). One way to apply the principles inherent in collaboration is to create teaching teams. If ESL teachers opt to create one the best way to start is to choose what kind of team the collaborators needed. The following are some of the common types of teams: a) Team Leader Type; b) Associate Type; c) Master Teacher/Beginner Teacher; and d) Coordinated Team Type (Nunan, 1992, p.163). In the Team Leader Type one of the team members has a higher status as compared to the others. Thus, the team leader may have a title given to her to formalise the formation of the team and he or she acts as the overseer as well as provide the general direction the team is headed. The Associate Type there is no in the team that has special status and any useful information generated by the team is the result of interaction among equals. The Master Teacher / Beginner Teacher is like assigning a mentor to a new teacher. This is also an effective tool because it speeds up the learning process especially when it comes to finding out the appropriate language to be used within an EFL classroom. The only drawback to this type of collaboration is that it does not add value to the veteran teacher. The Coordinated Team Type does not focus on the creation of joint responsibility, instead it is the sharing of resources by two different teachers assigned to teach two different groups of students. Aside from student feedbacks and the teaching tips that one can receive from fellow teachers, another way to analyse feedback is to develop a collaborative geared towards learning more about appropriate language use. Team work in this case provides a better chance of discovering flaws in teaching since it is a concerted effort. Efficiency in the learning process can be achieved making it easier to change teaching style to produce more satisfactory results. Appropriate language used must be top priority because teachers may have a false understanding of the real marks of success. The teacher may come to believe that if he or she has completed all the lessons that must be taught in a given time frame then that is the mark of progress. The real measurement for success is the ability of students to communicate effectively and oral fluency in the English language. This must be the standard. The failure of appropriate language use is based on the inability of teachers to evaluate their skills and the needs of their students. It is therefore crucial to have tools that would inform the teachers on the areas that they need to improve on. At the same time they need to know the weakness of their students. And finally they need to develop appropriate teaching methodologies to increase their efficiency. Pedagogic Purposes The use of the SETT framework is made more effective if the teachers are aware that there are four major modes of learning strategies that can be employed in the classroom and these are: a) managerial mode; b) materials mode; c) skills and systems mode; and d) classroom context mode (Walsh, 2003, p.3). The pedagogic goals of the managerial mode is to transmit information. This is achieved by having an extended teaching turn and the negative result is the absence of contribution from the students. The materials modeÃ¢â¬â¢s pedagogic goal on the other hand is to elicit response to a particular material. This is achieved by the extensive use of display questions and the use of scaffolding. The skills and systems mode on the other hand focuses on the need to enable students to produce correct form. This is also achieved by allowing teacher to dominate the discourse. The classroom context mode has a different pedagogic goals than the other three because its emphasis is to enable the students to express themselves clearly and to establish a context. This is why the strategy used is extensive learner turns. One of the factors that enable people to master a particular language or a local dialect is described as the Ã¢â¬Å"exposure to rich and contextually appropriate inputÃ¢â¬ that resulted in the development of pragmatic competence in the said target language (Soler, 2008, p.45). This is what happens when a child learns the predominant language used in the home. The child observes the facial expressions and listens to the conversation made by adults. For instance, in a dinner table the father gestures to a plate of food and utters the request to pass the plate to him and the child takes note of the language used in that particular event. At the same time the child mimics the adults, speaking the same words and he or she receives feedback. In both instances one can see a contextually appropriate input that facilitates the learning process. In the case of the person learning a foreign language within the four walls of a classroom, the same environment that produces contextually appropriate input is usually absent. As a result there is a need to recreate the same experience in a practical manner. Thus, there are many practitioners in the field of EFL that are happy about the use of audiovisual materials. In this way the EFL teacher can provide learners with Ã¢â¬Å"samples of appropriate language use in a variety of contextsÃ¢â¬ (Soler, 2008, p.245). The problem is made more evident when a foreign language teacher attempts to teach English using conventional methods. One conventional approach is the use of a dictionary to learn new words. The weakness of this approach was summarised by a foreign language (FL) expert who wrote that a child learning his native tongue is Ã¢â¬Å"exposed to words in a variety of different contexts, and can so from a well-rounded concept of both the wordÃ¢â¬â¢s meaning and its use there are also many excellent human dictionaries in the form of parents and teachers, who are frequently asked to give explanations for new wordsÃ¢â¬ (Lochtman Kappel, 2008, p.78). The same cannot be said in an EFL environment where the students usually know one person able to speak the language in a proficient manner. Thus, they can only interact with this person on a limited basis hampering the speed and efficiency of the learning process. The teachers must be trained in the principles of interactional awareness (Cummins Davidson, 2007, p.954). There is also the need to promote activities that would help teachers detect errors in language use (ibid). At the same time there is the need to encourage teachers to study the theories that supports their pedagogical practice (ibid). It is also important to look at the cultural context of the classroom because culture creates the frame for viewing interaction (Wolfram, Adger, Christian, 1999, p.84). Appropriate Language Use in Conjunction with EFL classroom techniques Before going any further it is important to point out that English is both the focus of learning as well as the medium of instruction. This stems from the fact that Ã¢â¬Å"English is both the target of learning as well as the medium of teachingÃ¢â¬ (Richards Farrell, 2011 p.16). It is therefore crucial that proficiency in this language is the top priority of the teachers. According to experts, Ã¢â¬Å"It will influence many crucial aspects of teaching such as the ability to provide good language models (Richards Farrell, 2011, p.16). After teachers are aware of their need to improve proficiency the next step is to determine appropriate language usage in the EFL classroom. The use of the SETT framework enables the teachers to detect errors and to improve the language use in the classroom. But it was also discovered by experts that the ability to develop appropriate language is not only based on what the teachers have learned from the feedback coming from colleagues or even experts in the field of second language acquisition. Interestingly the enhancement of teaching techniques when it comes to appropriate use of language can only be achieved if the teacher allows student participation. In this regard it is time to seriously consider the managerial mode of teaching and allow students to participate more in discussion. It is therefore important to allow them to speak and to encourage the learning of the spoken language first before mastering written communication. Experts are saying that it was only recently that there was a renewed interest and awareness of the Ã¢â¬Å"importance of the study of spoken language and a realization that this study is essential for any real understanding of actual language useÃ¢â¬ (Cummins Davidson, 2007, p.860). Aside from these benefits the preference of student-teacher discourse as to written communication in learning a second language is based on the insight that each language has its own Ã¢â¬Å"preferred strategies for aural decodingÃ¢â¬ (Carter Nunan, 2001, p.8). This is crucial in an EFL classroom when there is the realisation that the ability to speak fluently in English is one of the signs that a program has been a success. Just to clarify the following are the four fundamental properties of spoken language and underscores the importance of encouraging verbal interaction in the classroom and these are: Phonological system: the phonemes used in a particular language; Phonotactic rules: the sound sequences that a language allows to make up syllables; Tone melodies: the characteristic variation in high, low, rising and falling tones to indicate lexical or discourse meanings; The stress system; the way in which lexical stress is fixed within an utterance (Carter Nunan, 2001, p.8). One of the ways to apply insights about spoken language in the EFL classroom is to utilise the turn-taking technique. According to practitioners teachers and students can learn from observing people conversing and using turn-taking as a process of communication. This enhances the teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ ability to evaluate teacher-talk. One of the most important developments with regards to the need for appropriate language use in EFL is the creation of a teaching methodology known as task-based language teaching or TBLT. This was derived from Communicative Language Teaching and the main purpose was to Ã¢â¬Å"bring Ã¢â¬Ëreal-worldÃ¢â¬â¢ contexts into the classroom, and it emphasises the use of language for completing tasks rather than as a focus for studyÃ¢â¬ (Walsh, 2011, p.26). By using TBLT, the students are able to interact with others and enhance the learning process when it comes to the acquisition of a foreign language. It simulates what happens in the real world where people use language not to study it but to accomplish a task. In the course of using TBLT techniques such as oral communicative tasks students are able to identify gaps in their knowledge as well as Ã¢â¬Å"notice connections between different linguistic features, find ways of saying something even when they do not have the most appropriate language, and so onÃ¢â¬ (Walsh, 2011, p.27). A good example of a BLTB inspired communicative task is to assign students into groups and give them a situational problem that they need to solve. One of the best examples is the situational problem involving the crash of a light-aircraft in a remote island in the Pacific. The two passengers survived but they have to choose wisely what to bring with them as they leave the plane and walk towards the clearing or the shore. The items are: parachute; knife; flashlight; matches; mobile phone; mobile phone charger; notebook; pencil; shaving kit; make-up kit; one apple; cigarettes; a bottle of lotion; airplane radio; and a bottle of water. The instructions further states that they can only bring five items with them. The items are words that they encounter in their readings or words commonly used in the real-world conversation and by engaging themselves in this problem solving exercise they go beyond mere memorisation of the words and learning the definition. Their minds are engaged in a deeper level and therefore learning is enhanced in a manner that can never be duplicated in a simple classroom type discourse. It is also important to provide opportunities for students Ã¢â¬Å"for interactive and collaborative uses of language among learnersÃ¢â¬ (Richards Farrell, 2011, p.16). According to one practitioner in the field of intercultural language use a communicative methodology is to Ã¢â¬Å"acquire the necessary skills to communicate in socially and culturally appropriate ways, and, in the learning process, focus should be placed on functions, role playing and the real situations, among other aspectsÃ¢â¬ (Soler, 2008, p.59). Ã¢â¬Å"Play has been noted as valuable in helping pupilsÃ¢â¬â¢ development of oracy and literacy skills the normal practice during structured play sessions was to encourage pupils to respond to their experiences using the language at their disposal at the timeÃ¢â¬ (Beaumont OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien, 2000, p.16). An example of structured play is when students are told to participate in a make-believe game where they are supposed to buy fruits and vegetables from a shopkeeper. Thus, instead of just teaching them about fruits and vegetables and showing these items in visual presentation format, the students are now able to exercise the ability to use the language in a practical matter. It can also be argued that the structured play enables them to participate in manner that is more intense as compared to sitting back and merely listening to the teachers speak. In this type of scenario the students learn more than just the words but also the feel of the language when spoken in a natural setting. One of the foundational principles is the realisation that Ã¢â¬Å"language is based on and is an extension of spoken languageÃ¢â¬ thus it must be the starting point in the study of language (Cummins Davidson, 2007, p.859). However, in the latter part of the 20th century teachers did not pay careful attention on developing training strategies to teach language from a verbal standpoint. The reason for neglect was that Ã¢â¬Å"spoken language was seen as disorganised, ungrammatical, and formless and written language as highly structured and organisedÃ¢â¬ (Cummins Davidson, 2007, p.860). This is the preferable course of action as one keeps in mind that in an EFL environment Ã¢â¬Å"there are only a few proficient speakers of English and there is no constant verbal interaction as in a native-speaking environmentÃ¢â¬ (Lochtman Kappel, 2008, p.78). Discussion The acquisition of a second language hinges on different factors. The effectiveness of the teaching strategy used and the speed of acquisition depend on the proficiency of the teacher when it comes to using the English language as the medium of communication. It is also affected by the classroom environment and the cultural setting. But the most crucial factor is the appropriate use of language in order to facilitate learning. It has been discovered that the inappropriate use of language is based on the fact that teachers in an EFL classroom sometimes treat their students as if they are native speakers. A native speaker has a different mode of learning English because they have access to parents, teachers, and other people that are proficient in the English language. In the case of students studying English in a foreign land there is only one person that is proficient in the English language and he or she happens to be the teacher. The teacher therefore has to be sensitive to this fact. It is therefore important that the teacher be sensitive to the way he or she teaches especially when it comes to the appropriate use of language. The detection of errors and the measure of effectiveness can be achieved by using the SETT framework. This tool enables the teacher to evaluate Ã¢â¬Å"teacher-talkÃ¢â¬ by using strategies and methods that capture feedback and then evaluate the same. The use of audio recording devices and even videotape is an important took for this particular purpose. The use of the SETT framework can be made more effective if the teacher is aware of the four modes of learning strategies used in the EFL. By doing so the teacher would discover that the managerial mode is a problematic approach because it limits the capability of the teacher to evaluate Ã¢â¬Å"teacher-talkÃ¢â¬ and at the same time limits the ability of the teacher to determine the feedback coming from the students. This is based on the fact that the managerial mode encourages teacher to dominate the classroom discourse. The study of the four modes of teaching would reveal that the classroom context mode is the best way to promote learning. In this mode the students are allowed to participate. In this method of teaching the teacher enables the student to express themselves more effectively. At the same time it promotes oral fluency. If one thinks about it this is the main goal of teaching English to foreigners and it is to make them more fluent in the English language. Another interesting discovery in the discussion regarding the appropriate use of language is that the teacher cannot develop the correct materials or use the appropriate teaching method if the teacher does not enable collaboration between students and teachers and among themselves. It is easy to understand why students must be given time to express themselves in the classroom setting but it is another to consciously develop a strategy to allow them to speak by taking turns. The strategy of allowing them to speak in turns provides the ability to learn the language in a deeper way. If the students are merely allowed to speak on their own then there are nuances of the language that they are unable to detect and appreciate. But when they are allowed to talk with fellow students they uncover something that the teachers may not be able to discuss in class. Experts pointed out the fact that when students began to collaborate and discuss in the English language they begin pinpoint gaps in their knowledge. In the managerial mode of teaching and even in the materials mode of teaching the students are focused on the teacher and the materials. The goal is to mimic the teachers and at the same they are conscious of being able to copy the forms of the language displayed. As a result students become experts in mimicry such as copying the sounds made by the teacher or the ability to copy the letters of the English alphabet and yet when it comes to the things that really matter they fail. Students must not only be able to recite properly but they also have to fully understand the words that they are saying. They must not only be aware of the vague definition of the words that they are saying but also the different meanings of a word in different contexts. Experts agree that this can be done in a conversation. It is therefore crucial that teachers promote the spoken language as well as the written forms of communication. One of the most effective means to promote learning is to use situational problems that enable students among themselves. This is not just an ordinary discussion but structured interaction that allows them to focus on common words and then provide them the opportunity to use these words in a Ã¢â¬Å"real-worldÃ¢â¬ context. There is a different feel when students discuss a scenario using the target words as opposed to simply reciting these words as the teacher flashed them in a projector or when these items are displayed in a visual presentation. By observing the students in collaborative exercises and by listening to feedback coming from different sources, the teacher identifies weaknesses in the teaching methodology. The teacher can then proceed to make adjustments and then repeats the process of evaluation. The goal is to improve the ability of the students to express themselves and to promote oral fluency. The students must be able to identify the meanings of the words in different contexts and use the words in a Ã¢â¬Å"real-worldÃ¢â¬ setting. The conventional methodologies used in the past must be revised. The focus on materials and the way teachers dominate classroom discussion has been proven ineffective. Conclusion It is imperative that teachers are well aware of appropriate language use. They must realise that simply sticking to a plan does not produce students that are proficient in the English language. They must use all the available tools in order to evaluate Ã¢â¬Å"teacher-talkÃ¢â¬ and by doing so update their teaching techniques and strategies. Interestingly, the ability of the teacher to improve his or her skills in the use of appropriate language in an EFL environment is also dependent on the collaboration of teacher and students. Thus, it is also crucial that teacher allow students to speak in class and to interact with fellow students. It is only through these strategies that teachers are able to determine which areas they are deficient and then proceed to correct their errors. References Beaumont, M. T. OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien. (2000). Collaborative Research in Second Language Education. London: Trentham Books Ltd. Carter, R. (1995). Keywords in Language and Literacy. London: Routledge. Carter, R. D. Nunan. (2001). The Cambridge Guide to Teaching English to Speakers of Other Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Cummins, J. C. Davison. (2007). International Handbook of English Language Teaching. Part 1. UK: Springer Science. Housen, A. M. Pierrard. (2005). Investigations in Instructed Second Language Acquisition. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. Lochtman, K. J. Kappel. (2008). The World a Global Village: Intercultural Competence in English Foreign Language Teaching. Brussels: VUBPress. Nunan, D. (1992). Collaborative Language Learning and Teaching. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press. Richards, J. T. Farrell. (2011). Practice Teaching: A Reflective Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Soler, E. (2008). Intercultural Language Use and Language Learning. UK: Springer Science. Walsh, S. (2003). Developing Interactional Awareness in the L2 Classroom. Journal of Language Awareness, 12(2), 124-142. Walsh, S. (2006). Investigating Classroom Discourse. Oxford: Routledge. Walsh, S. (2011). Exploring Classroom Discourse in Action. Oxford: Routledge. Wolfram, W., C. Temple, D. Christian. (1999). Dialects in Schools and Communities. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Monday, 25 November 2019
English Glossary of Terms Essays English Glossary of Terms Essay English Glossary of Terms Essay The occurrence of the same letter or sound at the beginning of adjacent or closely connected words. Example: Carries cat clawed her couch, creating chaos. Assonance: In poetry, the repetition of the sound of a vowel or diphthong in non rhyming stressed syllables. Example: I must confess that in my quest I felt depressed and restless. Anecdote: An account regarded as unreliable or hearsay. Example: High school students go around the classroom telling their favourite memories from elementary school.Simile: A figure of speech involving the comparison of one thing with another thing of a different kind. Example: I am as strong as a lion. Personification: The attribution of a personal nature or human characteristics to something nonhuman, or the representation of an abstract quality, Example: The wind howled its mighty objection. Metaphor: A figure of speech in which a word or phrase is applied to an object or action to which it is not literally applicable. Example: He is the apple of my eye There is, of course, no real apple in a persons eye.The apple is someone beloved and held dear. Jargon: Special words or expressions that are used by a particular profession or group and are difficult for others to understand. Example: Gigabyte Euphemism: A mild or indirect word or expression for one too harsh or blunt when referring to something unpleasant or embarrassing. Example: Letting someone go instead of firing someone. Cliche: Platitude: a trite or obvious remark. Example: Time will tell: This means that something will be revealed or become clear over time. Hyperbole: Exaggerated statements or claims not meant to be taken literally.Example: It was so cold, I saw polar bears wearing jackets. Pun: A joke exploiting the different possible meanings of a word or the fact that there are words that sound alike but have different meanings. Example: People are choosing cremation over traditional burial. It shows that they are thinking out of the box. Idiom: A group of words established by usage as having a meaning not deducible from those of the individual words. Example: High as a kite means you are drunk or on drugs Satire: The use of irony, sarcasm, ridicule, or the like, in exposing, denouncing, or deriding vice, folly, etc.Example: A student in a performance night performs a rendition of a popular rap song that replaces the original lyrics with their own lyrics that comment satirically on the popular singers performance at the MTV Awards. Register: is a variety of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting. Example: Low register: I aint done nuttin. High register: I hope we meet again. Style: The way in which something is spoken, written, or performed. Example: wazzup instead of using whatÃ¢â¬â¢s upAllusion: An expression designed to call something to mind without mentioning it explicitly; an indirect or passing reference. Example: I was surprised his nose was not growing like PinocchioÃ¢â¬â¢s. This refers to the story of Pinocchio, where his nose grew whenever he told a lie. Analogy: A comparison between two things, typically on the basis of their structure and for the purpose of explanation or clarification. Example: There are plenty of fish in the sea. Unless you really are a fish, this encourages you to move on and find another potential mate. Tone: The overall quality of a musical or vocal soundExample: the piano tone is lacking in warmth. Emotive language: phrasing which creates a strong emotional response in the reader. Example: Player lashes out on referee (player hits referee Generalisation: an idea or conclusion having general application; Example: Cats are nicer than dogs. Irony: The expression of ones meaning by using language that normally signifies the opposite, typically for humorous or emphatic effect. Example: A man who is a traffic cop gets his license suspended for unpaid parking tickets. Oxymoron: A figure of speech in which apparently contradictory erms appear in conjunction Example: Military intelligence Rhetorical Question: a statement that is formulated as a question but that is not supposed to be answered. Example: Eulogy: A speech or piece of writing that praises someone or something highly, typically someone who has just died. Example: For those of you who do not know me, my name is Marty and I am one of KevinÃ¢â¬â¢s best friends. It is with great sadness that I stand in front of you today to celebrate the life of my friend. KevinÃ¢â¬â¢s life was taken away from us too soon and it is hard to understand why tragic things like this happen to such good people.However, this is a question without an answer and we should not dwell on the loss of our dear friend, husband, son and brother. Today letÃ¢â¬â¢s celebrate his life and remember all of the remarkable things Kevin accomplished and how wonderful his life was. Paradox: seemingly absurd or self: Wise fool Symbol: A thing that represents or stands for something else, esp. a material object representing something abstract. Example: Heart symbolises loveContext: The circumstances that form the setting for an event, statement, or idea, and in terms of which it can be fully understood and assessed. Example: The book puts these events in their proper historical and social contexts. Purpose: In composition, a persons reason for writing, such as to inform, entertain, explain, or persuade. Example: This paper will describe four common causes of co: He is in contention for the Olympic medal.
Friday, 22 November 2019
Qualitative Research Appraisal - Essay Example The researchers presented a clear rationale for the research, setting it in context of any current issues and knowledge of the topic to date. Aside from this they have presented adequate information for the review of related literature to back up readers regarding any existing or past researches with the same topic. The review of related literature of the research article is a focused summary of what has already been published regarding the question or problem for which there is a gap in knowledge. The literature of the research article gives the readers' a picture of what is already known or has already been studied in relation to the problem and identifies where the gaps in knowledge may be. (Caldwell, 2005) The literature review in the research being critiqued does not necessarily only include published research studies. It also may include published reports about issues related to practice or a description of a theory. (Babbie, 2004) A theory is a written description of how several factors may relate to and affect one each other. The factors described in a theory are usually abstract: that cannot be readily observed and immediately defined and recognized by everyone. The research report of the article used discusses a theory in its introduction section, the study tests and further explains the relationships proposed in that theory. The meta-category perspective is used in the research report. (Fischer, 2005) It is expected that the study will be based on this, and that is to examine some aspect of life events and perceptions affect the variables in the research. The literature review should reflect the current state of knowledge relevant to the study and identify any gaps or conflicts. It should include key or classic studies on the topic as well as up to date literature. There should be a balance of primary and secondary sources Related studies, on the other hand, are studies, inquiries, or investigations already conducted to which the present proposed study is related or has some bearing or similarity. They are usually unpublished materials such as manuscripts, theses, and dissertations. (Creswell, 2003) Since the study is based on existing theory, then the researcher already has an idea of what relationships to be found. These ideas are stated in the form of a hypothesis, a prediction regarding the relationships or effects of selected factors on other factors. For any study to include a hypothesis there must be some knowledge bout a problem of interest so that the researchers can propose or predict that certain relationships or effects may occur. The research provided two sections for the hypotheses: Life stage (age) hypotheses and Country culture hypotheses. (Fawcett, 2004) Identify ethical issues related to the study and how they were/were not addressed. Ethical issues pertinent to the study are discussed. The researchers identified how the rights of informants have been protected and informed consent obtained. The patients who participated in the study were informed regarding the purpose of the research and approval was sought from them prior to the interviews. Health service research committees were responsible for getting the permission of these patients. (Fowler, 2002) The information regarding and confidentiality of the study were
Wednesday, 20 November 2019
Landry's Restaurant's - Essay Example The government would interfere with the operations of the business if the financial statements show that the company violated environmental laws such as throwing factory wastes into the pristine rivers beside the factory. The following paragraphs will explain the different components of these financial statements with explanations where needed. The data on page 22 show that the company generated net income of $18,112 for the year 2007. It also generated the amount of $ 21,770 in net loss for the year 2006. It also generated the amount of $ 44,815 in net income for the year 2005. It also generated the amount of $ 66,7521 in net income for the year 2004. Lastly, It also generated the amount of $ 44,914 in net income for the year 2003. Another term for the net income is the bottom line. The net incomes generated for the years 2007, 2005, 2004, and 2003 show that the companys managers did well during these accounting periods. On the other hand, the company did badly during the year 2006 because the income statement shows it generated the failing grade of net loss. This financial information was taken from the Income statement on page 24 of the voluminous data studied. This one of the three financial statements companies are required to produce in one accounting period. It shows how the business operations did in terms of revenues, costs and expenses. The other two financial statements are the balance sheet and the statement of cash flows. The components of this financial statement include the revenues. This account title represents that the total amount generated from cash revenues and accounts receivable revenues during one accounting period. Cash revenues are revenues generated where the customers pay cash for eating in the restaurant and /or using its facilities for business or personal use. The accounts receivable
Monday, 18 November 2019
Building a Services Brand - Essay Example Striking a balance between the customer-centered approach and the internal orientation towards the centrality of staff is the key to the development of a service brand. This paper attempts an overview of the available literature on services brand building and then correlates it with the opinions of leading-edge brand consultants. Literature Review: The existing models of brand building, by and large, are biased towards the goods sector with little or no relevance to the services sector. AakerÃ¢â¬â¢s brand identity planning model (Aaker et al. 40), KapfererÃ¢â¬â¢s hexagonal brand identity prism model (Kapferer 182) or IndÃ¢â¬â¢s insistence on organization-wide commitment and employee-centric approach (Ind 24) hardly has any principles that can have useful application in services brand building. However, the four-dimensional brand asset management strategy proposed by Scott M Davis (Shay 438) and the four-step process suggested by Gregory and Sellers focus on a combination of int ernal and external factors and are therefore worth considering in the present discussion. DavisÃ¢â¬â¢s model includes the phases of developing a brand vision, determining the brand picture, devising a brand asset management strategy and devising a supporting culture. ... According to de Chernatony, the definition of brand image includes the three components Ã¢â¬â promise, emotional values and rational values (Schmid 1). Overall, there is a paucity of literature about building services brands and this could be because brand building, by its very nature, is dynamic. Moreover, new services are often included under the existing and established corporate brands. The need to build a corporate brand from scratch rarely arises. As for the question of who must take charge of the task of building services brands, the limitations in the traditional brand manager concept have already become obvious and category managers are replacing brand managers (Batra et al. 25). Considering the multi-faceted role of CEOs and the declining role of marketing departments (Hulbert et al. 55), it certainly is a good idea to have an exclusive executive and a cross-functional team with sole responsibility of brand building. Toffler ventured a little further and advocated user g enerated branding by way of prosumerism (Burmann et al. 75). In all this, the HRM has a crucial role to play as recruiting, training and motivating employees is as important as understanding and fulfilling customer needs (Thomson et al. 819). Kaplan and Norton too endorse the idea of internal / external balance through their Ã¢â¬Ëbalanced scorecardÃ¢â¬â¢ (7). Ambler goes to the extent of saying that internal marketing should precede external efforts (113). What the experts say: With respect to developing service brands from scratch, the questions that precisely need to be answered are: (i) Who is involved? (ii) What are the stages that firms go through? and (iii) Which orientation is
Saturday, 16 November 2019
Impact of Branding on Consumer Purchasing Decision An Empirical Study in the Technological product sector More and more organizations have come to realize that brand is the most valuable asset associated with their products or services and are using branding as a strategic tool in todays dynamic business environment (Chernatony and MacDonald, 1998; Rooney, 1995). Some extremely successful examples in brand management include Microsoft, IBM, Sony, Nike and Coca-Cola (BusinessWeek, 2002). Their brands resonate with the general public and affect the consumers buying decision-making. The power of the brands has contributed substantially to the continuing success in the future (Davis, 2002). Brand acts as a strategic marketing tool to attract and keep customers by promoting value, image, prestige or lifestyle (Rooney, 1995). Furthermore, it is a powerful technique to develop a stable, sustainable and distinct relation with customers by playing number of associations, so marketers must account for all of them in making marketing decisions (Aaker, 1992). Hence this study will try to find out the impact of branding on consumer purchase decision, specifically in the technological product market. The main aim of this project is to find out the impact, branding has on the consumer purchase decision in general and especially in the technological product sector. The focus of this study will be on the consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s viewpoint about brands and how it affects their purchasing decisions. Hence the objectives of the study will be to: Review the current literature regarding brands, branding and consumer purchase decision Based on the literature review and secondary data identify branding factors that supposedly impact the consumer purchase decision Find out consumers perception regarding the impact of brands on their purchasing decisions specifically in the technological product sector To bring out the implications of the research Research Methodology: An appropriate research methodology is a general plan of how the researcher will go about answering the research questions considering the sources to collect data and the constraints that one might have (access to data, time, location and money, etc). It should reflect the fact that the researcher has thought carefully about why a particular strategy/method has been employed. Data intended for almost any study can be obtained from two sources: Primary Data and Secondary Data. In order to complete the research project from a theoretical as well as a practical point of view, this research will make use of both types of data. This study will be carried in three phases. The first phase will involve literature review and secondary data collection. Primary data will be collected in the second phase. The last phase will comprise of analysing the primary data and drawing suitable conclusions from the study. Phase 1: The first phase of the research will comprise of reviewing the literature and collecting secondary data. This will involve an investigation of brands and different types of branding options that are availed by manufacturers. Further to this the consumer decision process will also be reviewed to find the factors that affect the consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s decision making process in general. According to Sharp and Howard (1996), two major reasons exist for reviewing the literature. First, the preliminary search helps to generate and refine the research ideas. And secondly, a critical review is a part of the research process. Like most research projects, literature review will be an early activity in this research. After the initial literature search, the researcher will be able to redefine the parameters more precisely and undertake further searches, keeping in mind the research objective and goal. The literature review will help in developing a good understanding and insight into the p revious research done on this topic and the trends that have emerged. Secondary data sources Secondary data will be collected from a varied number of sources. Books published books generally considered as one of the most reliable and valid source of information will be used for the basic content of the literature review. Electronic sources Ã¢â¬â will provide a large amount of information relevant to the subject Magazines a good source of getting data and report of recent and relevant articles Newspapers latest updates on brands and other information Advantages of using secondary data Saves cost and time Wide variety of information available Availability of vast amount of information Disadvantages of using secondary data are Most of the magazines or journals require Subscription, which is not feasible when lots of journals and materials have to be analysed. Shortage of time limits the scope of the research to a great extent. Most of the articles, research papers, and survey results found on various web sites or lacks the proof of the accuracy of their results. Phase 2: In phase 2 primary data will be collected which refers to the data obtained via the researcherÃ¢â¬â¢s direct experience. The need for employing more than one method of research stems from the fact that various methods contain their own set of assumptions of the nature of the real world and the kind of data produced (Denscombe, 1998). The author has selected survey strategy for the purpose of collecting primary data. It is a common and popular strategy in business and management research. Through this a large amount of data can be collected in an economical way. Bell (1993) says that surveys can provide answers to questions like What, Where, When, And How. It tries to elaborate the problems of Ã¢â¬ËrepresentativenessÃ¢â¬â¢ from other approaches like case studies or most of the qualitative approaches. This approach can be termed as fact finding mission and may contribute little towards the development of a hypotheses or shaping theory. The results from the survey can def initely be used to test a hypotheses or theory. The data here is primarily quantitative but may also be qualitative in nature as it represents peoples view about an issue. Questionnaires are generally used for the purpose of data collection followed by few interviews to increase the validity of the data. Using multi-methods produces various kinds of data on the same topic improving the quality of research. Hence, this research will make use of more than one research method (questionnaire and interview) to enable the researcher to present the topic in a more complete fashion from different perspectives. Hence the primary data collection methods used for this research will be- Questionnaires Interviews Questionnaires provide the easiest known way of assembling a mass of information (Burroughs, 1971:106). The author decided to use online questionnaires for the purpose of the study. Online questionnaires are very economical, the costs faced were nearly negligible, since once the form was loaded on the server, and all entries came in the form of e-mail. They are easier to administer and manage and supply standardised answers from all recipients. But a lot of care will be taken in order to construct questionnaires to maximise response rate. Due to its length or complexity in the questionnaire, it may yield a response rate so low that the data may not be adequate to make any kind of generalisation or even a reliable statement. Keeping this in mind, for the purpose of this research, due care will be taken to avoid hypothetical questions, dual meaning questions, presuming questions and any form of ambiguity or imprecision in questions. Also, an attempt will be made to keep the length of the questionnaire very precise, with to the point questions consisting mainly of multiple-choice questions enabling the reader to be comfortable to fill the questionnaire without much loss of time, thereby increasing the questionnaires response rate as well as making data analysis simple. The author also decided to include another method in the form of interviews as part of the research due to the need for more detailed qualitative information. Through the use of questionnaires the research will only able to gather quantitative data, which in itself will be quite useful for the project in order to gain a general view and knowledge about the impact of branding on consumers in general. However, in order to gain better depth in the analysis, the questionnaire data will also be supplemented by few follow up interviews. As an information gathering tool, the interview lends itself to being used alongside other methods as a way of supplementing their data adding detail and depth. (Denscombe, 1998; pi 12) As part of this research project, interviews will be used as a follow-up to the questionnaire. The attempt is to complement the questionnaire data with the interview data, pursuing the interesting lines of enquiry in greater detail. Simply stated, it can yield rich material or put flesh on the bones of the questionnaire (Bell, 1987). Sampling Process In order to collect appropriate information on the views of the consumers on impact of branding on their purchasing decisions, a very large portion of the general population would be an eligible target, but due to various practical problems of time and cost involved in such a process, a restricted sample of the population was considered for this research. The sample population involved in this project was carried out on a small scale due to the time and resources available. The survey polled a population of primarily Internet users including professionals as well as students situated in various parts of UK in order to get their perspective on the effect branding has on their buying behavior. Approximately, 200 emails will be sent. The population of respondents comprised of general Internet users ranging from computer professionals to lecturers to university students. By the means of this survey, we are investigating the general considerations of the users towards brands while purchasing a technological product. Objective Timeframe Task 1. Phase 1 : Literature Survey/Secondary data Client should put the time frame according to his/her requirements Phase 1 will involve an investigation of brands and different types of branding options that are availed by manufacturers. Further to this the consumer decision process will also be reviewed to find the factors that affect the decision making process. The first stage of the research will comprise of reviewing the literature and collecting secondary data. 2. Phase 2 : Interviews/Surveys Client should put the time frame according to his requirements Phase 2 will involve the primary data collection phase in which the online questionnaire will be used to collect consumer opinion regarding brand implication on their purchasing decisions. 3. Phase 3: Analysis of data from Interviews/surveys and drawing conclusions Client should put the time frame according to his requirements After taking the interviews and surveys, a large quantity of interview notes, questionnaire results and other records will be generated all of which will be analyzed. The survey data will be analysed using the SPSS software. A brief thematic analysis will be done for the data collected from the interviews. Following this, conclusions will be drawn based on the findings. References Aaker, A. D. (1992), The Value of Brand Equity. Journal of Business Strategy, Vol.13 (4), p.p.27-32. Bell, J. (1987). Doing your Research Project. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Bell, J. (1993) Doing your research project: a guide for first-time researchers in education and social science, Open University press Burroughs, G.E.R. (1971). Design and Analysis in Educational Research, Oxford: Educational Review. Davis, S. (2002), Brand Asset Management: how businesses can profit from the power of brand, Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol. 19, No. 4, p.p.351 -358. de Chernatony, L. McDonald, M. (1998), Creating Powerful Brands in Consumer, service and Industrial Markets, 2nd Edition, UK: Reed Eductional and Professional Publishing Ltd. Denscombe, M. (1998). The Good Research Guide. Buckingham: Open University Press Hussey, J. and Hussey, R. (1997), Business Research: A Practical Guide for Undergraduate and Postgraduate Students, Macmillan Press, London. Research, http://www.allbusiness.com/articles/content/19671.asp Rooney, J. A. (1995), Branding: a trend for today and tomorrow, Journal of Product and Brand Management, Vol. 4, No. 4, p.p.48 55. Schutz (1972). The Phenomenology of the Social World (London: Heinemann). Sharp, J.A. and Howard, K. (1996) The Management of a Student Research Project. Aldershot, Gower. 1  http://bwnt.businessweek.com/brand/2002/index.asp  The tasks will be further divided into sub tasks to give a detailed insight of the plan as it develops.
Wednesday, 13 November 2019
Psychological Problem Associated with Cerebral Palsy :: Health, Medical Research, Stress, Depression
Psychological Problems Associated with Cerebral Palsy Cerebral Palsy is a condition that limits physical abilities. This disability affects about one child in every five hundred children (Micheksen 405). Cerebral Palsy is mostly known to affect children by severe motor impairment, however; this disorder can affect a person in a psychological way too. A cross-sectional European Study was done by a group of eleven people focusing on the psychological impact of children with cerebral palsy (Michelsen 406) Eight hundred and eighteen children between the ages of eight and twelve were involved. The main goal of the Ã¢â¬Å"SPARCLEÃ¢â¬ study was to investigate if cerebral palsy relates to psychological and behavioral problems. A strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) was used as one way to detect emotional and behavioral abnormalities (Michelsen 406). Along with an Impact Score (IS) that was based on questions completed by family members answering a total of twenty-five questions. The total from the Impact Score was then computed to determine if the childÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior was abnormal or not (Michelsen 406). The results of the SDF showed that more than twenty-five percent of children participating showed abnormal results (Michelsen 410). It also showed that children with milder cerebral palsy had higher behavioral difficulties in comparison to children with more severe cases. The reason being that severe cerebral palsy prevents certain behaviors, such as fighting or cheating (Michelsen 410). The parental impact score survey showed that almost half of all participants agreed that their child suffered difficulties. When asked how often the family was affected by the childÃ¢â¬â¢s cerebral palsy forty-two percent answered, Ã¢â¬Å"Quite a lotÃ¢â¬ (Michelsen 409). Another forty percent of parents believe their child struggles with behavior and communication skills among children their age in school (Michelsen 410). The findings from the SDQ and SI tests determined that a significant number of children with cerebral palsy suffer abnormal behaviors. This study indicates that children with cerebral palsy suffer from psychological and behavior problems when trying to communicate mostly with family and peers. Based on a research done in the Netherlands self-perception, and over-all satisfaction was tested for relevance to psychological problems due to cerebral palsy. One hundred and ten children whose age were nine, eleven, and thirteen took place in this study (Schuengel 1252) Once again the children with cerebral palsy took self-assessment surveys that included subjects such as, physical performance, appearance, and if they were satisfied with their overall abilities (Schuengel 1253).
Monday, 11 November 2019
I have read and understand the plagiarism policy as outlined in the syllabus and the sections in the IWU Catalog relating to the IWU Honesty/Cheating Policy. By affixing this statement to the second page of my paper, I certify that I have not cheated or plagiarized in the process of completing this assignment. I also certify that the work submitted is original work specific for this course and to my program. If it is found that cheating and/or plagiarism did take place in the writing of this paper, I understand the possible consequences of the act/s, which could include expulsion from Indiana Wesleyan University. Kristine Davis June 9, 2013 NameDate JW is an 86 year old man who lives at home with his wife of 31 years. He is in fair-good health. He has a history of prostate cancer, angina, and coronary artery disease. He has had 5 stents put in his heart over the last 10 year. He recovered well from the surgeries. He has always been athletic and fit. He played racquet ball and soft ball until he was 68 years old. He had his first Angina attack at 68. He had radiation seen implants in 2010, which successfully eliminated the prostate cancer. His vital signs are as follows: 130/82 blood pressure, 72 pulse, 20 respirations, 98. 4 oral temperature, and 96% oxygen saturation. JW weighs 178 pounds and is 5 feet 11 inch in height. His BMI (Body Mass Index) is 24. 7. JW is alert and oriented. He seems very sharp for his age. He lives with his wife and 2 dogs. He attends to his daily living needs without assistance. He has a routine of preparing his medications and meals daily. His current medications consist of a multivitamin, Omega Fatty Acids, Asprin, Nitroglycerin, Coumadin, and stool softner. JWÃ¢â¬â¢s nutritional assessment is as follows: he maintains a regular diet, eating 3 meals a day. JW wears partial dentures, but does not require any assistance with feeding himself. He has a balanced diet with all essential food groups. He said that he drinks 8 glasses of water daily as instructed by his physician. He also enjoys a glass of wine every night. He has had a 3-5 pound weight loss in the last 3 months. He said he changed his diet regime to frozen dinners because his wife had surgery 3 months ago. She was unable to make his meals on a regular basis until recently. JW is ambulatory and self-sufficient. He said his wife keeps him active and on his toes. He enjoys going to dinner once per week. He admits that he is happy that his wife is recovered from her surgery and back to cooking for him. He tries to stay active and assist her with house work and folding laundry. JW lost his dog of 14 years, two months ago. She had to be put to sleep due to cancer. He said the loss of his dog had a significant impact on his emotional state, and his daily routine. He said he would walk with his dog, Ã¢â¬Å"LucyÃ¢â¬ , every morning and night if the weather permitted. After several weeks of grieving, his wife surprised him with a new puppy. JW feels that this puppy has brought back a sense of the companionship and joy that he lost when he lost his dog. He is back to his daily walking with the puppy. JW seems well adjusted to the new puppy. There are no psychological concerns noted. His cognitive functioning seems up to par. He spends several hours a day reading and working on crossword puzzles in order to maintain his cognitive functioning. JWÃ¢â¬â¢s skin is dry and warm. His mucous membranes are moist and pink. There are no visible lesions or pain noted. He does not report any difficulty chewing or swallowing. He said he moves his bowels 1-2 times daily without discomfort. JWÃ¢â¬â¢s MNA (Mini Nutritional Assessment) reveals that he is at risk for malnutrition. His score was 11. He was informed of the importance of consuming adequate portions of the foods from the basic food groups including fruits, vegetables, grains, dairy, and proteins. He knows that he must avoid the unhealthy fats and cholesterol in his diet. However, he was encouraged to eat a heart healthy diet including more vegetables and fruits. JW will continue to drink the 8 glasses of water per day and take daily walks for exercise. He was encouraged ask his physician if the evening glass of wine was permitted, especially considering his medication regime. JWÃ¢â¬â¢s goal is to be at adequate weight and BMI for his size, as well as maintain good nutritional status. He continues to be monitored by his primary physician, Cardiologist, Oncologist, and a nutritionist quarterly. He maintains yearly dental exams.
Saturday, 9 November 2019
The Fall Of Communism In Russia Essays - Perestroika, Eastern Bloc The Fall of Communism in Russia The Reasons for the fall of Socialism/Communism and the Troubles of Starting the New Democratic System in the Russian Federation "Let's not talk about Communism. Communism was just an idea, just pie in the sky." Boris Yeltsin (b. 1931), Russian politician, president. Remark during a visit to the U.S. Quoted in: Independent (London, 13 Sept. 1989). The fall of the Communist regime in the Soviet Union was more than a political event. The powerful bond between economics and politics that was the integral characteristic of the state socialist system created a situation that was unique for the successor states of the Soviet Union. The Communist regime was so ingrain in every aspect of Soviet life that the Russian people were left with little democratic tradition. Russia faces the seemingly impracticable task of economic liberalization and democratization. This is combined with the fact that the new administration must address human rights issues, such as living conditions and the supply of staple goods in this new form of administration makes the prospect of a full democratic switch seemingly impossible. To fully underezd the scope of the transference of governing power in the Russian Federation, one must first look at the old Socialist/Communist regime, to see the circumezces under which it fell gives a good view of why this transference is almost impossible. In the beginning Communism seemed to the people of Russia as a utopian ideal. The promise of the elimination of classes, of guaranteed employment , "The creation of a comprehensive social security and welfare system for all citizens that would end the misery of workers once and for all." Lenin's own interpretation of the Marxian critique was that to achieve Communism there would first have to be a socialist dictatorship to first suppress any dissent or protest. Through coercive tactics this new government seized power and in 1917 Lenin came to power. Under his "rule" the Soviet Union underwent radical changes in it's economic doctrines adopting a mixed economy which was termed the New Economic Policy also referred to as NEP, this economy called for some private ownership of the means of production, but the majority of industry was made property of the people, which meant the majority of the means of production was controlled by the government. Lenin's government made many achievements. It ended a long civil war against the remnants of the old Czarist military system and established institutions in government. During this period, and in fact throughout the majority of the Communist rule, censorship and the subordination of interest groups such as trade unions was imposed to stop dissension and increase conformity to the new governments policies. Lenin died in 1924, and was quickly followed by Joseph Stalin as head of the Soviet Communist Party, the oppressive reforms started by Lenin were continued and at length became completely totalitarian. Stalin became the most powerful man in Russia. He controlled to bulk of all the political power and with that he started a ruthless campaign of removing all opposition to the Communist rule. During this period called the "Great Purge" Stalin systemically executed anyone who stood in his path. Millions of people were arrested and either harassed or killed. The economic status of the Soviet Union was yet again changed and the entire system became controlled by the government. All private ownership ended. A mass program of industrialization was commenced, and the strength of the Soviet Military was subeztially increased. The citizens during this period endured great hardship. Agricultural production output diminished resulting in food shortages, these shortages were enha! nce by the mass exportation of food, this was done to pay for industrial imports. Stalin also put the production of what he called production goods such as manufacturing machinery over basic consumer goods such as clothes and other staples. During this period the Second World War broke out and drained most of what was left of the already impoverished state. Yet after the war national unity was strengthened as well is the Soviet military machine. The Soviet Union became a super power, the U.S. being the only country more powerful than it. After the death of Stalin in 1953 Nikita Khrushchev became First Secretary of
Wednesday, 6 November 2019
Adjectives vs Adverbs for ACT English Grammar Rule SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips You may recall the good olÃ¢â¬â¢ days of elementary school when you learned about adjectives and adverbs. If you had realized that you would have to know about these parts of speech for the ACT, perhaps you would have paid better attention instead of daydreaming about Nickelodeon and The Disney Channel. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t worry. If youÃ¢â¬â¢ve forgotten or never learned about these parts of speech, IÃ¢â¬â¢ll teach you everything you need to know about them for the ACT English section. In this post, I'll do the following: Define an adjective. Define an adverb. Review the comparative and superlative forms of adjectives. Explain how adjectives and adverbs are tested in ACT English. Provide practice questions to test you on what you've learned. What Is an Adjective? Adjectives modify nouns or pronouns. Here's an example: The movie was boring. The word "boring" is the adjective because it modifies the noun "movie." Check out one more example sentence with an adjective: The diligent student was admitted to the college of his dreams. The word "diligent" modifies the noun "student." Adjectives describe or provide more information about a noun. Now, let's define an adverb. What is an Adverb? In elementary school, you may have learned that adverbs modify verbs, but that's not all. Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. This is an example of an adverb modifying a verb: The dancer moved gracefully. The word "gracefully" modifies the verb "moved." Check out this sentence with an adverb modifying an adjective: The reading comprehension passage was incredibly boring. The word "incredibly" modifies the adjective "boring" that modifies the noun "passage." And, finally, this is a sentence with an adverb modifying another adverb: When I'm not in a hurry, I walk extremely slowly. The word "extremely" modifies the adverb "slowly." The word "slowly" modifies the verb "walk." You may have noticed the adverb form is typically created the same way. Adverb Construction Adverbs are usually formed by adding "ly" to the adjective. For adverbs that end in "y," the adverb is formed by adding "ily." Here are some examples: "quick" becomes "quickly," "soft" becomes "softly," "close" becomes "closely," and "hasty" becomes "hastily." So if you say that somebody"talks slow" or "drives careful," you're making a grammar error. You should say, "talks slowly" or "drives carefully." How are adjectives and adverbs tested on the ACT? Adjectives vs. Adverbs on the ACT On the ACT, adverbs and adjectives will be switched with one another. Often, you will be given a pair of underlined words and the first should be an adverb (modifying the adjective) and the second should be an adjective. Here is an example: Unfortunately, the lead performer in the musical is an amazingly poorly singer. A. NO CHANGE B. amazing poorly C. amazingly poor D. amazing poor In the sentence, "amazingly" modifies "poorly." The word "poorly" modifies the singer. Because "singer" is a noun, "poorly" should be in the adjective form. Only adjectives can modify nouns. Because "amazingly" modifies an adjective, it should remain in the adverb verb. The answer is C. Some sentences will use an adjective in the place of an adverb or vice versa: The powerfully summer sun beat down on them. It was the sun that was powerful, not "summer." Because only an adjective can modify a noun, "powerfully" should be in the adjective form. This is the correct version of the sentence: The powerful summer sun beat down on them. How should you go about figuring out adjective vs. adverb questions on the ACT? Strategy Determine what word an adjective or adverb is modifying. Then, determine the part of speech of the word that is being modified to check to see if the adjective or adverb is being used correctly. Adjectives can only modify nouns and adverbs can only modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. Make sure that adjectives are in the adjective form and adverbs are in the adverb form. Apply these tips to an adjective vs. adverb question from an actual ACT. Actual ACT Examples Try to correctly answer this adjective vs. adverb question. On each wing, all flighted birds have ten primary flight feathers, each one shaped slight different. F. NO CHANGE G. slight differently. H. slightly differently J. slightly more different Explanation: First, we see that both underlined words are in the adjective form. Next, we have to determine the function of each word in the sentence. Is each word being properly used as an adjective? LetÃ¢â¬â¢s start with Ã¢â¬Å"different." What is Ã¢â¬Å"differentÃ¢â¬ modifying? How the feathers were shaped. Ã¢â¬Å"ShapedÃ¢â¬ is a verb. Therefore, Ã¢â¬Å"differentÃ¢â¬ should be in the adverb form, Ã¢â¬Å"differently." What is Ã¢â¬Å"slightÃ¢â¬ modifying? The adverb Ã¢â¬Å"differently." Therefore, Ã¢â¬Å"slightÃ¢â¬ should also be in the adverb form. The answer is H, Ã¢â¬Å"slightly differently." Now, let's take a look at another issue tested on the ACT that involves adjectives and adverbs. Comparatives Vs. Superlatives Comparatives The comparative form of an adjective is formed by adding "er" to the word or "MORE" + the adjective. Examples of comparatives include "stronger," "lighter," and "more interesting." Never use "more" with the "er" form. You can't write "more stronger" or "more lighter." The comparative form is only used when you are comparing two things. Typically, you use the "er" form for words with one syllable and "more" + adjective for words with two or more syllables. One exception is that two syllable words that end in "y" tend to use the "er" form. Examples: "funny" becomes "funnier" and "busy" becomes "busier." Here's an example of a comparative being used correctly: Macs are easier to use than PCs. The comparative "easier" is being used to compare two things: Macs and PCs. So what form do you use to compare three or more things? Superlatives The superlative form of an adjective is formed by adding "est" to the word or "MOST" + the adjective. Examples of superlatives include "strongest," "lightest," and "most fascinating." You can never use "most" with the "est" form. It's incorrect to write "most funniest" or "most strongest." The superlative form is only used when comparing three or more things. Typically, words with one syllable use the "est" form and words with two or more syllables use "most" + adjective. This is an example of a correctly used superlative: Of all the computer brands, Macs are the easiest to use. When using "all" and not specifying a number, it's implied that you're talking about more than two so you should use the superlative form. Check out this example of a superlative being used incorrectly: Between John and Suzy, Suzy is the quietest. Remember that the superlative can only be used when comparing three or more things. There are only two in this sentence: John and Suzy. To fix the error, "quietest" should be changed to the comparative form, "quieter." How does the ACT test your knowledge of comparatives and superlatives? Comparatives and Superlatives on the ACT The ACT tests proper construction of comparatives and superlatives. You must know that comparatives are only used for comparing two things and superlatives are used for comparing three or more. Here are some tips to help you solve comparative and superlative questions on the ACT. Strategy Comparative and superlative rules are relatively basic. Remember this information and you should be able to correctly answer any ACT English question about them. If a comparative is underlined, make sure only two things are being compared. Never use "more" with the "er" form. Use the "er" form for one syllable words. If a superlative is underlined, make sure three or more things are being compared. Never use "most" with the "est" form. Use the "est" form for one syllable words. Use your knowledge of comparatives and superlatives to answer this real ACT English question. Actual ACT Example Here is a comparative/superlative question taken from a real ACT. The two principal types of kayaks are the easily maneuverable white-water kayak and the largest sea kayak. F. NO CHANGE G. very biggest H. more large J. larger Explanation: Because the word underlined is in the superlative form, we need to check to see if the superlative form is being used correctly. What is being compared in the sentence? The white-water kayak and the sea kayak. Only two things are being compared, so you have to use the comparative form. The sentence even says, Ã¢â¬Å"The TWO principal types of kayaks." Also, Ã¢â¬Å"largeÃ¢â¬ is a one syllable word so you should use the Ã¢â¬Å"erÃ¢â¬ form instead of Ã¢â¬Å"more large." The answer is J. Here are some tips to help you answer all questions relating to adjectives and adverbs on the ACT. General Strategies for Adjectives and Adverbs on ACT English #1: If an Adjective or Adverb is Underlined, Make Sure the Word is Being Used Correctly On the ACT, adjectives and adverbs will often be placed next to each other and both words will be underlined. Make sure that adjectives are in adjective form and adverbs are in adverb form. #2: Determine the Part of Speech of the Word that the Adjective or Adverb Is Modifying Determine if a word is an adjective or an adverb by identifying the part of speech of the word it modifies. Adjectives modify nouns and adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs. #3: If a Comparative or Superlative Is Underlined, Make Sure the Word Is Being Used Correctly Comparatives Comparatives only compare two things. Proper comparative structure is the "er" form or "MORE" + adjective. Never use "MORE" with the "er" form. Use the "er" form for one syllable words. Superlatives Superlatives compare three or more things. Proper superlative construction is the "est" form or "MOST" + adjective. Never use "MOST" with the "est" form. Use "est" for one syllable words. Additional Practice I created these realistic practice problems to test your knowledge of adjectives and adverbs on the ACT. Enjoy! 1. The young student was disillusioned with school; he found his classes boring, and he thought economics was his most boringly class. A. NO CHANGE B. most boring C. more boring D. more boringly 2. Because my friend is better at math than I am, he can more easily solve complex trigonometry questions. A. NO CHANGE B. more easier C. most easy D. easily 3. Chris Farley was a very gifted entertainer who left an extremely profound impact on Saturday Night Live. A. NO CHANGE B. extremely profoundly C. extreme profound D. extreme profoundly 4. Joe decided to attend Stanford because it was the more prestigious school that accepted him. A. NO CHANGE B. more prestigiously C. most prestigious D. most prestigiously Answers: 1. B, 2. A, 3. A, 4. C What's Next Keep improving the skills that will help you master the ACT English section. Read this article about the best way to approach ACT English. For those of you focusing on learning ACT grammar, I highly you recommend you check out these posts on faulty modifiers and punctuation. Want to improve your ACT score by 4 points? Check out our best-in-class online ACT prep program. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your ACT score by 4 points or more. Our program is entirely online, and it customizes what you study to your strengths and weaknesses. If you liked this English lesson, you'll love our program.Along with more detailed lessons, you'll get thousands ofpractice problems organized by individual skills so you learn most effectively. We'll also give you a step-by-step program to follow so you'll never be confused about what to study next. Check out our 5-day free trial:
Monday, 4 November 2019
Femme Fatale - Essay Example It was a remedy to the conservative society that limited the free expressions of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s creativity and faith. It is therefore, indirect representations of absolute truths via images and objects, both suggestively and metaphorically. In literature, it started with publications of Ã¢â¬Å"Le fleurs du malÃ¢â¬ (flowers of evil )by Charles Baudalaire who also greatly admired and later on translated works of Edgar Allan Poe forming the basis for stock tropes and images. Symbolism was further developed by Stephane Mallarme and Paul Valaine in the 1860Ã¢â¬â¢s and 70s. The term Ã¢â¬ËsymbolismÃ¢â¬â¢ was first used by a critic, Jean Moreas , who sought to find a distinction between symbolists and other decadents of literature and art. Symbolism and gothic romantics share a close relation. They both have no limiting techniques of presentation; therefore encourage the Ã¢â¬Ëfree verseÃ¢â¬â¢ ideology to encourage creativity and comprehensive representation of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s thought s and talent as evident in poems of Gustav Khan and Ezra Pound. As a result of this, symbolism became sanctuary to free will and from there; characteristic themes of mysticism, mortality and sexuality came into play which Albert Samain termed as Ã¢â¬Å"fruit of death upon the tree of lifeÃ¢â¬ There is symbolism in fine art that though similar in the main fabric as that in literature, is distinct. In visual art, it was a continuation of mystical tendencies in the romantic tradition. Symbolism in visual art was more widely spread that symbolism in poetry. Other areas of applied symbolism are in music, prose fiction and theatre. This research paper looks at the differences in the symbolism in Ã¢â¬Å"JudithÃ¢â¬ a paint work of Gustav Klimt. Gustav (July 14th 1862- February 6th 1918) was an Austrian painter specializing in paintings, murals and sketches and his main subject was the female human form, a femme de fatale, i.e. a mysterious and highly seductive woman. It compares the G ustavÃ¢â¬â¢s painting of Judith with a present day femme fatale. I have chosen Angelina Jolie as my present day seductive and dangerous woman. Anelina is both and actress and a humanitarian ambassador of our current age whose interaction with the world especially with the men both in the theatre and in real life has raised enough eyebrows and had enough men fall victim to her seductive and witty ways. ARTISTSÃ¢â¬â¢ REVIEW JUDITH. Judith was a biblical heroine in Venice who seduced and decapitated General Holofernes in an attempt to save her city Bethulia from destruction by the Assyrian army. This accorded her popularity in the Middle Ages onwards as a symbol of virtue overcoming vice. She was a Jewish widow who compromised her virtues for the greater good of her country men. The painting of Judith by Klimt was modeled by Adele Bloch-Baur whose beauty and coquettish aura and sense of fashion were not far fetched from what Judith was. JudithÃ¢â¬â¢s sensuality and seduction as s he held up high the head of Holoferns shocked the Vienna inhabitants and for a long time , they could not come into terms with her actions and personality, a no doubt femme fatale who had nothing to hide. Although Judith decapitated Holoferns, she herself in the painting also seems decapitated. She wears clothes that half conceal half expose her body, a gold chocker that clearly separates her head form her body and at the hem of her shirt, though ornamental cuts across her abdomen like a flat belt. This shows some level of slavery within her although she herself saves her city. Judith therefore comes across as a brave woman who stands out from the crowd. She could have ignored the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s safety and eloped and got sanctuary in a far land, after all, she was widowed and had nothing to lose if she moved. She nust have read the atmosphere of her city men, either they were
Saturday, 2 November 2019
Economics - - Assignment Example It involves the element of comparing the total expected costs against the total expected benefits. To be precise it looks for one fact only; whether the project is a gain project or loss project. The literature background for such study was that previous researches showed that programs designed for early childhood involvements effected childÃ¢â¬â¢s health and well-being beneficially. Good quality of involvements was directly related with improved health status, rational skills, accomplishment motivation and keenness at school. This study is the further extension of such results to check whether such programs do influence children positively or not. For the CBA the research was carried out in Chicago Child- Parent Centers located in Public schools. These centers are believed to provide educational and family support services to low -income children between the ages of 3 to 9. The data collected was from 1,539 programs and a comparison group of children selected who were born in 1980 . These children were the participants of Chicago Longitudinal Study. The measures of program participation were considerably but not only associated with higher school achievement and with higher school completion and also with lower rates of remedial education services, juvenile delinquency which is popularly known as youth crime and children maltreatment which means treating children abusively. The economic analyses showed that the economic benefits of the pre- school participation and School- going participation exceeded the costs. This indicated that a public program established for such things proves to be beneficial. If the article is critically analyzed, one would find strengths and challenges within it. The strengths would show the strong points in the argument of the article and the flaws within the argument. The strengths of the article can be analyzed in the following way: I. The first recognizable strength of the article is that it gives CBA of such programs which promi se to play a positive role in a childÃ¢â¬â¢s health and well -being. Different benefits of these programs are listed in such an order that they give a comprehensive insight into the benefits of early childhood programs. The program benefits are termed as Ã¢â¬Ëreductions in expenditures for remedial servicesÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬Ëincrease in lifetime earnings, compensation, and government tax revenuesÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬Ëreduction in expenditures in the criminal justice system for youth and adult program, Ã¢â¬Ëreduction in tangible expenditures to crime victims of youth and adults and Ã¢â¬Ëreduction in expenditures for the child welfare system and the victimization form the child abuse and neglectÃ¢â¬â¢. The analysis is a comprehensive analysis of such programs, with the help of research methods and data collection; the benefits stated add an objective element to it. The literature part and the analysis part seem to go hand in hand because of the mutual argument. The analysis part is basic strength of the article because of the systematic listing of the benefits. The findings add to the knowledge about the welfares of early childhood programs for low- income children. II. Secondly the research itself lies down as the literature review for the future analysis and researches. The results stated prove to be the background for the researches to be carried out in the same field. Results are brought out in such dimension that they promise to be valid and reliable; thus fulfilling the quality of