Monday, 30 September 2019
* Guiding Question: How does the change in temperature affect the rate of reaction? * Objectives: The objective of this experiment is to see how temperature affects reaction rates. * Hypothesis: We think that temperature increases the rate of reaction because the increase in temperature increases the energy of the particles and therefore overcomes faster the activation energy. * Variables: 1. Independent: Temperature (Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½C) 2. Dependents: Time (s) and rate of reaction (s -1) 3. Control: Volume (ml) and concentration (M) of HCl and Na2S2O3. * Procedure: a) Transfer 50 ml 0.0400 M sodium thiosulfate solution into a 50 ml flask. b) With a marker make a black cross in a paper and put it below the flask. c) At room temperature quickly pour 5ml HCl of a 2M solution d) Measure the time needed for the black cross to disappeared. e) Repeat this procedure and then place the flask in a hot plate using a thermometer and vary the temperature to 30 Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½C, 40 Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½C, 50 Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½C and 60 Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½C. f) Repeat the experiment twice for each temperature and find the average. * Materials: i. 2 measuring cylinder (50 ml) ii. Thermometer 10 Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½C Ã¢â¬â 110 Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½C iii. Chronometer iv. 2 flasks (250 mL) v. 60 ml of a 2M solution of HCl vi. 600 ml of a 0.04 M solution of Na2S2O3 * Observation: Sodium Thiosulfate ions (0.04 M) with different temperatures Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½C mL HCL (2M) * Conclusion: Looking at the graph and table, we can see that as the temperature increase, then the rate of reaction increases too. This can be defined and explain by the collision model. Particles can only react when they collide. If the substance is heat, then the particles move faster because they would started to bounce around the space faster because they have receive more energy. So they would bounce around more therefore they are more likely to collide. Some problems during the experiment were that we just have one hot plate so we loose time waiting for the other team to finish with their results. It was complicated because we couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have enough space to record everything that was happening because there were two groups per table. A solution to this problem is that for that specific part when we need the hot plates, we can share the data obtained in the whole table members. So we can continued the experiment at a faster rate so we can start doing more researches for the conclusion. And in this way the observations would have been more accuracy for both groups.
Sunday, 29 September 2019
Deposit agreement 0 When you opened your account, you received a deposit agreement and fee schedule and agreed that your account would be governed by the arms of these documents, as we may amend them from time to time. These documents are part of the contract for your deposit account and govern all transactions relating to your account, including all deposits and withdrawals. Copies of both the deposit agreement and fee schedule which contain the current version of the terms and conditions of your account relationship may be obtained at our banking centers.Electronic transfers: In case of errors or questions about your electronic transfers 0 If you think your statement or receipt is wrong or you need more information about an electronic transfer (e. . , ATM transactions, direct deposits or withdrawals, point-of-sale transactions) on the statement or receipt, telephone or write us at the address and number listed on the front of this statement as soon as you can.We must hear from you no later than 60 days after we sent you the FIRST statement on which the error or problem appeared. Tell us your name and account number. Describe the error or transfer you are unsure about, and explain as clearly as you can why you believe there is an error or why you need more information. Tell us the dollar amount of the suspected error. For consumer accounts used primarily for personal, family or household purposes, we will investigate your complaint and will correct any error promptly.If we take more than 10 business days (10 calendar days if you are a Massachusetts customer) (20 business days if you are a new customer, for electronic transfers occurring during the first 30 days after the first deposit is made to your account) to do this, we will credit your account for the amount you think is in error, so that you will have use of the money during the time it will take to complete our investigation. For other accounts, we investigate, and if we find we have made an error, we c redit your account at the conclusion of our investigation.Reporting other problems 0 You must examine your statement carefully and promptly. You are in the best position to discover errors and unauthorized transactions on your account. If you fail to notify us in writing of suspected problems or an unauthorized transaction within the time period specified in the deposit agreement (which periods are no more than 60 days after we make the statement available to you and in some cases are 30 days or less), we are not liable to you for, ND you agree to not make a claim against us for the problems or unauthorized transactions. Is fashion important? Deposit agreement 0 When you opened your account, you received a deposit agreement and fee schedule and agreed that your account would be governed by the arms of these documents, as we may amend them from time to time. These documents are part of the contract for your deposit account and govern all transactions relating to your account, including all deposits and withdrawals. Copies of both the deposit agreement and fee schedule which contain the current version of the terms and conditions of your account relationship may be obtained at our banking centers.Electronic transfers: In case of errors or questions about your electronic transfers 0 If you think your statement or receipt is wrong or you need more information about an electronic transfer (e. . , ATM transactions, direct deposits or withdrawals, point-of-sale transactions) on the statement or receipt, telephone or write us at the address and number listed on the front of this statement as soon as you can.We must hear from you no later than 60 days after we sent you the FIRST statement on which the error or problem appeared. Tell us your name and account number. Describe the error or transfer you are unsure about, and explain as clearly as you can why you believe there is an error or why you need more information. Tell us the dollar amount of the suspected error. For consumer accounts used primarily for personal, family or household purposes, we will investigate your complaint and will correct any error promptly.If we take more than 10 business days (10 calendar days if you are a Massachusetts customer) (20 business days if you are a new customer, for electronic transfers occurring during the first 30 days after the first deposit is made to your account) to do this, we will credit your account for the amount you think is in error, so that you will have use of the money during the time it will take to complete our investigation. For other accounts, we investigate, and if we find we have made an error, we c redit your account at the conclusion of our investigation.Reporting other problems 0 You must examine your statement carefully and promptly. You are in the best position to discover errors and unauthorized transactions on your account. If you fail to notify us in writing of suspected problems or an unauthorized transaction within the time period specified in the deposit agreement (which periods are no more than 60 days after we make the statement available to you and in some cases are 30 days or less), we are not liable to you for, ND you agree to not make a claim against us for the problems or unauthorized transactions. Is fashion important? Deposit agreement 0 When you opened your account, you received a deposit agreement and fee schedule and agreed that your account would be governed by the arms of these documents, as we may amend them from time to time. These documents are part of the contract for your deposit account and govern all transactions relating to your account, including all deposits and withdrawals. Copies of both the deposit agreement and fee schedule which contain the current version of the terms and conditions of your account relationship may be obtained at our banking centers.Electronic transfers: In case of errors or questions about your electronic transfers 0 If you think your statement or receipt is wrong or you need more information about an electronic transfer (e. . , ATM transactions, direct deposits or withdrawals, point-of-sale transactions) on the statement or receipt, telephone or write us at the address and number listed on the front of this statement as soon as you can.We must hear from you no later than 60 days after we sent you the FIRST statement on which the error or problem appeared. Tell us your name and account number. Describe the error or transfer you are unsure about, and explain as clearly as you can why you believe there is an error or why you need more information. Tell us the dollar amount of the suspected error. For consumer accounts used primarily for personal, family or household purposes, we will investigate your complaint and will correct any error promptly.If we take more than 10 business days (10 calendar days if you are a Massachusetts customer) (20 business days if you are a new customer, for electronic transfers occurring during the first 30 days after the first deposit is made to your account) to do this, we will credit your account for the amount you think is in error, so that you will have use of the money during the time it will take to complete our investigation. For other accounts, we investigate, and if we find we have made an error, we c redit your account at the conclusion of our investigation.Reporting other problems 0 You must examine your statement carefully and promptly. You are in the best position to discover errors and unauthorized transactions on your account. If you fail to notify us in writing of suspected problems or an unauthorized transaction within the time period specified in the deposit agreement (which periods are no more than 60 days after we make the statement available to you and in some cases are 30 days or less), we are not liable to you for, ND you agree to not make a claim against us for the problems or unauthorized transactions.
Saturday, 28 September 2019
The Texas Judicial System - Essay Example One of the most complex elements of the judicial system is that there are two distinct systems - federal and state, even though most of the cases are filed in state courts. Texas' system is based on confusing array of courts with overlapping jurisdictions and has the double court system even at the highest appellate level. The Texas Supreme Court has nine members and is the last resort in civil cases. The nation has much criticized the Texas judicial system, especially for the large campaign contributions during elections of the state judges and high execution level, however, in overall the system is not very effective effective. In 1822, the first provisional justice of the piece in Texas has been appointed - Josiah Bell appointed by Stephen Austin. Shortly after the revolution, the Spanish law has been replaced by the Constitution of the Republic of Texas under which the judicial power was focused in Supreme Court. The state was divided into judicial districts - each county had the court and the judge elected by popular vote. However, the chief justice of the state was elected by the ballot of the houses of Congress. The justice of the Supreme Court were elected by the governor with the consent of the Senate, however, in 1850 the offices were made elective (Braden 47). In 1876 additional appellate court of the last resort was established while the Supreme Court did not review the decisions of the Court of Appeals. Within the next decade, the intermediate level of appeal courts was established. In 1891, the Court of Appeals became the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals with the jurisdiction over criminal cases appeals from district and county courts. Today there are three levels of the courts, including district, county and inferior. Moreover, there is no uniform jurisdiction among the levels and it is necessary to examine the statutes of each. There are also courts of appeals and two courts of the last resort. Inferior courts include justice and municipal courts which have the most uniform jurisdiction in the state. The traffic offense cases are filed to inferior courts - they collect fines and are the revenue producers. Counties with more than 30,000 population have from 4 to 8 precincts - each having one justice of peace serving for the term of 4 years. Justice of the peace courts are filed criminal offenses punishable by fine (not more than $5,000). Justice of peace also serve as the magistrates and can issue warrants to arrest and search (Braden 60-68). Municipal courts are established in more than 800 cities and have more than one judge. The city's governing body appoint the judges of municipal courts, even though some of the judges are elected by the voters. Municipal courts are not courts of record and have jurisdiction over city ordinances violations punishable by fines. The county courts are divided into two systems: constitutional courts and statutory courts. Constitutional courts have jurisdiction over the inferior courts and criminal jurisdiction over the misdemeanors and civil matters. The judge of the constitutional court has legislative and executive functions and serves the term of four years. The statutory county courts have jurisdiction over civil, family and criminal matters, even though it varies throughout the state. District courts are trial courts and have jurisdic
Friday, 27 September 2019
Reading Reflection - Research Paper Example Indeed, the Count fails to define it explicitly; yet in his word choice, one can unpack the meaning and subtlety of such almost philosophical concept. In analyzing and interpreting the piece, I have used heavily the reader-response and formalist analytical approaches. As a whole, these approaches have greatly facilitated and enhanced my reading to HemingwayÃ¢â¬â¢s novel. The reader-response approach vitally helps me understand in greater depth pertaining to the Ã¢â¬Å"messageÃ¢â¬ conveyed in the literary work. After reading A Farewell to Arms, for instance, I have wondered whether or not the primary factor that captivates my imagination is the sense of curiosity or inquisitiveness. Perhaps my curiosity to Count GreffiÃ¢â¬â¢s notion of wisdom and its philosophical implication substantially facilitates me to read and be engrossed in the novel. On the other hand, the formalist approach in considering the novelÃ¢â¬â¢s message substantially reinforces my initial impression or con nection to it.
Thursday, 26 September 2019
Jesus and Mohammed paper - Essay Example a number of different ways such as their respective lives, the impact of each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s death on their own religion, how each individual was worshipped, and the way in which their messages are being displayed throughout the world today. Jesus was a Jew and was born approximately two-thousand years ago in a town called Bethlehem. At that time, the Romans had occupation of the lands of Israel. As such, the Jews were expecting a savior to come along and defeat the Romans. Before Jesus was born, a prophecy was given that he would be the Messiah: Ã¢â¬Å"Therefore the Lord himself will give you a sign. The virgin will be with child and will give birth to a son, and will call him ImmanuelÃ¢â¬ (Isaiah 7:14 New International Version). However, what the Jews considered the Messiah to be was not how Jesus lived. The woman who gave birth to Jesus was a virgin called Mary. At that time, Mary was engaged to a man named Joseph. Because of this, Mary faced many calls of being an adulterer. During JesusÃ¢â¬â¢ childhood, he was taught how to be a carpenter because this was his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s profession. Once Jesus had reached the age of thirty, he left his hometown and set out on his ministry around the lands of Israel. In con trast to Jesus, Mohammad was born in 570 A.D. and was called Muhummad Ibn Adullah (Slick). (There are a number of variations in the spelling of MohammadÃ¢â¬â¢s name, but for consistency, I will refer to him as Mohammad from here on.) Mohammad grew up in Mecca, the cultural religious center in what is now known as Saudi Arabia. In the early part of his life, Mohammad experienced tragedy as his father died before he was even born and his mother passed away when he was only six years old. Because of this, his uncle Abu Talib took the responsibility of raising him. Later on in life, Mohammad had developed the habit of going up to Mt. Hira to meditate (Slick). During one of his trips, Mohammad claimed that the angel Gabriel appeared to him. This angel instructed him to write the
Wednesday, 25 September 2019
Taxation - Assignment Example These two systems worked independently in the past and the tax authorities maintained separate tax systems for income tax and national insurance contributions. Income tax was taxed annually in a progressive manner on individuals and corporate bodies whereby low income earners were taxed lower than high income earners (UK Government, 2012). The tax rates increased with increase in incomes of individuals. On the other hand, benefits are payments to individuals by the state. They are paid to individuals through the bank, credit union account or building societies. If one does not have any of these accounts, he/she may be paid through Post Office card account. There are various types of benefits in UK. Attendance allowance is a tax-free benefit paid to individuals of over 65 years who are mentally or physically handicapped. Two rates of up to ?71.40 are payable per week. CarerÃ¢â¬â¢s allowance is payable weekly in advance or every 4 or 13 weeks. Child benefit is a universal claim by pa rents for their children (BBC News, 2012). They are paid after every four weeks in normal situations and weekly for single parents. Tax credit is also paid weekly or after every four weeks, to families with children, whether the parents work or not. Disability living allowance is is a tax-free benefit payable after every 4 weeks to disabled people who have walking difficulties and who need someone to help them walk. Other types of benefits include crisis loans, council tax benefits, community grant care, child trust fund, etc. 2. Description of the proposed recommendation The proposed recommendation requires the integration of income tax with benefit systems. To achieve this, the UK tax system first needs to merge income tax and National insurance. These are two different ways in which income tax are paid in UK. Maintaining the two types of tax systems may be costly, less transparent and burdensome. Integrating the two systems will therefore bring forth an easier method of paying in come tax in UK. The integration of income tax with National insurance contribution makes it more transparent for the tax system. The progressive taxation in UK includes 20% basic rate, 40% higher rate and 50% additional rate of income tax (Mirrlees et al, 2012). If this income tax is integrated with National Insurance Contribution, the new rates may be 31%, 41% and 51% respectively. This is a more transparent mechanism which enables individuals to pay for their taxes more easily at once rather than maintaining two separate tax accounts. The second step in the integration of benefit and tax systems is the integration of the benefit system. In this case, the benefit and tax credit systems are merged together. This is a messy and complicated mix of overlapping programmes. The programmes which need to be include programmes needed to provide support for low-income families and benefits provided to give non-means-tested support for various contingencies. The former class of programmes inc ludes job-seekers allowance, income support, housing benefit, pension credit, child tax credit and council tax benefit. On the other hand, benefits for non-means-tested support for contingencies include state pension, disability allowance, carerÃ¢â¬â¢s allowance, winter fuel payment etc (Mirrlees et al, 2012). Because several families claim these benefits simultaneously, it is necessary to integrate the two systems into one manageable system. The recommended system
Tuesday, 24 September 2019
ACCOUNTANT - Essay Example One overstated expenses aggressively while the second was the true record. It was hoped that the excess amounts, once approved by the IRS, would result in an excess of reimbursement that could be fed into the revenue stream and form a source of revenue for the business. This falsification of accounts is tantamount to fraud. It is known as a Ã¢â¬Ëqui tamÃ¢â¬â¢ or false claims case (Eichenwald, 1998, 3.1). When the amounts involved are quite large, the danger that Alderson faced, even after termination of employment could range from permanent injury to death threats to himself and his family. After his dismissal from service, Alderson and his family were forced to move from his house in Whitefish to a cramped cottage in rural Montana where they lived frugally. It took 13 years for a decision to be made and Alderson to be awarded with damages that were sufficient enough to cover his expenses and let him live a comfortable retirement. The principle that Mr. Alderson committed himself to after watching a partner sign an Audit Report at Arthur Anderson was that the signing had better mean that whatever was being committed to was correct and true to the best of the accountantÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge and the opinion that they gave was without prejudice and vouched for the integrity of the records that they had checked and
Monday, 23 September 2019
Writing for Different Cultures and Audiences - Annotated Bibliography Example For this kind of research, it plays the role of acquainting the research with the basic information on Australian culture and how culture has changed from time to time. Clancy talks about the evolution of Australia from the time when it was only inhabited by the Aboriginals to the moment when immigrants began arriving and settling in the Island. The book traces the arrival of Europeans in the 18th century and also examines the people of Anglo=Irish origin who migrated to Australia. It sort of talks about the Australian identity and highlights the popularity of Christianity and how globalization has led to urbanization of the bush that Australia was. Apart from giving a chronological account of the metamorphosis of Australia, the book also covers tourism, sports and its significance, national barbeque and the influence that Indians and Europeans have on the country. The book is important for the research because it covers the fundamental issues of Australian culture and it evolution. It, however, fails to properly cover the Aboriginals who form the basis of Australian culture. It, however, still forms the basis of the research and will be used toget her with other books to get a conclusive research on Australian culture. In this book, Colson covers the culture of the Aboriginals. The Aboriginals are the indigenous people of Australia, who have complained about the atrocity committed against them by the immigrants who moved to Australia. Their culture was affected by the influx of people into Australia. However, they form a significant basis of Australian cultural history. Colson chronicles the culture of the Aboriginals their ceremonies, art and how their culture has influenced Australia. It also covers the family structure and society of other indigenous Australian cultures. It is a short book but has important information on the culture of Aboriginals. Since it is
Sunday, 22 September 2019
On Multicultural Beliefs and Myths of Sexual Anatomy Essay Based on what IÃ¢â¬â¢ve experienced and heard from one of my Asian friends, most beliefs or myths are more common to males rather than females, with practices mostly concerning the penis. Circumcision is a practice very common in certain parts of the world due to the main influence of religion. In Southeast Asia, specifically in the Philippines, there are still existing beliefs being practiced surrounding circumcision. A male by at least age 10 should be circumcised to ensure they reach their height potential. It is discouraged to have the procedure done right after birth, believing that as the child gets bigger, the foreskin will grow back, thus needing to do another procedure as the child wonÃ¢â¬â¢t reach his maximum height potential due to the fact that the procedure was done soon after birth. This procedure is usually considered a big event in the childÃ¢â¬â¢s life and is decided for by the parents. After the circumcision is done, customary beliefs expect the male child to chew on guava leaves and afterwards, wrap the chewed leaves onto the penis to prevent infection. For some, it is established for the circumcised male child to jump into the river to cleanse the wound. This practice is usually done during the summer months when the kids are out of school and still have time to heal. In the rural areas, it is a huge event and done in makeshift hospitals with volunteers assisting the boys in doing the procedure. Kids often get teased prior to being circumcised by the older kids as this procedure is considered a rite of passage. Kids circumcised soon after birth also get teased about not getting any taller because the procedure was not done at the right time. Of course, by the time that these kids get the right to do the procedure, all bets are off and those circumcised as a baby would often have the upper hand at teasing their previous tormentors. My Asian friend also relayed to me their beliefs about women once they reach the puberty stage and get their menses. According to the old customs in their provinces, the girls are expected clean their underwear upon getting their menses and afterwards, cleanse their face with the same underwear to ensure that they donÃ¢â¬â¢t get pimples. Others take it a step further by cleaning their face with their Ã¢â¬Å"firstÃ¢â¬ menstrual blood for the same purpose. The girls are often asked to jump three times on the stairs, which also serves as a cleansing ritual. Some believe that the number of times you jump from the stairs will determine the duration of your menstrual period thus, three jumps would mean you will only have three days of your period. Myths about pregnant women are also widely circulated in their culture, especially in certain rural areas of their country as expectant mothers are advised to be careful when sleeping at night. It is said that evil witches in the form of an elderly woman (although the witch is often regarded as a shape shifter) would take the fetus from the womanÃ¢â¬â¢s womb by climbing on top of the roof and yanking the fetus using their long tongue. According to my good friend, this belief is still prevalent in their modern society as it is being portrayed in popular culture via the media. Even in the urban areas, pregnant women are advised by their parents not to sleep near the window for fear that they might be seen and victimized by these witches. All these beliefs and myths are still thriving today in the modern world with the older generation ensuring that the young continue to uphold these traditions and practices. There may be a few that veer away from this path but society still finds a way to remind everyone about these practices.
Saturday, 21 September 2019
Food Hygiene Sanitation Essay Only without oxygen at an ideal temperature 43? C c. Only with oxygen at an ideal temperature of 43? C d. Only without oxygen at an ideal temperature of 39? C 7. Which of the following groups of hazards are most likely to cause a foodborne disease outbreak? a. Bacteria and viruses b. Parasites and molds c. Vibrio spp. and Shigella spp. d. Chemical and physical hazards 8. Bacteria grow best within a narrow temperature range called the temperature danger zone. The temperature danger zone is between: a. -18? C and 104? C b. -8? C and 65? C c. 5? C and 60? C d. 5? C and 100? C . Bacteria that cause foodborne illness will only grow on foods that have pH at _____ or above and a water activity (AW) above____. a. 3. 2; 0. 85 b. 4. 6; 0. 85 c. 6. 5; 0. 80 d. 8. 0; 0. 75 10. Which of the following bacteria produce a toxin that is more likely to cause death if consumed? a. Campylobacter jejuni b. Clostridium botulinum c. Shiga-toxin producing Escheria coli d. Listeria monocytogenes 11. Some bacteria form spores to help them: a. Reproduce b. Move easily from one location to another c. Survive adverse environmental conditions d. Grow in high acidic foods 12. Which of the following is a histamine poisoning? a. Ciguatoxin b. Scombrotoxin c. Mycotoxin d. Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) 13. Which of the following is not considered a potentially hazardous food group? a. Red meats b. Fish and shellfish c. Poultry and eggs d. Dried grains and spices 14. The most effective way to control the growth of bacteria in a food establishment is by controlling: a. Time and temperature b. pH and oxygen conditions c. Temperature and water activity d. Time and food availability 15. Food borne illness can caused by: a. Poor personal hygiene b. Cross contamination c. Temperature abuse d. All the above 16. Regarding food thermometers, which statement is false? a. Be calibrated b. Measure temperatures between 5? C and 57? C c. Measure temperatures between -18? C and 104? C d. Be approved for use in foods 17. Good personal hygiene includes a. Using hand sanitizers instead of washing hand b. Keeping hands and clothes clean and sanitary c. Wearing attractive uniforms d. Cleaning and sanitizing food-contact surfaces 18. Cross contamination is a term used to describe the transfer of a foodborne hazard from 1 food to another: a. By a food workerÃ¢â¬â¢s hand b. From a cutting board c. From a knife blade d. All of the above 19. After proper cooking, all foods that are to be held hot must be held at: a. 74? C or above b. 57? C or above c. Room temperature until served d. 49? C or above 20. Food workers should wash their hands after which of the following? a. Taking out the trash b. Touching their faces c. Handling raw food d. All of the above Section B (10 marks) Answer either True/ False. 1. The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point System is only used to monitor food processing in manufacturing plants. () 2. Certification of food protection managers and workers refers to screening done for health problems. () 3. The term food establishment includes any site where food is processed, prepared, sold or served. () 4. Bacteria and viruses cause most foodborne illness. () 5. One of the potentially hazardous food is cut melons. () 6. There are two types of bacteria that are spore forming and non-spore forming. () 7. Clostridium botulinum cannot cause death. () 8. E. Coli can be found in the intestines of warm-blooded animals. () 9. Prevention of cross contamination can be done by keeping raw food and ready-to-eat food together during storage. ) 10. Bacteria take 25 minutes to multiply. () Section C (20 marks) Briefly explain on each answer. 1.
Friday, 20 September 2019
History of Womens Rights and the Gender Pay Gap 1998 marked the 150th Anniversary of a movement by women. The fight for womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights began in the late 19th century. 1917, women could vote, making 2017 the 100th anniversary of the ending for womenÃ¢â¬â¢s suffrage, or has it? Although we have marched, protested and have the 19th amendment stating our rights, we are still not quite equal. This research will explore the past and current state of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s pay in the workplace, supported with data. We have made progress, but the problem is still there. The only way to eliminate a global problem such as this, is to fight together, both genders. Men must see women as their coworker and partner, not combatant or slave. Elizabeth Cady Stanton wrote what is known as the Declaration of Sentiments, in 1848. These sentiments stated facts about women, their rights and equality, that we are still fighting today. Ã¢â¬Å"When women did work they were paid only a fraction of what men earnedÃ¢â¬ (Ruthsdotter, 1998). This was stated in the early 19th century, yet in what will soon be the 22nd century, some women are still paid this way. Women are still fighting to be considered an equal, a partner, a co-worker and not a combatant. Women prior to the 19th amendment were basically subject to their husbands. Their entire lives were solely based on their husbands. Their income, land, child custody, all other rights, and more were chosen, mandated and or owned by their spouse.Ã Ã¢â¬Å"In 1920, the WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Bureau of the Department of Labor was established to gather information about the situation of women at work, and to advocate for changes if needed. Many womenÃ¢â¬â¢s activist became involved with campaigning for laws to protect women workers from abuse and unsafe conditions. It took seventy-two years for women and their male supporters to be successful.Ã¢â¬ (Ruthsdotter, 1998) In 1923, Alice Paul, the leader of the National WomanÃ¢â¬â¢s Party wrote the Equal Rights Amendment for the United States Constitution and Congressional Union, followed by the National WomanÃ¢â¬â¢s party in 1916. (Ruthsdotter, 1998) We have had many waves of change for women and their rights, but we still arenÃ¢â¬â¢t quite equal yet. We are now allowed to vote, divorce, take full custody of our children, own land, be leaders in religious organizations, be business owners, CEOÃ¢â¬â¢s, and file with the courts over domestic abuse. These things and more have shown how far we have come since 1848. The reason for the constant waves of change, and fighting back, is possibly due to men and women alike, can see a woman as more than just a female, with limited ability. Who some only seen her job as a wife, birth children and take care of the home. Women are now seen as fellow human being who deserve respect and the same rights as their male counterpart. Women and men have fought alongside each other for the equality of women; especially in the work place, for many years. If men in the workplace could see women as their partner, and not combatant maybe we would end this wage inequality amongst women. Many have done research to find why are women paid less than men in the workplace? Two researchers have taken a different approach in their research in womenÃ¢â¬â¢s lives, that may contribute to the wage gap. One researcher discovered personality and wages have a correlation with wages for men and women. Ã¢â¬Å"Women score more highly on agreeableness than men, and because this trait is associated with lower wages in the labour market, men having lower agreeableness represents an advantage. On the other hand, men have a higher average score for intellect than women, and because this trait is rewarded in the wage setting, menÃ¢â¬â¢s higher score for this trait also represents an advantage.Ã¢â¬ (Nyhus, 2012) Ã This is profound research, not many people would involve the personalities of men and women and based wages on that. Of course, many will argue that should not be a factor, in the fairness of equal pay for women. Another researcher viewed the correlation of childcare and wages for women. Ã¢â¬Å"Countries where society has a positive mindset towards working mothers or about the desire for external childcare for children will provide more childcare, which will result in increases of fertility and female labor force participation and will reduce the wage gap. External childcare reduces the time women put into child rearing which increases fertility and labor supply and this decreases the gender wage gap. If everyone believes that childcare usage will be zero, the use of childcare will be zero, which leads to zero usage. Fertility and female labour supply will be consequently low and the wage gap will be high.Ã¢â¬ (Borck, 2014) Borck, could see the importance of having childcare facilities, that will provide care and childrearing for children, so women could work. We often do not think about childcare and afterschool programs to help working women. Borck could prove this in his research. These programs and childcare centers should be seen as positives, this will help lower the wage gap in the future, as long as our society can see the benefit it has on working women. So how big is the problem? Ã¢â¬Å"In 2015, women working full time in the United States typically were paid just 80 percent of what men were paid, a gap of 20 percent (Proctor et al., 2016). The gap has narrowed since 1960, due largely to womenÃ¢â¬â¢s progress in education and workforce participation and to menÃ¢â¬â¢s wages rising at a slower rate. At the rate of change between 1960 and 2015, women are expected to reach pay equity with men in 2059. But even that slow progress has stalled in recent years. If change continues at the slower rate seen since 2001, women will not reach pay equity with men until 2152.Ã¢â¬ (Hill, 2017) These findings are frightening, if this continues this will have long term financial effects on working women. In 2015, 14 percent of American women ages 18Ã¢â¬â64 were living below the federal poverty level, compared with 11 per- cent of men. (Hill, 2017) So, what is causing it? So far researchers are discovering it is a combination of, occupation, higher education, and industry choices. If a woman chooses a low-paying cashier position and another chief executive that also contributes to the data of women with low wages. Ã Ã¢â¬Å"Of the overall U.S. gender pay gap of 24.1 percent in base pay, we find that 16.2 percent is Ã¢â¬Å"explainedÃ¢â¬ by differences between male and female workers: different ages, levels of education, experience, industries, occupations, company sizes and locations. The remaining 7.9 percent of the pay gap is Ã¢â¬Å"unexplained,Ã¢â¬ due either to factors we arenÃ¢â¬â¢t able to observe or to workplace bias and discrimination.Ã¢â¬ (Chamberlain, 2016) Warren Farrell listed his top 5 positions that he believes will keep women employed, if they chose something that isnÃ¢â¬â¢t always in the office and neat, but sometimes messy and includes heat. Ã¢â¬Å"In brief, technology is not job security, but career security. Career security matters more than job security, and both can matter more than the exact amount you are paid.Ã¢â¬ (Farrell, 2005) Ã The Field-with-Higher-Yield Formula: One to Five Choose a field in technology or the harder sciences, not the arts or social sciences (pharmacology vs. art history)Get hazard pay without the hazards (female adminstratior in air force vs. male combat soldier in army)Jobs requiring little education, those that expose you to the heat and are possibly messy pay more than those that are indoors and neat (UPS deliverer vs. receptionist)In most jobs with higher pay, you canÃ¢â¬â¢t mentally check out at the end of the day (corporate attorney vs. librarian)Fields with higher pay often have lower fulfillment (tax accountant vs. child care professional) Ã (Farrell, 2005) Is it possible that women could be limited themselves from higher paid positions? Part of the answer is yes, while the other part is no. Yes, If women constantly take on low-paying jobs and not attempting to obtain a higher education, they will only help with the negative statistics. No, if women as a collective whole, began to earn college degrees and experience in male dominated industries, yet still paid a lower salary, the fight will continue. There are also women who have higher education, yet are still paid less due to no child care, working part time and other family related issues. Doctor Anne Montgomery watched her pay change at various times in her career as she made sacrfices for her family. She runs a family-medicine residency program in Rancho Mirage, California. She cut back to about three-fourthÃ¢â¬â¢s of her full time so she could care for her son.I actually pretty much worked full time my whole career,She continues. I only got paid for part time. In 2009, she was earning $170,000 a year as a full-time faculty physician in Spokane, Washington. She was thrilled to get a $30,000 raise but it only brought her more in competition with a newly hired male colleague who had aggressively negotiated. Her husband Glen Stream; who is also a doctor, had an easier time climbing up the income ladder. He negotiated his pay and eventually earned a $275,000 base salary as chief medical-information officer of a Spokane multispecialty group. In 2012, his earnings reached $400,000 when he made $190,000 as the American Academy of Family Physicians president plus three-fourths of his executive salary. Last year, Dr. Montgomery earned $303,000, while her husband, earned $364,000. (Adamy, 2016) In conclusion, Dr. MontgomeryÃ¢â¬â¢s story shows that even in white collar professions, women are still having a great disadvantage compared to their male counterparts. Often women are still seen in the same light as they were in 1848, before the 19th amendment took place. What if men began to take on the role as the Ã¢â¬Å"stay at home dadÃ¢â¬ and women were the bread winners? Would it matter? Would it hurt us as a society? I do not believe it would. Our society has been fed through media for over a 100 years about a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s place in our society. Dictating what constitutes as a female job and male job. Who came up with what our jobs are suppose to be? I believe as women and men we need to eliminate what constitues as a specfic gender job.Ã If we eliminate the labels, and allow men and women to work where they will be their best, we can start to make more progress. If we could stop seeing women as unreliable due to child rearing, and believeing they can only work so ma ny hours, do only certain jobs, and base salary on their personality traits, child care, etc. We can possibly elimnate the gender wage gap sooner. References Adamy, J. &. (2016, May 18). Pay gap widest for elite jobs women in white-collar careers see biggest gender disparity, defying legislative remedies. Retrieved from Wall Street Journal: http://search.proquest.com.bakerezproxy.palnet.info/docview/1789404832?accountid=8473 Borck, R. (2014). Adieu Rabenmutter-culture, fertility, female labour supply, the gender wage gap and childcare. Journal Of Population Economics, 27(3), 739-765. doi:10.1007/s00148-013-0499-z Chamberlain, D. A. (2016, March). Demystifying the Gender Pay Gap . Retrieved from Glassdoor: https://research-content.glassdoor.com/app/uploads/sites/2/2016/03/Glassdoor-Gender-Pay-Gap-Study.pdf Farrell, W. (2005). Why Men Earn More : The Startling Truth Behind the Pay Gapand What Women Can Do About It (1st Edition ed., Vol. 1). New York, NY, USA: American Management Association International. Hill, C. (2017, September 20). The Simple Truth about the Gender Pay Gap. Retrieved from The American Association of University Women (AAUW): http://www.aauw.org/research/the-simple-truth-about-the-gender-pay-gap/ Nyhus, E. K., & Pons, E. (2012). Personality and the gender wage gap. Applied Economics, 44(1), 105-118. doi:10.1080/00036846.2010.500272 Ã Ruthsdotter, B. E. (1998, January 01). History of the WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Rights Movement. Retrieved from The National WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s History Project: http://www.nwhp.org/resources/womens-rights-movement/history-of-the-womens-rights-movement/
Thursday, 19 September 2019
Thesis: Edgar Allan Poe was one of the most influential, yet misunderstood writers in American Literature. I. His Early Life A. His Adoption B. His Education II. His Later Life A. Books Published B. Military Life III. The Conclusion of His Life A. His Marriage B. His Death IV. His Works V. What Others Thought Of Him Edgar Allan Poe was an American writer, known as a poet and critic but most famous as the first master of the short story form, especially tales of the mysterious and macabre. Since his early death, the literary qualities of Poe's writings have been disputed, but his works have remained popular and he influenced many major American and European writers. Born in Boston, Massachusetts, Poe was orphaned in his early childhood and was raised by John Allan, a successful businessman of Richmond, Virginia. Taken by the Allan family to England at the age of six, Poe was enrolled in a private school. Upon returning to the United States in 1820, he continued to study in private schools. He attended the University of Virginia for a year, but in 1827 his foster father, displeased by the young man's drinking and gambling, refused to pay his debts and forced Poe to work as a bookkeeper. (Anderson, 9-22). Poe quit this job, which infuriated John Allan. Poe then left and moved to Boston. There he published his first book, Tamerlane and Other Poems. After this, Poe enlisted in the U.S. Army and served a two-year term. Poe published his second book of poems, Al Araaf in 1829. Poe then reunited with Allan, who obtained him an appointment to the U.S. Military Academy. After only a few months at the academy, Poe was dismissed for neglect of duty, and John Allan disowned him permanently (Anderson, 23-34). P... ...nius." (Regan, 1) While some loved him, others despised him; almost all recognized the value of his works. WORKS CITED Anderson, Madelyn Klein. Edgar Allan Poe: A Mystery. New York: Justin Books, Ltd., 1993 Buranelli, Vincent. Edgar Allan Poe. New York: Twayne Publishers, Inc., 1961 The Collected Poems and Tales of Edgar Allan Poe. New York: The Modern Library, 1992. Complete Stories and Poems of Edgar Allan Poe. Garden City: Doubleday & Company, Inc, 1966. Fisher, Benjamin F. The Cambridge Introduction to Edgar Allan Poe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008. Print. Kesterson, David B., ed. Critics on Poe. Coral Gables: University of Miami Press, 1973. Regan, Robert, ed. Poe. A Collection of Critical Essays. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, Inc, 1967. Stoudt, Ashley, ed. "An Edgar Allan Poe Reader". State Street Press, 2000.
Wednesday, 18 September 2019
Gone are the days when people sent children outside to play to get a little color in their cheeks. They know too much about the dangers of unprotected sun exposure and the threat of skin cancer. Or do they? Despite the fact that 58% of parents remembered hearing about the importance of protecting their children from the sun, children are still playing in the sun without sunscreen or protective clothing (3., p 1). Sunburn is the most preventable risk factor of skin cancer. Skin type and family history cannot be changed. Protection from the sun and education of the potential hazards of the sun need serious attention. The American Cancer Society estimates that over 1,000,000 cases of skin cancer will occur in the United States this year. Of those cases, they predict that over 10,000 will end in death (4., p 1). Apparently, Americans still do not have an adequate amount of prevention information to help reduce the disfigurement and mortality from this cancer. Exposure to the ultraviolet radiation from the sun is the most frequently blamed source of skin cancer. Due to the reduction of ozone in the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s atmosphere, UV radiation is higher today than it was several years ago. Ozone serves as a filter to screen out and reduce the UV light that reaches the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s surface and its people. Very simply, sunburn and UV light can damage the skin and lead to skin cancer (1., p 1). The American Cancer Society also faulted repeated exposure to x-rays, artificial forms of UV radiation like tanning beds, and contact with chemicals like coal tar and arsenic as other causes of skin cancer (4., p 1). Additionally, if there is a history of skin cancer in the family, an individual may be at a higher risk (1., p 1). Individuals who have experienced only one serious sunburn have increased their risk of skin cancer by as much as 50% (1., p 4). There are three main types of skin cancer: basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and malignant melanoma. Basal cell carcinoma usually imposes itself on areas of the skin that have been exposed to the sun. It usually appears as a small raised bump with a smooth shiny surface. Another type resembles a scar that is firm to the touch. Although this specific type of skin cancer may spread to tissue directly surrounding the cancer area, it usually does not spread to other areas of the body (9.
Tuesday, 17 September 2019
Andrew J. Bacevich, American Empire: The Realities and Consequences of U. S. Diplomacy (Harvard University Press, 2002). Joseph E. Stiglitz, Making Globalization Work (Norton, 2007). James L. Watson, ed. , Golden Arches East: McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s in East Asia (2nd edition, Stanford University Press, 2007). Robert McCrum, Globish: How the English Language Became the WorldÃ¢â¬â¢s Language (Norton, 2010). Fareed Zakaria, The Post-American World (Norton, 2009). Globalization is the integration of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s different regions into a global culture, economy, geo-political arena, and communication network. It is the process by which the lines of nation states are blurred, smoothed over by new international institutions. Globalization is the undeniable destination of human history and as such permeates nearly every facet of it. It is liquid in this sense, flowing and changing to fill in wherever it flows, but there can be no doubts of the tide of globalizations source: The United States of America. At first glance, the distinctions between Globalization and Americanization are almost imperceptible. Ã¢â¬Å"Big Mac, Coke, and DisneyÃ¢â¬ (Watson, 5) are as recognizable to Chinese and Russians as they are to Americans. The World Bank and IMFÃ¢â¬â¢s policies are more or less set by Washington. The American military has the most powerful armies and fleets the world has ever seen, and has effectively dominated the world from World War I onwards. The United States population which is less than 5% of the world population produces about a quarter of global GDP. Such realities might lead one to the conclusion that Globalization and Americanization are synonymous, but is this actually the case? In the discussion of the books at hand, globalization as it pertains to Americanization is made evident. Andrew Bacevich contends that the United States is the primary agent of modern globalization. It has capitalized on the opportunities it has been presented with in order to create a system of global politics and economics that is of the most benefit to itself, all the while packaging it in altruistic rhetoric. Joseph Stiglitz contends that the United States has conducted globalization by dominating the institutions of world governance and finance. It has done so to the detriment of other nations and as such, the American means of globalization is not the best strategy if true globalizationÃ¢â¬ is the desired end. James Watson holds that McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s, once as iconic of America as the stars and stripes and one of the leading agents of globalization, has been assimilated into many local cultures. As such, it no longer represents the Americanized aspect of globalization, but is rather an international institution and an agent of globalization at large. Yet, some of the seemingly obvious aspects of American led globalization are not as American as they may seem today. Robert McCrum asserts that English being the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s language arises not from American economic and foreign policies, but is rather a legacy of the British Empire. Furthermore, that America is not spreading its culture through English, it is only a tool to be used for communication. Finally, Fareed Zakaria demonstrates that we are departing from a unipolar world dominated by America. Although it will continue to play a leading role in the globalization of the world, Ã¢â¬Å"the rise of the restÃ¢â¬ is diminishing its role and the United States is no longer solely holding the reins of globalization. Andrew BacevichÃ¢â¬â¢s assertion is that the idea of the American empire differs only in form from traditional imperialism. Its function, enriching the mother country, is precisely the same but employs a variety of techniques to make this less evident. The United States embraces its role in history of exerting power only as a last resort. Only when circumstances totally necessitated it would America resort to using Theodore RooseveltÃ¢â¬â¢s proverbial Ã¢â¬Å"big stickÃ¢â¬ (Bacevich 117). The Spanish American war began only when General Valeriano Ã¢â¬Å"ButcherÃ¢â¬ Weyler could be tolerated no more. World War I was entered only because of the unprovoked German aggression upon the Lusitania. Cold War military and political endeavors were nobly pursued to defend against Communist aggression. Yet Andrew Bacevich rejects this view. He argues that this Ã¢â¬Å"myth of the Ã¢â¬Ëreluctant superpowerÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬âAmericans asserting themselves only under duress and then always for the noblest purposesÃ¢â¬ (Bacevich 7-8) is exactly that, a myth. That RooseveltÃ¢â¬â¢s reportedly soft speaking and big stick carrying America uses theÃ¢â¬ reluctant superpowerÃ¢â¬ myth only in order to justify acts of self-interest. Perhaps the more fitting description of America by Theodore Roosevelt is his affirmation that Ã¢â¬Å"of course, our whole national history has been one of expansionÃ¢â¬ (Bacevich, 7). The United States has conscientiously exerted itself at every opportunity in order to expand its global economic and strategic interests. AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s superpower status and role as an agent of globalization is driven entirely by the machinery of self-interest. Bacevich writes that Ã¢â¬Å"ever increasing prosperityÃ¢â¬ (Bacevich, 85) is the primary national interest. Furthermore, as Bill Clinton stated Ã¢â¬Å"Growth at home depends upon growth abroad. Ã¢â¬ Of course, there is still the legitimate idealistic side of globalization as Ã¢â¬Å"the ultimate promise of peace, prosperity, and democracyÃ¢â¬ (Bacevich, 42), but AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s actual interest and role in globalization is to expand the American economy. In other words, AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s aims in globalization are to benefit the world yes, but Ã¢â¬Å"benefit the United States most of allÃ¢â¬ (Bacevich, 96). The American economic empire, brought about by the domestic desire for continued growth is the overarching American interest in the realm of globalization. The fact that Ã¢â¬Å"where interests were slight, the United States seldom bothered to make the effort to assert any substantial leverageÃ¢â¬ (Bacevich, 107) vividly illustrates this. Considering the insubstantial economic incentives of Africa, it Ã¢â¬Å"consistently ranks dead last in U. S. strategic prioritiesÃ¢â¬ (Bacevich, 107). Now, take into account the economic and political incentives of EuropeÃ¢â¬â¢s markets and the Middle EastÃ¢â¬â¢s oil reserves. Based on US military intervention, it is telling that Ã¢â¬Å"conditions that in the Balkans or the Persian Gulf the United States found intolerable were in Africa merely unfortunateÃ¢â¬ (Bacevich, 108). The United States found it necessary to militarily intervene in the former two interest-rife locations, and merely sent aid and rhetorical sympathies to the economically barren latter. The portrait of Americanization and Globalization that Andrew Bacevich paints acknowledges one of the primary facets upon which the two collide, the global economy and the United States role within it. To deny that America has been the driving force behind the creation and continuance of modern open market operations, and to deny that it has done so for the betterment of its own economic interests is to deny all but the rhetoric of American imperialism. The United States did not have, as the historian Ernest May naively stated, Ã¢â¬Å"greatness thrust upon itÃ¢â¬ (Bacevich, 7), but rather calculatedly and ingeniously shaped its responses to global politics and economics in order to integrate and derive the most benefit from the new globalized economy. Joseph Stiglitz, rather explicitly argues that Ã¢â¬Å"globalization should not mean the Americanization of either economic policy or culture, but it often doesÃ¢â¬âand that has caused resentmentÃ¢â¬ (Stiglitz, 9). He argues that Ã¢â¬Å"the worry about American unilateralism, about the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s most powerful country imposing its will on othersÃ¢â¬ (Stiglitz, 5) is fast becoming substantiated. Despite economic indicators such as GDP suggesting that poor countries seem to be improving, Ã¢â¬Å"globalization might be creating rich countries with poor peopleÃ¢â¬ (Stiglitz, 9). As Stiglitz argues, the United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ goal of making Americanization a component of globalization is causing this. Particularly responsible has been the Washington Consensus, a set of development promoting policies created between the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Bank, and the U. S. Treasury. The former two of these are basically international lending bodies, delivering short and long term loans, respectively, to countries in need. The policies outlined are Ã¢â¬Å"downscaling of government, deregulation, and rapid liberalization and privatizationÃ¢â¬ (Stiglitz, 17). Although these are the characteristics of western countries, western countries did not become this way through the Ã¢â¬Å"shock therapyÃ¢â¬ of instant implementation. Rather they came from a drawn out progression of events The implication is that the United States, in attempting to make its political and economic policies integral concepts of the grander one of globalization, is actually turning countries off to the Americanized aspect of globalization. Similarly, the manner in which the United States encourages international trade to be conducted is a hindrance to globalization at large within poor countries. Stiglitz writes that Ã¢â¬Å"countries often need time to develop in order to compete with foreign companiesÃ¢â¬ (Stiglitz, 70). Yet, The United States and the international trade organizations which it dominates oppose tariffs for many industries on the grounds of it inhibiting trade and not allowing the all-wise power of the market to control the economy. However, Ã¢â¬Å"most successful countries did in fact develop behind protectionist barriersÃ¢â¬ and climbed the Ã¢â¬Å"ladder of developmentÃ¢â¬ . The anti-tariff policies that soundly developed countries advocate are viewed as trying to Ã¢â¬Å"kick the ladder away so others canÃ¢â¬â¢t followÃ¢â¬ (Stiglitz, 71). The uncertain effectiveness of these western policies, policies necessary for developing countries to get assistance from the IMF and World Bank, which they almost undeniably need, calls into question the western policies which they donÃ¢â¬â¢t necessarily need, namely democracy. Stiglitz writes that Ã¢â¬Å"IMF conditionality undermines democracyÃ¢â¬ (Stiglitz, 56), that although Ã¢â¬Å"globalization has helped spread the idea of democracy, it has, paradoxically, been managed in a way that undermines democratic processes within countriesÃ¢â¬ (Stiglitz, 12). America, in efforts to save countries from spending time on the economic policy learning curve, in reality ends up harming them. As such, the United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ inadequacy for creating economic agendas for developing countries is a paradox of its own success. He posits that in order for the developing countries to benefit from globalization, the agenda of globalization needs to depart from the Americanized version, and instead Ã¢â¬Å"have the voices of developing nations (be) heard more clearlyÃ¢â¬ (Stiglitz, 98). If the hardline factors of globalizationÃ¢â¬âeconomics, geo-political military assertions, and international governance are the easiest to assess the American-ness ofÃ¢â¬âthe soft aspects: cultural and linguistic patterns, are the most difficult. James Watson contends that in some respect, global corporations gain their transnational appeal simply by being American; by being an image of modernity. However, he also holds that components of globalization that were once considered agents of Americanization are now accepted as local. Japanese McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s have Ã¢â¬Å"clearly capitalized on the fact that it is associated with American cultureÃ¢â¬ (Watson, 172). In China, McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s promotes Ã¢â¬Å"the corporations image as an exemplar of modernityÃ¢â¬ (Watson, 42). McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s in these countries represents what the West represents, or more accurately, what the locals believe the West to representÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬Å"the promise of modernizationÃ¢â¬ (Watson, 41). It has gone so far as to even change cultural eating habits. In these locations, McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s sells more than hamburgers. It sells America as an ideology, a place of modernity, cleanliness, efficiency, and equality. As Watson would contend in China and Japan, McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s represents the convergence of the idealistic facets of Americanization and globalization: the United States as a favorable model to be emulated. Yet in the case of McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s in Hong Kong, it is not considered Ã¢â¬Å"an example of American-inspired transnational cultureÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"perceived as an exotic or alien institutionÃ¢â¬ (Watson, 107). Rather it is a fully assimilated part of Hong KongÃ¢â¬â¢s modern culture. As Watson writes, Ã¢â¬Å"the transnational is the local. Ã¢â¬ The younger generation could not Ã¢â¬Å"imagine life without itÃ¢â¬ (Watson, 109). Thusly, at least in Hong Kong, the American aspect of McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s globalization has faded with its assimilation into the national identity. Although American, it no longer Americanizes or suggests that the American odel is something good and unique that should be followed. McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s in Korea however suggests a different view of Americanization. Some people hold that Ã¢â¬Å"eating McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s hamburgers is tantamount to treason and loss of Korean identityÃ¢â¬ (Watson, 158) At least here, to some degree McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s is view ed as an American crusader of Ã¢â¬Å"cultural imperialismÃ¢â¬âa new form of exploitation that results from the export of popular culture from the United StatesÃ¢â¬ (Watson, 5). McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s represents a conquering American agent seeking to enthrall and draw in cultures to that of its global Americanized one. Another phenomenon of globalization, one might argue American-driven globalization, is English becoming the language of the world. Robert McCrum argues however that this is not a legacy of the American century, but rather a legacy of the British Empire. America has helped to propagate it but it in fact is originally an agent of British-ization. McCrum writes Ã¢â¬Å"The nineteenth (century) was, supremely, the century of British English Ã¢â¬â first the KingÃ¢â¬â¢s and then the QueenÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬â but it also witnessed the beginnings of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s EnglishÃ¢â¬ (McCrum, 174). English spread to the earth not as a result of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s dominance in the 20th century, but rather BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s far flung immigration in the 19th. McCrum contends that this is what made Jean-Paul NerriereÃ¢â¬â¢s global English (Globish) so accessible to so many people across the world. It is removed from American influence in that it was not asserted upon the world by America. Rather because of Britain and certain historical tilts towards English speaking, it simply fell into place. In essence, McCrum asserts that British English lay the foundation for English to become, as John Adams wrote in 1780, Ã¢â¬Å"in the next and succeeding centuriesÃ¢â¬ ¦the language of the worldÃ¢â¬ (McCrum, 105), and as such is not truly an assertion of American influence. However, McCrumÃ¢â¬â¢s points are debatable. As a proud Englishman, he seems ready to assert the obvious role of Britain in making it a global language, but is less generous when it comes to the American aspects. Furthermore, his denial of English as a cultural force is problematic. The global media is dominated by America. The largest media conglomerates in the world are American. Ten of the highest twelve paid musicians in the world are American. McCrum seems to ignore the fact that media is one of the largest aspects of globalization, and that American influences dominate it. These have been the themes of globalization. The convergence of Americanization and globalization has dually permeated military affairs, economics, culture, and language. On the global stage, the United States has been the dominant player for over a century. However, to what extent will this remain true in the 21st century? Fareed Zakaria contends that it will, but will require a reassessment of the global community. Zakaria puts forth that we are Ã¢â¬Å"now living through the third great power shift of the modern eraÃ¢â¬ (Zakaria, 2), not Ã¢â¬Å"the decline of America but ratherÃ¢â¬ ¦the rise of everyone elseÃ¢â¬ (Zakaria, 1). What this means for Globalization as it is linked to Americanization is that although the U. S. Ã¢â¬â¢s role will still be there, it is diminishing. The historically United States dominated past has paved the way for this. Its active efforts in globalizing the worlds consequence is the Ã¢â¬Å"rise of the restÃ¢â¬ (Zakaria, 2). As Zakaria writes Ã¢â¬Å"the United States succeeded in its great and historic missionÃ¢â¬âit globalized the world. But along the wayÃ¢â¬ ¦it forgot to globalize itselfÃ¢â¬ (Zakaria, 48). The arising international order that Zakaria seeÃ¢â¬â¢s is a term invented by Samuel Huntington Ã¢â¬Å"uni-multipolarityÃ¢â¬ , which can be described as Ã¢â¬Å"many powers and one super-powerÃ¢â¬ (Zakaria, 43). In the new international order, the United States will merely be a leading actor on a stage of many. The other actors are comprised of new powerful economiesÃ¢â¬âChina, India, Brazil. The United States has been able to maintain its preeminence within globalization in the past but the changing realities of the global economic landscape will require according change from America. Zakaria lays out a series of principles that the United States should or must follow in order to maintain its position in the modern world as a chief agent of globalization. These principles recognize the changing landscape and suggest how America can perpetuate its interests, its goal of Americanization within globalization. Firstly, the United States must choose which policies it actively wants to pursue. The ambiguity of policy facing Iran and North Korea do not allow the United States to reach an attainable international goal. If the United States were to decide that they were simply proponents of Ã¢â¬Å"regime change or policy change (that is, denuclearization)Ã¢â¬ (Zakaria, 234) they could more efficiently define the changes they wish to see in the global community. Similarly, in order for the US to continue to blend Americanization with Globalization, they must set out broad rules and seek to cultivate its bilateral relationships with other nations. As Zakaria argues, if the U. S. has strong relationships with other strong nations, better than anyone has with another, Ã¢â¬Å"it gives the United States the greatest leverageÃ¢â¬ ¦maximizing its ability to shape a peaceful and stable worldÃ¢â¬ (Zakaria, 242). The United States must also be careful in how it shapes itÃ¢â¬â¢s responses to international conflict. Ã¢â¬Å"Legitimacy is powerÃ¢â¬ (Zakaria, 247) and the nature of the United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ current conflicts are Ã¢â¬Å"asymmetricalÃ¢â¬ , meaning they are not facing conventional military forces or typical state actors. As Zakaria writes Ã¢â¬Å"asymmetrical responses have become easier to execute and difficult to defeatÃ¢â¬ (Zakaria, 244). Therefore in order to remain legitimate, to have the power to Ã¢â¬Å"set the agenda, define a crisis, and mobilize supportÃ¢â¬ (Zakaria, 247) for the United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ interests in globalization, reactions need to be shaped to fit the conflicts at hand. Overall, Zakaria contends that if the United States is not willing to change its policies and approach towards globalization and the global community, it will no longer effectively be able to mesh Americanization with globalization. In the analysis of how linked globalization and Americanization are within the context of these books, a complex and comprehensive picture can be draw. The United States has been able to use globalization as a tool to create a global economic empire and cultural model. Through the capitalization of opportunities to expand its markets, packaged in its Ã¢â¬Å"reluctant superpowerÃ¢â¬ myth, the United States has been able to assert itself internationally and accomplish its political and economic aims. However, the changing nature of the global landscape calls for a recalculation of how this strategy of self-interest can be perpetuated. Furthermore, the United States will have to make some concessions regarding its hegemony as other nations with large populations and strong economies grow in power and importance. Culturally, the United States benefited from the British EmpireÃ¢â¬â¢s legacy of spreading English around the world. However, it has also been able to capitalize on this and further Americanize the world through the consequentially large English speaking media outlets. Multinational corporations such as McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s still possess their American identity abroad, but this is beginning to change in respect to the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s youth. It is now dually perceived as a symbol of modernity (which sometimes equates to Americanization) but also a component of local culture. Therefore, whether globalization is the Americanization of the world seems to be a yes. The debate whether it will, or should continue to be, is still ongoing, and remains to be seen, dependent on how America conducts itself in the post-American World.
Monday, 16 September 2019
How of import is it to include pupils with disablements in general instruction schoolrooms? Is inclusion a legal right to be used to learn disable and non-disable pupils in the same schoolroom? Is it a moral and an ethical right to include inclusion if the parents oppose it? What are some of the patterns that promote inclusion? How can school territories omit negative barriers that affect inclusion patterns? How can school territory reference these barriers? Do we as pedagogues value all the pupils every bit? What do we intend by Ã¢â¬Å" inclusion Ã¢â¬ ? Are at that place some kids for whom Ã¢â¬Å" inclusion Ã¢â¬ is inappropriate? Is it in good religion that beginner teacher demand to be trained to serve particular instruction pupils. Is engineering a helpful tool for inclusion pupils? These are some of the issues that will be research to happen the best solutions for all of the pupils to have a free and appropriate instruction. Ã¢â¬Å" Education, so, beyond all other devices of human beginning, is the great equaliser of the conditions of work forces Ã¢â¬â the balance-wheel of the societal machinery. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â Horace MannIntroductionIn 1975, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act was enacted to give kids with disablements are the same benefits as non-disable equals to have a free and appropriate instruction. In 1990, 1997, and 2004, Ã¢â¬Å" reauthorizations of this Act took topographic point, and the jurisprudence came to be known as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act ( IDEA ) . Ã¢â¬ IDEA mandates that all persons with disablements be provided a free and public instruction ; they have the right to be taught in the least restrictive environment. Dr. Randal Brown has said that pupils with disablements, whether in public, private and in charter schools, are, to the maximal extent of the jurisprudence, be educated in the least restrictive environment. All kids irrespective of th eir disablements are kids. All kids irrespective of their disablement will profit from the same experiences that are desirable for all kids, which is to be included and loved/wanted for their singularity. Students who are educated to esteem diverse persons will profit from avoiding pigeonholing and negative issues. What is inclusion? Inclusion is a method used in public, private and in charter school territory. It stipulates that all pupils irrespective of their differences need to be educated in the same environment as their non-disable equals. It besides stipulates that all persons with disablement be educated in a least restrictive environments and be given the chance to be involved with their non-disable equals. Inclusion pertains that all particular instruction pupils be served in a regular instruction schoolrooms. The plan is used by holding the support services brought to the kid, alternatively of holding the kid brought to the support services. Consequently, the term inclusion is non reference in the federal jurisprudence and or ordinances, but it is use with the thought of incorporating pupils with disablements in the regular schoolroom scene. The doctrine or constructs of inclusion has been received with many controversial issues. There are two signifiers of inclusion: inclusion and full inclusion. Inclusion is a belief that pupils with disablements belong in the regular schoolroom. Full inclusion is the belief that particular instruction segregation is done off with and those particular instructions pupils be to the full immerse with the general populations at all times. Advocates of full inclusion are people who to the full support the plan. They believe that pupils should be educated in the general population regardless of their disablement. The end of inclusion is to guarantee that all kids are educated in the same schoolrooms as non-disable equals. Unfortunately, most of the clip, if the pupils are badly handicapped ; there might non be adequate support services available to help the kid with acquisition, and or other issues. To me it is non about the impact it might hold on the regular instruction kid, but instead o n the particular instruction demands of the kid. Sometimes it seems the disable pupils are non acquiring the sort of direction, or assist the single demands so that in itself can go a job. Young kids, unlike grownups, are free of biass. The immature kid is non judgmental ; if the grownup does non show hatred or prejudice the immature kid is really accepting of particular demands kids. I believe that immature kids who are taught in a diverse scene learn early on in life that they are many persons that are different than them and it is a really good experience for them to be familiar with because they might non see it once more. I strongly believe that by holding the pupils learn about diverseness, the pupils learn about kindness, empathy and regard for all pupils who are different ; and as a consequence the pupils, in my sentiment, good be understanding to the particular instruction kid. For illustration when I was working in the simple scene I was in charge of a intellectual paralys is male child at our simple school. The kid was in the category 100 % of the clip because the territory did non hold a particular instruction category instructor or instead the territory felt that the two kids we had in Encinal did non deserve a full clip Particular Education instructor so they had the PT and OT come in from the particular Co-Op and trained me and the regular instruction instructor on the basic indispensable to give the pupils the best aid available. Both of the persons parents refused to hold their kid bussed to Cotulla and they argued their position point that the territory should supply the services non for the household to suit the territories Ã¢â¬Å" a manner of salvaging money Ã¢â¬ . By holding the parents adamant on their wants, the parents in a traffic circle manner provided the general pupils to see a diverse manner of larning more about life and credence than he/or she learned about reading, scientific discipline and math. I do non believe that there is any grade of disablement that would forestall a kid from take parting in the general population schoolroom. It is my apprehension that it is all about support.How is inclusion being used in schools? It has been my observation, that inclusion in school provides all pupils, irrespective if their disable or non, the chance to larn, socialise and develop friends for life. It besides provides a sense of belonging and appropriate behaviour of societal, behavioural, and academic accomplishments. Having kids experience diverseness will advance credence of diverseness. It besides teaches kids how to associate with others that are different from them. Keeping pupils that are different from each other is non merely incorrect, it is morally being violative on the person ; it creates isolation, biass, unhappiness and feeling of hopelessness. For illustration if a non-disable kid is given the chance to take part in a school played, it excessively should be offered to a disable kid, it should be accessible to all children-disable and non-disabled. Engagement should non be denied based on disablement or any one feature. Children with disablements have a right to travel to the same schools and categories as their friends, neighbours, brothers and sisters. They have a right to be given equal chances.What are some of the techniques school territories used to assist the particular instruction pupils in being immerse in the regular instruction schoolrooms? School territories are utilizing co-teaching, alternate instruction, peer groupings and engineering support plans to assist supply the particular instruction pupils with the same benefits of larning. Currently, inclusion is a subject that many instructors feel that holding a particular instruction co-teacher is occupying their infinite or taking over the category, when in fact that is non the intent of inclusion. Co-teachers are in topographic point to assist the regular instruction teacher learn the category when half of the c ategory is holding problem with the course of study. The particular instruction instructors works with the fighting group to assist ease consensus. Alternate instruction is the procedure used when instruction is done through distance acquisition and communicating via electronic mails, chalkboard, and equals interaction among electronic mails. Peer groupings are besides a method of equal to peer instruction, in other words it is the methodological analysis of pupils larning from each other. Technology support plans are plans that are available to assist the single acquisition learn the stuff through interaction with an educational plan that supports the stuff being taught by the instructor. In the advancement of educating the pupils all pupils are encouraged to ignore differences among the pupils and handle all of their schoolmates the same. Inclusion has been in consequence since school territories are incorporating particular instruction pupils with the regular pupils in a regular schoolroom puting. Many experts believe that inclusion will increase the person Ã¢â¬Ës self-esteem and may increase their ability to interact with others including their equals. Is it a moral and an ethical right to include inclusion if the parents oppose it? Since the NCLB became effectual school territory are required to hold all of the pupils at class degree even the particular instruction population. Students are being placed in the least restrictive environment as possible. Some school territories even have done away with content command categories and resource segregation. I have personally seen high school parents get upset when the school territory no longer offer content command and their kids would instead been in a Ã¢â¬Å" ego contain schoolroom Ã¢â¬ by themselves ; but territory are required to put pupils in the least restrictive environment and it seems that Ã¢â¬Å" school territories Ã¢â¬ are making off with self-contain units that are non for Life skills scholars. So hence I ask, what is the intent of holding inclusion in topographic point? The intent of an inclusion category is to supply instruction for pupils with disablements in a Ã¢â ¬Å" least restrictive environment, Ã¢â¬ as required by the Persons with Disabilities Act ( IDEA ) . Any pupil who has an Individualized Education Plan ( IEP ) is automatically placed in the particular instruction category. Is traditional method of learning a positive attack in educating all of the pupils? This traditional attack restricts pupils with disablements from going independent scholars as they frequently depend upon their instructor for one to one instruction. In order for this method to hold a positive impact on pupils it should be implemented along with other learning techniques, therefore giving the instructors and pupils chances for a successful acquisition environment. Students with particular demands have an advantage in from this attack as they integrate in regular schoolroom scene. This is for all sorts of schools that work to incorporate regular and particular demands pupils ( private or public, charter or non-charter ) . Many parents believe that inclusion is a great thought for everyone involved, as pupils who have disablements learn new and multiple ways of pass oning. However, there are many that object to this pattern because of their frights that particular demands kids in a Ã¢â ¬Å" regular-education Ã¢â¬ schoolroom will be excessively deflecting. The issue of inclusion and inclusive patterns in instruction with regard to scholars with disablements is one of the most ill-famed statements in the field of instruction. While there has been a general consensus towards full inclusion of all pupils with disablements in Western states such as Canada, research workers have found that inclusion and inclusive patterns does non run into the ideal standards. Furthermore, there is an on-going argument whether inclusion best serves the involvements of all pupils with emotional and behavior upsets. Some experts believe that inclusion may better acquisition and academic public presentation for all pupils, whether disable or non-disable. It is with great involvement that all persons, irrespective of their Ã¢â¬Å" disability Ã¢â¬ acquire an chance to larn to accept single differences and to get the better of misinformation about people with disablements. Suitable supp ort services are available for pupils who are placed in general instruction categories, with teacher Plutos, equals to equals, high to low degrees groupings and tutorials. Consequently, pupils with disablements must hold an Individualized instruction plans given to instructors that will be interacting with the pupils. All instructors need to be good prepared to turn to all pupils with disablements in conformity with their IEP Ã¢â¬Ës. The federal authorities provides support to all school territories that educate pupils with disablement. Are there some kids for whom Ã¢â¬Å" inclusion Ã¢â¬ is inappropriate? Some instructors do non O.K. of pupils who are excessively loud, riotous or non able to remain sitting and listen softly. Teachers fear that general instruction pupils will non be able to concentrate when the pupils with disablements are included in the regular instruction schoolroom. There is a thin line between general and particular instruction pupils. For case some instructors are unable to properly command the schoolroom when they have a pupil that is a pupil and he/she invariably hit others ; bites or merely kick disrupts the schoolroom. Many instructors feel that they do non hold the proper preparation of covering with pupils that are exceeding. Some instructors have low or no outlooks for pupils with disablements. Some of the major expostulations of inclusion are: will the pupils benefit from being placed in the regular schoolroom? Inclusion is an attack that the tribunals and parents term because they w ant the best instruction patterns to be given to kids with disablements. What is the significance for inclusion? Inclusion is another term for Ã¢â¬Å" mainstreaming, Ã¢â¬ or incorporating particular instruction pupils with regular instruction categories. The chief intent of inclusion is for all kids with disablements attend a Ã¢â¬Å" normal Ã¢â¬ school and schoolroom, to be included to be treated every bit normal as possible. Give the pupils with disablement the chance to populate a normal life as possible or allowed. Parents find it a honoring experience when their kid with disablement is treated the same as the regular pupils. I strongly believe that it gives kids with particular needs the opportunity to larn in a natural, exciting environment. Inclusion Teachs persons the ability to make friendly relationships with non-handicapped equals, provides positive function theoretical accounts, and lead to acceptance in the community. In add-on, kids without disablements may profit by larning about differences between people and holding the juncture of h elping others. Teachers appreciates the differences and by larning new methods for learning and or direction. Furthermore, inclusion has a long history of segregation in the field of particular instruction and disablements. For many old ages, persons with disablements did non hold entree to public schools, installations, and independent lodging. Particular instruction persons have benefited from being included in public schools and independent life. However, after 10 old ages of execution, inclusion has non yet been to the full accepted. Because inclusion is a doctrine about how kids should be educated, it is sometimes non good planned with the demands of the disable kid or the penchants of what the parents want for their kid. Sometimes the scene where the kid is educated does non do direction effectual. Rather, it is the content and method of direction that the instructor uses that makes or interrupt the betterment in the kid Ã¢â¬Ës linguistic communication, societal accomplishme nts, and other behaviours. In some cases public schools are unable to supply the specialised instruction required for kids with autism, particularly those with the most terrible linguistic communication and behaviour upsets. It is unrealistic to anticipate that regular instruction instructors will hold the specific preparation required or the ability to supply the best possible instruction for this population of autism. In add-on, kids with particular demands are sometimes assigned one-to-one Plutos who have small preparation or experience in autism or other developmental disablements. Even with ( OT ) Occupational Therapist and ( PT ) Physical Therapist specializers being hired to develop the regular instructor and the instructor adjutant can non ever supply the intensive, focused, changeless direction these kids require throughout the full school twenty-four hours. Although schools territories are mandated to include all kids with disablement, it is non uncommon that some school territories re-create particular Ã¢â¬Å" units Ã¢â¬ in order to offer the kid with the appropriate instruction puting to cover with the kid Ã¢â¬Ës behaviour jobs within the regular schoolroom. Age and grade-appropriate arrangement is the most controversial factor of inclusion because it is based on ideals, values, and ends that are non congruous with the worlds of today Ã¢â¬Ës schoolrooms. Advocates of full inclusion presume that the general instruction instructor can suit all pupils with disablements, even those with terrible and multiple disablements. They assume that such pupils can obtain educational and societal benefits from that arrangement. Those who oppose full inclusion argue that, although methods of collaborative acquisition and group direction are the preferable methods, the traditional schoolroom size and resources are frequently unequal for the direction and adjustment of many pupils with disablements without bring forthing inauspicious effects on the schoolroom as a whole. Some particular instruction experts, nevertheless, believe that some pupils are improbable to have appropriate instruction without arrangement into alternate instructional groups or alternate acquisition environments, such as parttime or full-time particular categories or alternate twenty-four hours schools. What about pupils who are gifted and talented should these pupils is placed in a unintegrated environment? Should kids with specific sorts of disablements or giftedness be served in a resource room or other sort of schoolroom arrangement? Harmonizing to the definition from the website www.ed.gov. the Law of PL 101-476, the Persons with Disabilities Education Act ( IDEA ) , claim that particular instruction pupils have got to be educated in the least restrictive environment ( LRE ) , as determined by appraisals and the individualised instruction plan ( IEP ) . Representatives or advocators of full inclusion believe that all kids should be in regular schoolrooms. These support groups of people believe that all pupils benefit from being placed in the same schoolroom as non-disable equals ; will assist persons who oppose of interacting disable and non-disable equals togetherness will get the better of bias pigeonholing. In my sentiment, inclusion is non ever the best pick for every parti cular needs pupil. There are other options available such as specialised, separate twenty-four hours schools for kids with autism, mental deceleration and any other damage. Full inclusion should be done on instance by instance bases. What should parents make when sing different options for their kid? First, inclusion should be considered on a individual footing. Parents need to see the demands of their ain kid, the capacity of the school to run into these demands, and their ain penchants. For illustration, the parents of kids at May Institute Ã¢â¬Ës twenty-four hours school in West Springfield are cognizant that their boy or girl has fewer chances to interact with typical kids. On the other manus, they know their kid is acquiring an educational plan that is more specialised and intensive than their kid could acquire in the public school. Parents should look into whether the plan they are sing be in the best involvement of their kid. Inclusion or a particular scene theoretical account Ã¢â¬â are in topographic point. Thus the undermentioned constituents are to be considered: What is the language-based course of study? Is the course of study consistent and will it addresses all the pupils Ã¢â¬Ë demands at kid Ã¢â¬Ës gait? What are the instructional techniques? Are they based upon research: including a strong focal point on positive support, determining behaviour, motivating acquisition, and going more independent? Is there an chances for the kid to react to instruction? How clip is allotted for the kid to prosecute in direction Is the instructor maintaining a day-to-day log of academic work and behavior jobs? How often do you reexamine the advancement and is at that place a timely alteration in processs if advancement is non happening. In order for full inclusion to be successful course of study alterations must go on and learning methods much alteration every bit good, for inclusion to be a successful plan. Others argue that pupils with disablements are non to the full incorporated into the regular schoolroom they are merely given Ã¢â¬Å" H2O down Ã¢â¬ assignments. That is non the procedure of inclusion, inclusion is to be used in concurrent with class plan, and in accent the course of study is to be used the same merely taught in a different mode or used diverse methods of learning them along with the class. Collaboration is an indispensable function in the daily modus operandi of the particular pedagogue. In order to supply a all-around instruction to pupils with disablements, the particular pedagogue must join forces with assorted persons both inside and outside the school environment. For illustration, the particular pedagogue must join forces with the pupil with disablements household and parents. Further, the particular pedagogue must join forces with such co-workers as physical instruction, music, art and other co-curricular activities. If inclusion is used in any mode, the particular instruction instructor must join forces with the regular schoolroom instructors in order to happen countries within the general course of study where the pupil with disablements can take part.More so with engineering these yearss teacher should utilize it to back up the pupil Ã¢â¬Ës demands. Should 1st twelvemonth instructors be trained to learn particular instruction pupils? University are necessitating instructors to take particular instruction categories because universities know that particular instruction pupils good at sometimes in their instructions will be placed in a regular schoolroom scene. Since IDEA came into consequence universities and alternate plans are being told that instructors must be educated in particular instruction categories in order to be prepared for particular needs pupils be placed in the least restrictive environment as possible. Texas Education Agency has a demand that all instructors be provided with in-service and or staff development developing throughout their instruction experiences in the signifier them to be informed of all the Torahs that pertain to learning all pupils. The thought for this is to offer instructors the necessary tools to assist them increase their sense of ego efficaciousness. The staff development preparations shou ld include information about disablement and effectual instructional techniques for all pupils. Such preparations should assist instructors in their assurance and originative positive attitudes toward inclusion. What about engineering and inclusion? How does this technological are affect the particular instruction populations? Across the United State and in many other states, the per centum of particular needs pupils is increasing. As educational professionals instructors who are required by jurisprudence to do provide adjustments to all particular needs pupils in all degrees of schools runing from K-12 degree, these adjustments must take topographic point as portion of a pupil Ã¢â¬Ës IEP ( Individual Education Plan ) . All pedagogues must be able to accommodate, do adjustments, or adjust the educational stuff to assist supply the least restrictive educational scenes for all pupils irrespective of being disable or non-disabled. Due to the growing of pupils being classified as particular needs pupils, assistive educational engineering in schools is besides turning in importance. Particular needs pupils are now going the bulk among the school territories populations. Since IDEA has been in t opographic point, the per centum of pupils with disablements served in the United States of America schools and territories has bit by bit increased to be taught with their non-disabled equals.ADecision In drumhead, I believe that in order for a instructor to be successful in the inclusion plan he/she must hold a diverse cognition on the type of pupils they are traveling to be offering their services to. In add-on, pedagogues, decision makers and parents need to hold an opened communicating system in order for them to show themselves verbally and nonverbally in a mode that is comprehensible to all degrees of interaction among the groups. Communication should besides include the usage of engineering. Technology should be used as support system for pupils with particular demands and non be position as individual entity. It is really imperative that an effectual instructor have a witty temperament, able to believe on his/her pess, be able to talk in a clear concise manner without roasting the pupils. As pedagogues we must hold regard for all pupils learner and be able to pass on efficaciously with staff, parents, defenders, grandparents or any other individual in charge of a kid. Human relationships is at that place in every cultural, irrespective of the persons background, it is in world in our best fortunes to accept diverseness and in the long tally accept that relationships can be productive and complicated. But every bit long as worlds are in existence interactions among human can and are really complex and will impact the result of one Ã¢â¬Ës fate. Public schools are unable to supply the specialised instruction required for kids with disablement, particularly those with the most terrible linguistic communication and behaviour upsets. It is unjust to anticipate that regular instruction instructors will ever hold the specific preparation required for these particular demands pupils. In add-on, kids with particular demands are sometimes assigned one-to-one Plutos who have small preparation or experience in autism or other developmental disablements. Even with audience from specializers, a regular school puting can non ever supply the intensive, focused, chan geless direction these kids require throughout the full school twenty-four hours. Although schools may hold a authorization to include all kids, it is non uncommon that some finally re-create particular schoolrooms because the kids did non have the appropriate instruction or their behavior jobs could non be addressed within the regular schoolroom. I can non remember who really said this but Ã¢â¬Å" Inclusion is a right, non a particular privilege for a choice few. Ã¢â¬ It is like the same expression that Ã¢â¬Å" Education is a right and a privilege for all to be educated Ã¢â¬ .
Sunday, 15 September 2019
Uncle TomÃ¢â¬â¢s Cabin Origin: This passage was written by Harriet Beecher Stowe who, as a northern abolitionist, proceeded to elaborate or even belabor over TomÃ¢â¬â¢s brave trials of resistance under the conditions of his cruel master, Legree. Stowe also based this book as a response to several key compromises that provoke a self-explanatory problem: a compromise as opposed to a solution. The novel is a fictional response to slavery, especially to the Fugitive Slave Law. Along with the Wilmot Proviso and the Compromise of 1850 a few years before, StoweÃ¢â¬â¢s book took reign in the 1850s and continued the buildup to the Civil War.StoweÃ¢â¬â¢s book was a primary source, specifically a book that created new emotions in the minds of the NorthÃ¢â¬âemotions contrary to what they have heard and believed. Embodied with abolition views, her book gave the unwavering effect of the malice of slavery causing the diction to encompass biases, sometimes exaggerated, against the South. Purpose: Stowe was writing this document as a response to the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s ignorance of the morally corrupt side of slavery, and to be directed mainly at the North. She provides very detailed accounts of life as a slave working under LegreeÃ¢â¬âthe despicable, southern plantation owner.When Tom, the main character in Uncle TomÃ¢â¬â¢s Cabin, professed his unwillingness to beat his fellow slaves, LegreeÃ¢â¬â¢s anger represents the epitome of dehumanizing torture to black slaves as a whole, and all of this is captured by StoweÃ¢â¬â¢s emotional writing: Ã¢â¬Å". . . Ã¢â¬ËAnÃ¢â¬â¢t I yer mastersÃ¢â¬â¢? DidnÃ¢â¬â¢t I pay down twelve hundred dollars, cash, for all there is inside yer old cussed black shell? AnÃ¢â¬â¢t yer mine, now, body and soul? Ã¢â¬â¢ he said, giving Tom a violent kick with his heavy boot; Ã¢â¬Ëtell me! Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬â¢No! no! no! my soul anÃ¢â¬â¢t yours, MasÃ¢â¬â¢r! You havenÃ¢â¬â¢t bought it, Ã¢â¬â ye canÃ¢â¬â¢t buy it!ItÃ¢â¬â¢s been bought and paid for, by one that is able to keep it; Ã¢â¬â no matter, no matter, you canÃ¢â¬â¢t harm me! Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ËI canÃ¢â¬â¢t! Ã¢â¬â¢ said Legree, with a sneer; Ã¢â¬ËweÃ¢â¬â¢ll see, Ã¢â¬â weÃ¢â¬â¢ll see! Here, Sambo, Quimbo, give this dog such a breakinÃ¢â¬â¢ in as he wonÃ¢â¬â¢t get over, this month! Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ This act of slave resistance made an impact in the South that is not surprising but rather a desirable response in all the minds that read StoweÃ¢â¬â¢s book. Along with her desire to educate the public, Stowe wanted to establish the priority that some action must be taken to end this suffering.Stowe also added another purpose in the novel through religious morals and Biblical allusions: Ã¢â¬Å". . . Ã¢â¬Ëmy soul anÃ¢â¬â¢t yours, MasÃ¢â¬â¢r! You havenÃ¢â¬â¢t bought it Ã¢â¬â ye canÃ¢â¬â¢t buy it! ItÃ¢â¬â¢s been bought and paid for, by one that is able to keep itÃ¢â¬â¢. . . Ã¢â¬ Tom is speaking to Legree here referri ng the Ã¢â¬Å"one that is able to keep itÃ¢â¬ as God. It also shows that Legree cannot force them against their will even with obsessive abuse, physically and mentally with dehumanizing names such as Ã¢â¬ËdogÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËcritterÃ¢â¬â¢, and Ã¢â¬ËbeastÃ¢â¬â¢. This instance of slave resistance shows that slaves should remain strong in hope for the day slavery will be banned. Value:The novel of Uncle TomÃ¢â¬â¢s Cabin was historic in the sense that it trumped almost every idea about slavery. It was the best-selling novel of the 19th century, after the Bible, and gave support to the abolitionistÃ¢â¬â¢s cause in the 1850s (300,000 copies were sold in the US; one million copies, in Great Britain). It had such an impact that when she met with Abraham Lincoln, even the President of the United States was impacted and basically said to her that she is the little lady who started this Great War. After LincolnÃ¢â¬â¢s words were made public, the novel had become out of print f or many years causing Jewitt to go out of business.Until Ticknor and Fields put the work back into print in 1862, the book lost all of its demand. It not only was poignant in our hearts but also inspirational. StoweÃ¢â¬â¢s book was the basis for several other anti-slavery novels, plays, or simply the countless newspaper editorials. It is obvious to historians that Uncle TomÃ¢â¬â¢s Cabin was one of the most influential pieces of literature in the United States and was a landmark for the abolitionistÃ¢â¬â¢s cause that establishes how terrible slavery was in great detail by giving a perspective inside the corrupt system. Limitations:The limiting factors of this novel as a historical source are the biases within the perspective, stereotypes popularized from this story, and exaggerative writing that instigates the pro-slavery responses to StoweÃ¢â¬â¢s novel. Historians must take into account that this work is completely fictional and is only one response from an woman overcome wi th anger. Provoked by the passing of the Fugitive Slave Law prohibiting the aid to runaway slaves, Stowe takes her anger out on the South by the power of the pen. She writes the novel as fiction, but still brings across the possibility that slavery isnÃ¢â¬â¢t as cracked up as it used to be. MammyÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"pickaninnyÃ¢â¬ , and Ã¢â¬Å"Uncle TomÃ¢â¬ are all stereotypes that were brought on by slavery. Each derogatory term relates to a specific category but they all have one requisite feature in commonÃ¢â¬âblack skin colored and enslaved by a white master. Some views on this piece of literature say that Stowe exaggerated slave life and that not all masters are cruel and oblivious to the human condition. Though 90% of the black population was enslaved, this argument makes a reasonable proposition, because many slaves were not treated badly as others.A large number of slaves were bought to oversee for their master or even to protect their master, and some slaves were able to purchase their freedom with money they made from a special skill, even then, those slaves returned profits to their original masters after they were free. The status of Americans directly correlated by birthplace; therefore, StoweÃ¢â¬â¢s novel provided a view of slavery that cannot pertain to it as a whole, but only one aspect. Yes, it was extremely impactful. No, it cannot be a historical source to represent slavery wholly.